Chung Ching Yee
Joe Boys (also Chung Ching Yee, traditional Chinese: 忠精義; simplified Chinese: 忠精义; Mandarin Pinyin: Zhōngjīngyì; Jyutping: Zung1 Zing1 Ji6) was a Chinese youth gang founded in the 1960s in San Francisco's Chinatown. Joe Boys was originally known as "Joe Fong Boys", after its founder Joe Fong. Fong was a former member of Wah Ching.
Author Bill Lee, a former Joe Boys gang member, wrote extensively of his life's involvement in the Chinese criminal underworld, and the gang's history in his book Chinese Playground: A Memoir. Joe Boys gained further notoriety after the Golden Dragon massacre which stemmed over the sale of fire crackers in Chinatown. The massacre left 5 people dead, and 11 others injured, none of whom were gang members. The perpetrators were convicted and sentenced to prison.
Since the Golden Dragon Massacre, the Chung Ching Yee has disbanded due to police pressure "Gang Task Force" in the San Francisco Chinatown area.
- Handbook of Organized Crime in the United States
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