October 2, 1960 |
|Occupation||Cartoonist and journalist|
|Alma mater||University of Oregon|
Joe Sacco (born October 2, 1960) is a Maltese-American cartoonist and journalist. He is best known for his comics journalism, in particular in the books Palestine (1996) and Footnotes in Gaza (2009), on Israeli–Palestinian relations; and Safe Area Goražde (2000) and The Fixer (2003) on the Bosnian War.
Sacco was born in Malta on October 2, 1960. His father was an engineer and his mother was a teacher. At the age of one, he moved with his family to Melbourne, Australia, where he spent his childhood until 1972, when they moved to Los Angeles. He began his journalism career working on the Sunset High School newspaper in Beaverton, Oregon. While journalism was his primary focus, this was also the period of time in which he developed his penchant for humor and satire. He graduated from Sunset High in 1978.
Sacco earned his B.A. in journalism from the University of Oregon in 1981 in three years. He was greatly frustrated with the journalist work that he found at the time, later saying, "[I couldn't find] a job writing very hard-hitting, interesting pieces that would really make some sort of difference." After being briefly employed by the journal of the National Notary Association, a job which he found "exceedingly, exceedingly boring," and several factories, he returned to Malta, his journalist hopes forgotten. "...I sort of decided to forget it and just go the other route, which was basically take my hobby, which has been cartooning, and see if I could make a living out of that," he later told the BBC.
He began working for a local publisher writing guidebooks. Returning to his fondness for comics, he wrote a Maltese romance comic named Imħabba Vera ("True Love"), one of the first art-comics in the Maltese language. "Because Malta has no history of comics, comics weren't considered something for kids," he told The Village Voice. "In one case, for example, the girl got pregnant and she went to Holland for an abortion. Malta is a Catholic country where not even divorce is allowed. It was unusual, but it's not like anyone raised a stink about it, because they had no way of judging whether this was appropriate material for comics or not."
Eventually returning to the United States, by 1985 Sacco had founded a satirical, alternative comics magazine called Portland Permanent Press in Portland, Oregon. When the magazine folded fifteen months later, he took a job at The Comics Journal as the staff news writer. This job provided the opportunity for him to create another satire: the comic Centrifugal Bumble-Puppy, a name he took from an overly-complicated children's toy in Aldous Huxley's Brave New World.
But Sacco was more interested in travelling. In 1988, he left the U.S. again to travel across Europe, a trip which he chronicled in his autobiographical comic Yahoo. The trip led him towards the ongoing Gulf War (his obsession with which he talks about in Yahoo #2), and in 1991 he found himself nearby to research the work he would eventually publish as Palestine.
The Gulf War segment of Yahoo drew Sacco into a study of Middle Eastern politics, and he traveled to Israel and the Palestinian territories to research his first long work. Palestine was a collection of short and long pieces, some depicting Sacco's travels and encounters with Palestinians (and several Israelis), and some dramatizing the stories he was told. It was serialized as a comic book from 1993 to 1995 and then published in several collections, the first of which won an American Book Award in 1996 and sold more than 30,000 copies in the UK.
Sacco next travelled to Sarajevo and Goražde near the end of the Bosnian War, and produced a series of reports in the same style as Palestine: the comics Safe Area Goražde, The Fixer, and the stories collected in War's End; the financing for which was aided by his winning of the Guggenheim Fellowship in April 2001. Safe Area Goražde won the Eisner Award for Best Original Graphic Novel in 2001.
He has also contributed short pieces of graphic reportage to a variety of magazines, on subjects ranging from war crimes to blues, and was a frequent illustrator of Harvey Pekar's American Splendor. In 2005 he wrote and drew two eight-page comics depicting events in Iraq published in The Guardian. He also contributed a 16-page piece in April 2007's issue of Harper's Magazine, entitled "Down! Up! You're in the Iraqi Army Now". In 2009, his Footnotes in Gaza was published, which investigates two forgotten massacres that took place in Khan Younis and Rafah in November 1956. In June 2012, a book on poverty in the United States, Days Of Destruction, Days Of Revolt, co-written with journalist Chris Hedges, was published.
- 1988–1992: Yahoo #1–6. Fantagraphics Books
- 1993–1995: Palestine #1–9. Fantagraphics Books
- 1994: Spotlight on the Genius that is Joe Sacco. Fantagraphics Books
- 1998: Stories From Bosnia #1: Soba. Drawn and Quarterly
- 1987–1988: Centrifugal Bumble-Puppy Fantagraphics Books
- 1993: Palestine: A Nation Occupied. Fantagraphics Books. ISBN 978-1560971504 (collects Palestine #1–5)
- 1996: Palestine: In the Gaza Strip. Fantagraphics Books. ISBN 978-1560973003 (collects Palestine #4–9)
- 1997: War Junkie. Fantagraphics Books. ISBN 1-56097-170-3.
- 2000: Safe Area Goražde: The War in Eastern Bosnia 1992–1995. Fantagraphics Books. ISBN 1-56097-470-2 (expanded edition 2010)
- 2001: Palestine. Fantagraphics Books. ISBN 1-56097-432-X (collects Palestine #1–9) (expanded edition in 2007)
- 2003: The Fixer: A Story from Sarajevo. Drawn and Quarterly Books. ISBN 1-896597-60-2
- 2003: Notes from a Defeatist. Fantagraphics Books. ISBN 1-56097-510-5 (collects Yahoo #1–6)
- 2005: War's End: Profiles from Bosnia 1995–96. Drawn and Quarterly. ISBN 1-896597-92-0
- 2006: But I Like It. Fantagraphics Books. ISBN 1-56097-729-9
- 2009: Footnotes in Gaza. Metropolitan Books, ISBN 0-8050-7347-7. Jonathan Cape, ISBN 0-224-07109-2
- 2012: Journalism. Metropolitan Books, ISBN 978-0-8050-9486-2
- 2013: The Great War: July 1, 1916: The First Day of the Battle of the Somme. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-393-08880-9
In addition to his 1996 American Book Award, 2001 Guggenheim Fellowship, and 2001 Eisner Award, Sacco's Footnotes in Gaza was nominated for the 2009 Los Angeles Times Book Prize Graphic Novel award. Sacco was awarded the 2010 Ridenhour Book Prize for Footnotes in Gaza.
- Randy Duncan and Matthew J. Smith (eds.), Icons of the American Comic Book, Vol. 1, ABC-CLIO, 2013, p. 638
- Drawn and Quarterly (2004). Joe Sacco: Biography. URL accessed on April 24, 2006.
- Duncan Campbell (October 23, 2003). 'I do comics, not graphic novels'. The Guardian. URL accessed April 26, 2006.
- Read Yourself RAW. Profile: Joe Sacco. URL accessed April 25, 2006.
- Ben Arnold (August 27, 2004). Telephone interview with Joe Sacco (.ram file, source: Interview with Joe Sacco). BBC. URL accessed April 26, 2006.
- Hillary Chute (July 19, 2005). Stand Up Comics. Village Voice. URL accessed April 26, 2006.
- Gary Groth (October 4, 2001). Joe Sacco, Frontline Journalist: Why Sacco went to Gorazde. The Comics Journal (a magazine owned and operated by Fantagraphics Books). URL accessed on April 26, 2006.
- Fantagraphics Books. Joe Sacco. URL accessed on April 25, 2006.
- Eyeglass in Gaza Interview in "The Guardian".
- Guggenheim Foundation 2001 Fellows Page, Guggenheim Foundation (2001). URL accessed October 7, 2006.
- Cooke, Rachel (November 22, 2009). "Eyeless in Gaza". The Observer. Retrieved November 22, 2009.
- "Chris Hedges - Lannan Foundation". Lannan.org. Retrieved 2012-10-15.
- "2009 Los Angeles Times Book Prize Finalists". Los Angeles Times.
- "Joe Sacco: 2010 Recipient of The Ridenhour Book Prize," Ridenhour website. Accessed Aug. 26, 2011.
- Joe Sacco at the Grand Comics Database
- Joe Sacco at the Comic Book DB
- Fantagraphics Books: Joe Sacco
- Joe Sacco Biography From Fantagraphics
- PDF of first Guardian piece
- PDF of second Guardian piece
- Harpers magazine piece
- An Evening With Joe Sacco in Los Angeles
- Joe Sacco on Footnotes in Gaza - Interview on the 7th Avenue Project radio show
- Joe Sacco on Palestine - Interview by Al Jazeera English
- Brueghel in Bosnia Interview in L.A. Weekly.
- The Art Of War Interview in Mother Jones.
- Joe Sacco, Man of the World Audio interview on mp3 from The Crown Commission.
- Interview with Joe Sacco - interview on Weekend America
- Interview with Joe Sacco on bdtheque.com for the release of Footnotes in Gaza.
- Eyeglass in Gaza Interview in "The Guardian".
- Joe Sacco in conversation with Hillary Chute - Interview in The Believer