Johann Christoph Friedrich Bach

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Johann Christoph Friedrich Bach

Johann Christoph Friedrich Bach (21 June 1732 – 26 January 1795), was the ninth son of Johann Sebastian Bach, sometimes referred to as the "Bückeburg Bach". He is not to be confused with other similarly named members of the Bach family (see Johann Christoph Bach (disambiguation)).

Life[edit]

Born in Leipzig in the Electorate of Saxony, he was taught music by his father, and also tutored by his distant cousin Johann Elias Bach (de). He studied at the St. Thomas School, and some believe he studied law at the university there, but there is no record of that. In 1750, William, Count of Schaumburg-Lippe appointed Johann Christoph harpsichordist at Bückeburg, and in 1759, he became concertmaster. While there, Bach collaborated with Johann Gottfried Herder, who provided the texts for six vocal works; the music survives for only four of these.

Bach wrote keyboard sonatas, symphonies, oratorios, liturgical choir pieces and motets, operas and songs. Because of Count Wilhelm's predilection for Italian music, Bach had to adapt his style accordingly, but he retained stylistic traits of the music of his father and of his brother, C. P. E. Bach.

He married the singer Lucia Elisabeth Münchhausen (1728–1803) in 1755[1] and the Count stood as godfather to his son Wilhelm Friedrich Ernst Bach. J.C.F. educated his son in music as his own father had, and Wilhelm Friedrich Ernst went on to become music director to Frederick William II of Prussia.

In April 1778 he and Wilhelm travelled to England to visit Johann Christian Bach. J. C. F. Bach died 1795 in Bückeburg, aged 62.

Assessment[edit]

The 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica says of him "He was an industrious composer, ... whose work reflects no discredit on the family name." He was an outstanding virtuoso of the keyboard, with a reasonably wide repertory of surviving works, including twenty symphonies, the later ones influenced by Haydn and Mozart; hardly a genre of vocal music was neglected by him.[2]

Professor Peter Schickele, in comparing his alter ego, the fictitious composer P. D. Q. Bach, to Johann Sebastian's other sons, said that P. D. Q. possessed "the obscurity of Johann Christoph Friedrich."

A significant portion of J. C. F. Bach's output was lost in the WWII destruction of the Staatliches Institut für Musikforschung in Berlin, where the scores had been on deposit since 1917. Musicologists Hansdieter Wohlfahrth, who catalogued his works, and Ulrich Leisinger consider Bach a transitional figure in the mold of his half-brother C. P. E., his brother Johann Christian, the Grauns (Carl and Johann), and Georg Philipp Telemann, with some works in the style of the high Baroque, some in a galant idiom, and still others which combine elements of the two, along with traits of the nascent classical style.

Works list[edit]

Keyboard works[edit]

  • BR A 1 \ Keyboard Sonata in F major (Wf XI:1)
  • BR A 2 \ Keyboard Sonata in C major (Wf XI:2)
  • BR A 3 \ Keyboard Sonata in C major (Wf XI:3/1)
  • BR A 4 \ Keyboard Sonata in F major (Wf XI:3/2)
  • BR A 5 \ Keyboard Sonata in E major (Wf XI:3/3)
  • BR A 6 \ Keyboard Sonata in D major (Wf XI:3/4)
  • BR A 7 \ Keyboard Sonata in A major (Wf XI:3/5)
  • BR A 8 \ Keyboard Sonata in E-flat major (Wf XI:3/6)
  • BR A 9 \ Keyboard Sonata in C major (Wf XI:4)
  • BR A 10 \ Keyboard Sonata in G major (Wf XI:5)
  • BR A 11 \ Keyboard Sonata in F major (Wf XI:6)
  • BR A 12 \ Keyboard Sonata in A minor (Wf XI:7)
  • BR A 13 \ Keyboard Sonata in D major (Wf XI:8/1)
  • BR A 14 \ Keyboard Sonata in A major (Wf XI:8/2)
  • BR A 15 \ Keyboard Sonata in E major (Wf XI:8/3)
  • BR A 16 \ Keyboard Sonata in D major
  • BR A 17 \ Keyboard Sonata in A major
  • BR A 18 \ Keyboard Sonata in F major (Wf XI:9)
  • BR A 19 \ Keyboard Sonata in B-flat major
  • BR A 20 \ Keyboard Sonata in G major
  • BR A 21 \ Keyboard Sonata in E-flat major
  • BR A 22-25 \ 4 Keyboard Sonatas (lost)
  • BR A 26 \ Keyboard Sonata in E-flat major
  • BR A 27 \ Keyboard Sonata in F major
  • BR A 28-30 \ 3 Keyboard Sonatas (lost) (I)
  • BR A 31 \ Keyboard Sonata in D major
  • BR A 32-34 \ 3 Keyboard Sonatas (lost) (II)
  • BR A 35-37 \ 3 Keyboard Sonatas (lost) (III)
  • BR A 38-39 \ 2 Keyboard Sonatas (lost)
  • BR A 40 \ Sonata for keyboard-4 hand in A major (Wf XIII:1)
  • BR A 41 \ Sonata for keyboard-4 hand in C major (Wf XIII:2)
  • BR A 42-43 \ 2 Sonatas for 2 keyboards (lost)
  • BR A 44 \ Variations in A major (Wf XII: 1) (lost)
  • BR A 45 \ Variations on "Ah vous dirais-je Maman" in G major (Wf XII: 2)
  • BR A 46 \ Menuet in D major (Wf XII: 3)
  • BR A 47 \ Menuet in F major (Wf XII: 4)
  • BR A 48 \ 2 Menuets in D major (Wf XII: 5)
  • BR A 49 \ Alla polacca in F major (Wf XII: 6)
  • BR A 50 \ Alla polacca in G major (Wf XII: 7)
  • BR A 51-119 \ 69 pieces for keyboard (Wf XII:13)
  • BR A120 \ Fughette on HCFBBACH in C major (Wf XII:14)
  • BR A121 \ Polonaise in G major (Wf XII: 8)
  • BR A122 \ Menuet in F major (Wf XII: 9)
  • BR A123 \ Polonaise in F major (Wf XII:10)
  • BR A124 \ Menuet in G major (Wf XII:11)
  • BR A125 \ Menuet in A major (Wf XII:12)
  • BR AInc1 \ Partia for keyboard in C major
  • BR AInc2 \ Fugue for keyboard in G minor (lost)
  • BR AInc3 \ Fugue for keyboard in E minor (lost)
  • BR AInc4 \ Fugue for keyboard in C major (lost)
  • BR AInc5 \ Fugue for keyboard in F major
  • BR AInc6 \ Fugue for keyboard in D major (lost)
  • BR AInc7 \ Fugue for keyboard in C major (lost)
  • BR AInc8 \ Galanterie-Stücke for keyboard

Chamber music[edit]

  • BR B 1 \ Cello Sonata in A major (Wf X:3)(1770)[3]
  • BR B 2 \ Cello Sonata in G major (Wf X:1)
  • BR B 3 \ Trio Sonata for flute, violin & bc in A major (Wf VII:1)
  • BR B 4 \ Trio Sonata for flute, viola & bc in E minor
  • BR B 5-10 \ 6 Sonatas for 2 flutes & continuo (lost)
  • BR B11 \ Trio Sonata for 2 violins & b.c. in A major (Wf VII:2)
  • BR B12 \ Trio Sonata for 2 violins & b.c. in F major (Wf VII:3)
  • BR B13 \ Trio Sonata for 2 violins & b.c. (lost)
  • BR B14 \ Flute Sonata in E-flat major (Wf VIII:2)
  • BR B15 \ Flute Sonata No. 1 in D minor (Wf VIII:3/1)
  • BR B16 \ Flute Sonata No. 2 in D major (Wf VIII:3/2)
  • BR B17 \ Flute Sonata No. 3 in D major (Wf VIII:3/3)
  • BR B18 \ Flute Sonata No. 4 in C major (Wf VIII:3/4)
  • BR B19 \ Flute Sonata No. 5 in A major (Wf VIII:3/5)
  • BR B20 \ Flute Sonata No. 6 in C major (Wf VIII:3/6)
  • BR B21 \ Violin Sonata in G major (Wf IX:2)
  • BR B22 \ Violin Sonata in D major (Wf IX:3)
  • BR B23-24 \ 2 Flute Sonatas (lost)
  • BR B25 \ Flute Sonata in F major (Wf VIII:1)
  • BR B26 \ Violin Sonata in F major
  • BR B27 \ Violin Sonata in D major
  • BR B28 \ Violin Sonata in G major (Wf IX:1) (lost)
  • BR B29 \ Keyboard Trio in D major (Wf VII:4)
  • BR B30 \ Keyboard Trio No. 1 (lost)
  • BR B31 \ Keyboard Trio No. 2 in G major (Wf VII:5)
  • BR B32 \ Keyboard Trio No. 3 in A major (Wf VII:6)
  • BR B33 \ Keyboard Trio No. 4 (lost)
  • BR B34 \ Keyboard Trio No. 5 in C major (Wf VII:7)
  • BR B35 \ Keyboard Trio No. 6 (lost)
  • BR B36 \ Cello Sonata in A major (Wf X:4) (lost)
  • BR B37 \ Flute Quartet No. 1 in C major (Wf VI:1)
  • BR B38 \ Flute Quartet No. 2 in G major (Wf VI:2)
  • BR B39 \ Flute Quartet No. 3 in C major (Wf VI:3)
  • BR B40 \ Flute Quartet No. 4 in A major (Wf VI:4)
  • BR B41 \ Flute Quartet No. 5 in F major (Wf VI:5)
  • BR B42 \ Flute Quartet No. 6 in B major (Wf VI:6)
  • BR B43 \ String Quartet No. 1 in E-flat major
  • BR B44 \ String Quartet No. 2 in B-flat major
  • BR B45 \ String Quartet No. 3 in A major
  • BR B46 \ String Quartet No. 4 in D major
  • BR B47 \ String Quartet No. 5 in G major
  • BR B48 \ String Quartet No. 6 in F major
  • BR B49 \ Wind Septet in E-flat major (Wf IV) (lost)
  • BR B50-53 \ 4 Marches for wind band (lost)
  • BR BInc1 \ Trio Sonata for 2 violins & b.c. in B major (Wf XX:3)
  • BR BInc2 \ Trio Sonata for 2 flutes & b.c. in C major (lost)
  • BR BInc3 \ Cello Sonata in D major (Wf X:2) (lost)[4]
  • BR BInc4 \ Violin Sonata (lost)

Orchestral works[edit]

  • BR C 1 \ Symphony in D major (Wf I: 5) (lost)
  • BR C 2-3 \ 2 Symphonies (1765) (lost)
  • BR C 4 \ Symphony in D minor (Wf I: 3) (by 1768)[5]
  • BR C 5 \ Symphony in F major (Wf I: 1) (by 1768)[5]
  • BR C 6 \ Symphony in B-flat major (Wf I: 2) (by 1768)[5]
  • BR C 7 \ Symphony in E major (Wf I: 4) (by 1769)[5]
  • BR C 8-9 \ 2 Symphonies (1770) (lost)
  • BR C10 \ Symphony in C major (Wf I: 6)
  • BR C11 \ Symphony in D major (Wf I: 7) (lost)
  • BR C12 \ Symphony in G major (Wf I: 8) (lost)
  • BR C13 \ Symphony in D major (Wf I: 9) (lost)
  • BR C14 \ Symphony in E-flat major (Wf I:10)
  • BR C15-17 \ 3 Symphonies (lost)
  • BR C18 \ Symphony (lost)
  • BR C19 \ Symphony in D major (Wf I:11) (lost)
  • BR C20 \ Symphony in F major (Wf I:12) (lost)
  • BR C21 \ Symphony in D major (Wf I:13) (lost)
  • BR C22 \ Symphony in C major (Wf I:14) (lost)
  • BR C23 \ Symphony in G major (Wf I:15) (1793)
  • BR C24 \ Symphony in E-flat major (Wf I:18) (lost)
  • BR C25 \ Symphony in E-flat major (Wf I:19) (lost)
  • BR C26 \ Symphony in D minor (Wf I:16) (lost)
  • BR C27 \ Symphony in C major (Wf I:17) (lost)
  • BR C28 \ Symphony in B-flat major (Wf I:20) (1794)
  • BR C29 \ Keyboard Concerto in E-flat major
  • BR C30 \ Keyboard Concerto in A major
  • BR C31 \ Keyboard Concerto "London No. 1" in G major
  • BR C32 \ Keyboard Concerto "London No. 2" in F major
  • BR C33 \ Keyboard Concerto "London No. 3" in D major
  • BR C34 \ Keyboard Concerto "London No. 4" in E-flat major
  • BR C35 \ Keyboard Concerto "London No. 5" in B-flat major
  • BR C36 \ Keyboard Concerto "London No. 6" in C major
  • BR C37 \ Keyboard Concerto in E major (Wf II:1)
  • BR C38 \ Keyboard Concerto (1766) (lost)
  • BR C39 \ Keyboard Concerto (1788) (lost)
  • BR C40 \ Keyboard Concerto in F major (Wf II:4)
  • BR C41 \ Keyboard Concerto in D major (Wf II:2)
  • BR C42 \ Keyboard Concerto in A major (Wf II:3) (lost)
  • BR C43 \ Concerto Grosso in E-flat major (Wf II:5) (1792)
  • BR C44 \ Concerto for piano and viola in E-flat major
  • BR C45 \ Concerto for piano and oboe in E-flat major (Wf III)

Vocal works[edit]

Oratorios

  • BR D 1 \ Die Pillgrimme auf Golgatha
  • BR D 2 \ Der Tod Jesu (Wf XIV:1)
  • BR D 3 \ Die Auferstehung und Himmelfahrt Jesu (Wf XIV:10) (lost)
  • BR D 4 \ Die Hirten bey der Krippe Jesu (Wf XIV:9) (lost)
  • BR D 5 \ Die Kindheit Jesu (Wf XIV:2)
  • BR D 6 \ Die Auferweckung Lazarus (Wf XIV:3)
  • BR D 7 \ Der Fremdling auf Golgotha (Wf XIV:7) (lost)
  • BR D 8 \ Mosis Mutter und ihre Tochter (Wf XVII:3) (fragment)

Liturgical works

  • BR E 1 \ Miserere

Sacred works

  • BR F 1 \ Pfingstkantate (Wf XIV:4) (lost)
  • BR F 2 \ Sieh, Bückeburg, was Gott an Dir getan (lost)
  • BR F 3 \ Himmelfahrts-Musik (Wf XIV:8)
  • BR F 4 \ Michaels Sieg (Wf XIV:5)
  • BR F 5 \ Nun, teures Land, der Herr hat dich erhört (lost)
  • BR F 6 \ Singet dem Herrn ein neues Lied (Wf XIV:11) (lost)
  • BR F 7 \ Gott wird deinen Fuß nicht gleiten lassen (Wf XIV:12)
  • BR FInc1 \ Funeral Music for Count Philipp Ernst (lost)
  • BR FInc2 \ Heut ist der Tag des Dankens, ihr Völker (lost)

Arias, cantatas and incidental music

  • BR G 1 \ Luci amate ah non piangete (Wf XVIII:8)
  • BR G 2-11 \ 10 Italian Arias (lost)
  • BR G12-26 \ 15 Italian Cantatas (lost)
  • BR G27 \ L'Inciampo (Wf XVIII:2)
  • BR G28-44 \ 18 Italian Cantatas (lost)
  • BR G45 \ Scenes for Il pastor fido (lost)
  • BR G46 \ Cassandra (Wf XVIII:1)
  • BR G47 \ Die Amerikanerin (Wf XVIII:3)
  • BR G48 \ Ino (Wf XVIII:4)
  • BR G49 \ Prokris und Cephalus (Wf XVIII:6)
  • BR G50 \ Pygmalion (Wf XVIII:5)
  • BR G51 \ Ariadne auf Naxos (lost)
  • BR G52 \ Brutus (Wf XVII:1) (lost)
  • BR G53 \ Philoktetes (Wf XVII:2) (lost)
  • BR GInc1 \ Stimmt an, greift rasch in eure Saiten (lost)
  • BR GInc2 \ Va crescendo il mio tormento

Songs

  • BR H 1 \ Lied: Ein dunkler Feind (Wf XIX:1/1)
  • BR H 2 \ Lied: Die Gespenster (Wf XIX:1/2)
  • BR H 3 \ Lied: Die Zeit (Wf XIX:1/3)
  • BR H 4 \ Lied: Der Sieg über sich selbst (Wf XIX:1/4)
  • BR H 5 \ Lied: Der Nachbarin Climene (Wf XIX:1/5)

Other works in Wohlfarth's catalogue[edit]

  • Wf V \ Sextet for piano, winds & strings in C major (see Johann Christian Bach WarB B 78)
  • Wf XV:1 \ Ich lieg und schlafe ganz mit Frieden
  • Wf XV:2 \ Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme on the hymn by Philipp Nicolai
  • Wf XV:3 \ Dem Erlöser
  • Wf XV:4 \ Unsere Auferstehung durch die Auferstehung Jesu
  • Wf XVI:1 \ 5 Geistliche Lieder
  • Wf XVI:2 \ 50 Geistliche Lieder
  • Wf XVIII:7 \ O, wir bringen gerne dir
  • Wf XVIIII:2 \ 24 Lieder
  • Wf XX:1 \ Keyboard Concerto in C minor
  • Wf XX:2 \ Keyboard Concerto in G major
  • Wf XX:4 \ Fugue for keyboard in C minor
  • Wf XXI:1 \ Arrangement of CPE Bach's "Weynachtslied"
  • Wf XXI:2 \ Arrangement of CPE Bach's "Dancklied"
  • Wf XXI:3 \ Arrangement of CPE Bach's "Der thätige Glaube"

Works not referenced in any catalogue

  • Cello Sonata in G major

References[edit]

Notes

  1. ^ Das Johann Sebastian Bach Portal (German)
  2. ^ New Grove, p. 312
  3. ^ Sonata first published along with other works by his brother, C. P. E. Bach, in Musikalisches Vielerley, 1770 (pp. 118–125). source
  4. ^ Original was in A major and lost in fire. A transcribed version was later published in D major and later again in A major. Both revised versions are available. source (A major revision). D major revision: Free scores at the International Music Score Library Project
  5. ^ a b c d "Johann Christoph Friedrich Bach" in Nolte, Ewald V., ed., Four Early Sinfonias at Google Books. Dates based on early copies by Johann Friedrich Peter. Madison, Wis.: A-R Editions, 1982. Preface page xi. ISBN 0-89579-170-6. OCLC 9203471.

Sources

  • Ulrich Leisinger, "Johann Christoph Friedrich Bach," Grove Music Online
  • Eugene Helm, "Johann Christoph Friedrich Bach" The New Grove Bach Family, Macmillan 1985 pp. 309–314

External links[edit]