Johannes Grant

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Johannes Grant or Johannis Grandi[1] was an engineer employed by the Byzantine Empire at the fall of Constantinople in 1453. Contemporary Greek and Latin accounts referred to him as being German,[2][3] although Runciman has suggested he may actually have been Scottish, named "John Grant".[4] His use of counter-tunnelling prevented the Turks from weakening or invading Constantinople from under the walls.[5][6]


  1. ^ Leonard of Chios: "Johannis Grandi Alemani", where Grandi can also mean "the great" in Italian
  2. ^ Georgios Sphrantzes: "Johannes the German"
  3. ^ Bartusis, Mark, Late Byzantine Army
  4. ^ Runciman, Steven, Fall of Constantinople 1453, page 84
  5. ^ Nicol, Donald, Last Centuries of Byzantium. Cambridge University Press, 1993 [2nd edition]. Chapter 18.
  6. ^ The Fall of Constantinopla