Voet was the son of Paulus Voet, who was the son of famous theologian Gisbertus Voetius. He probably studied in Utrecht, after which he became a professor in Herborn. In 1673 he was made professor of law at the University of Utrecht. From 1680 to his death he was a professor at Leiden.
Voet's most famous work is his Commentarius ad Pandectas. While it shows signs of legal humanism, it may also be considered a Dutch form of Usus modernus Pandectarum. In the 19th century, it was translated into German. It is still an important source of South African law.