Johansen test

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In statistics, the Johansen test,[1] named after Søren Johansen, is a procedure for testing cointegration of several I(1) time series. This test permits more than one cointegrating relationship so is more generally applicable than the Engle–Granger test which is based on the Dickey–Fuller (or the augmented) test for unit roots in the residuals from a single (estimated) cointegrating relationship.

There are two types of Johansen test, either with trace or with eigenvalue, and the inferences might be a little bit different. The null hypothesis for the trace test is the number of cointegration vectors r ≤ ?, the null hypothesis for the eigenvalue test is r = ?.

Just like a unit root test, there can be a constant term, a trend term, both, or neither in the model. For a general VAR(p) model:

X_{t}=\mu+\Phi D_{t}+\Pi_{p}X_{t-p}+\cdots+\Pi_{1}X_{t-1}+e_{t},\quad t=1,\dots,T

There are two possible specifications for error correction: that is, two VECM (vector error correction models):

1. The longrun VECM:

\Delta X_t =\mu+\Phi D_{t}+\Pi X_{t-p}+\Gamma_{p-1}\Delta X_{t-p+1}+\cdots+\Gamma_{1}\Delta X_{t-1}+\varepsilon_t,\quad t=1,\dots,T
where
\Gamma_i = \Pi_1 + \cdots + \Pi_i - I,\quad i=1,\dots,p-1. \,

2. The transitory VECM:

\Delta X_{t}=\mu+\Phi  D_{t}-\Gamma_{p-1}\Delta X_{t-p+1}-\cdots-\Gamma_{1}\Delta X_{t-1}+\Pi X_{t-1}+\varepsilon_{t},\quad t=1,\cdots,T
where
\Gamma_i = \left(\Pi_{i+1}+\cdots+\Pi_p\right),\quad i=1,\dots,p-1. \,

Be aware that the two are the same. In both VECM(Vector Error Correction Model),

\Pi=\Pi_{1}+\cdots+\Pi_{p}-I. \,

Inferences are drawn on Π, and they will be the same, so is the explanatory power.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Johansen, Søren (1991). "Estimation and Hypothesis Testing of Cointegration Vectors in Gaussian Vector Autoregressive Models". Econometrica 59 (6): 1551–1580. JSTOR 2938278.