John (given name)
|Meaning||Graced by Yahweh (Yohanan)|
|Related names||Giovanni, Hans, Hovhannes, Ian, Ioan, Ivan, Iven, Ifan, Jack, Jackson, Jan, Jane, Janez, Jean, Joan, João, , Johan, Johanan Johannes, Jovan, Juan, Juhani, Seán, Siôn|
|Popularity||see popular names|
|Look up John in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
John is a masculine given name in the English language. The name is derived from the Latin Ioannes, Iohannes, which is in turn a form of the Greek Ἰωάννης, Iōánnēs. This Greek name is a form of the Hebrew name יוֹחָנָן, Yôḥanan which means "Graced by Yahweh". There are numerous forms of the name in different languages.
It is among the most common given names in Anglophone and European countries; traditionally, it was the most common, although it has not been since the latter half of the 20th century. John owes its unique popularity to the vast number of Emperors, Kings, Popes and Patriarchs that have borne the name, and also to two highly revered saints, John the Baptist and the apostle John, who wrote the Book of Revelation. Initially, it was a favorite name among the Greeks but it flourished in all of Europe after the First Crusade.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (July 2009)|
The name John derives via Latin Iōhannēs and Greek Ἰωάννης from the Hebrew name יוחנן (Yôḥanan, also transliterated Yochanan), a short form of the long name יְהוֹחָנָן Yehochanan, meaning "Yahweh is generous". Yochanan was the name of several important rabbis in the Second Temple Period in Israel, such as Yochanan ben Zakai and Yochanan ben Nuri.
The name had gained popularity among Jews in Judea and Galilee by the time the area became a province of the Roman Empire in 6 A.D. and before. John Hyrcanus (יוחנן הורקנוס), was the first king of the Hasmonean Dynasty, and was the nephew of Judas Maccabeus. It was the given name of Yochanan ben Zechariah, a Jewish prophet known in English as John the Baptist.
The name remained in use among Jews, up to and including the contemporary Hebrew-speaking Israel. It is, however, less frequent than its derivatives in societies practicing or influenced by Christianity, as Jewish practice tended to give preference to the names of major figures in the Hebrew Bible (e.g. Patriarchs, Kings and Prophets).
The New Testament was written in Greek, and the Hebrew name was adapted in Greek as Ἰωάννης, Iōannēs. The name Ioannes became extremely popular among the early Christians, and bearers include such noted members of the early church as Ioannes Chrysostomos.
The name came into use in other parts of the Christianized Roman Empire. The Western areas of the Roman Empire did not, however, speak Greek like the areas in the East. Instead, they spoke Latin. Accordingly, in the Western part of the Roman Empire the name was Latinized as Iohannes (pronounced like the Greek). The local populations in these areas of the Roman Empire soon changed Roman names to fit their own dialect, which included dropping the suffixes -us and -es from such names.
In the Roman sphere of influence, Johannes became the Italian Giovanni (also Gianni, Gian and other derivates). In the Black Sea region, the name became the Romanian Ioan. In Iberia the name eventually changed to the Spanish Juan and the medieval Portuguese Juo/Joane (now João) and Ivo. In Gaul, it became the Old French Jehan (the 16th century John Calvin still spelled his name Jehan Cauvin) and later Jean (pronounced /ʒɑ̃/); the female form was Jehanne (the 15th century Joan of Arc still spelled her name Jehanne) and later Jeanne. In the Occitano-Romance area it became Joan (feminine, Joana) and Jan in Occitan and Catalan, from older Iouan and Iohan.
The Germanic languages (including Dutch, German, English and Scandinavian) produced the male Johann (also Johan (Dutch), Joan, Jan (Dutch), Jannis, Hans (German, Dutch and Scandinavian), Jens (Danish and Frisian), Jóhannes, Jóhann, Jón (Icelandic and Faroese) and the female Johanna (also the Dutch diminuitives Johanneke, Hanneke, Janneke, and Joke)).
In the 11th century the Norman duke William the Conqueror invaded and conquered England and brought his French knights and their dialect with him. In England, the name John came from the Anglo-Norman form Johan, which itself came from the Old French form Jehan. Prior to the adoption into English of the letter 'J', the letter 'I' was used. Seventeenth-century English texts still spelled the name Iohn. Since then, it has been spelled in its current form, John. The female form changed from Jehanne to Joanne, Joan and Jo.
In Welsh, the name John is rendered as Ieuan (pronounced as Yay-an or Yey-an), and as Ifan (pronounced IV-an), Ianto (pronounced as Yan-to) or Ioan (pronounced as Yo-an). Ifan eventually became rendered into English as Evan. In Irish it is written as Eoin (pronounced Oe-in) or Seán (pronounced Shawn). The latter is technically a Gaelicisation of the Norman-French 'Jean'. In some cases, the pronunciation of the original initial "Y"/"I" also changed to variants of "J", in Scotland it is Iain. These are not to be confused with Euan, Ewan, Ewen or Owen, that have a Celtic root rather than a Hebrew.
Slavic, Hungarian and Albanian derivatives
John has been a common given name in English-speaking countries, and either it or William was the number one name in England and English-speaking North America from around 1550 until the middle of the twentieth century.
John was the most popular name given to male infants in the United States until 1924, and though its use has fallen off gradually since then, John was still the 20th most common name for boys on the Social Security Administration's list of names given in 2006. In modern times John is the most common name in the United States, borne as a first or middle name by 39.93 people per thousand; of these, 72.86% have it as the given name. When the statistics of the name are compared to the population statistics of America, the approximate number of people named John in the USA is 12,328,091 and the number of Johns in the USA is increasing by 104,925 each year.
John was also long the most common male name in the United Kingdom, but by 2004 it had fallen out of the top 50 names for newborn boys in England and Wales. By contrast Jack, which was a nickname for John but is now established as a name in its own right, was the most popular name given to newborn boys in England and Wales every year from 1995 to 2005. However, John has not been a popular one for members of the royal family. The memory of King John is tainted by his role as villain in the Robin Hood stories; Prince John, the youngest son of Edward VII, died shortly after birth; and The Prince John, the youngest son of George V, died at age 13. It was reported that Diana, Princess of Wales wished to name her first son (who was ultimately named Prince William) after her own father, John Spencer, but was dissuaded by royal tradition.
Because the name Jonathan is sometimes abbreviated as Jon, John is often incorrectly considered to be a short form of Jonathan, especially in the United States.[original research?] John comes from the Hebrew name Yôḥānān, whereas Jonathan derives from the Hebrew יוֹנָתָן Yônāṯān, which means "Gift from YHWH" and thus is a longer version of Nathan.
In other languages
||This section needs additional citations for verification. (December 2011)|
|language||masculine form||feminine form|
|Afrikaans||Jan, Johan, Johann, Johannes, Hannes, Hans||Johanna, Jana, Hanna|
|Albanian||Gjon, Gjin, Gjovan, Gjovanin, Gjovalin, Gjuvan, Jovan, Johan, Joan, Jean, Gjò||Gjovana, Gjonika, Joana,|
|Arabic||يحيى (Yaḥyā, Qurʾānic), يوحنا (Yūḥannā, Biblical)|
|Basque||Manez, Ganix, Joanes, Ibane, Iban|
|Belarusian||Янка (Yanka), Янэк (Yanek), Ясь (Yas'), Iван (Ivan)||Янiна (Yanina)|
|Bulgarian||Иван (Ivan), Йоан (Yoan), Янко (Yanko), Яне (Yane)||Ивана (Ivana), Иванка (Ivanka), Йоан[н]а (Yoana), Яна (Yana), Янка (Yanka)|
|Chinese||Chinese: 約翰; Mandarin Pinyin: Yuēhàn; Jyutping: joek3 hon6; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: ióu hān|
|Croatian||Ivan, Ivo, Ive, Ivica, Ivano, Ivanko, Janko||Ivana, Iva, Ivanka, Ivančica|
|Danish||Hans, Jens, Jan, Johan, Johannes||Hanne, Johanne|
|Dutch||Han, Hannes, Hans, Jan, Johan, Johannes||Hanna, Janneke, Jannetje, Jantje, Johanna|
|English||John, Johnny, Jack||Joan, Joanna, Joanne, Joann, JoAnn, JoAnne, Jan, Jane, Jayne, Jayna, Janet, Janice, Janis, Jean, Jeane, Jeanne, Jeannie|
|Estonian||Jaan, Juhan, Juho, Janno, Jukk, Jaanus, Hannes, Hans|
|Faroese||Jógvan, Jóhan, Jóhannes,|
|Finnish||Hannes, Hannu, Jani, Janne, Johannes, Juha, Juho, Juhani|
|French||Jean, Jehan (outdated)||Jeanne, Jeannette (short), Jehane (outdated)|
|Georgian||იოანე (Ioane), ივანე (Ivane), იოვანე (Iovane), ვანო (Vano), ივა (Iva)|
|German||Hans, Hannes, Johannes, Johann, Jan||Jana, Janina, Johanna, Hanna, Hanne|
|Greek||Ιωάννης (Ioannis), Γιάννης(Yiannis, sometimes Giannis)||Ιωάννα (Ioanna), Γιάννα (Yianna, sometimes Gianna)|
|Hebrew||יוחנן (Yôḥānān) Johanan||יוחנה (Yôḥannā) Johanna|
|Hungarian||János||Johanna, Hanna, Hanni|
|Icelandic||Jón, Jóhann, Jóhannes|
|Indonesian||Yohanes, Yahya, Yaya, Yuan||Yohana, Yana, Hana|
|Irish||Seán, Eoin||Sinéad, Seona, Siobhán, Síne, Siún|
|Italian||Giovanni, Gianni, Giannino, Ivan, Ivano, Ivo, Vanni, Nino, Vannino||Giovanna, Gianna, Giannina, Ivana, Iva, Nina, Vania|
|Kazakh||Жақия (Zhaqiya, Yahya) Шоқан (Shoqan)|
|Korean||요한 (Yohan, biblical)|
|Latin||Iohannes, Ioannes Iohn|
|Lithuanian||Jonas||Janina, Jonė, Janė, Joana|
|Macedonian||Јован (Jovan), Јованче (Jovanče), Иван (Ivan), Јане (Jane)||Јована (Jovana), Јованка (Jovanka), Ивана (Ivana), Иванка (Ivanka), Јана (Jana)|
|Persian||یوحنا (Yohannan), یحیی (Yahya)|
|Portuguese||João, Ivo, Ivã||Joana, Iva|
|Romanian||Ioan, Ionuţ, Ionel, Ionică, Nelu, Iancu||Ioana|
|Russian||Иван (Ivan), Иоанн (Ioann, Hebrew form)||Яна (Yana), Жaннa (Janna), Иoaннa (Yoanna, Hebrew form)|
|Scots||Ian, John, Jock,|
|Scottish Gaelic||Iain, Eòin, Seathan||Seòna, Seònag, Seònaid, Siubhan, Sìne|
|Serbian||Јован (Jovan), Иван (Ivan), Јанко (Janko), Јовица (Jovica), Ивица (Ivica), Ивко (Ivko)||Јована (Jovana), Ивана (Ivana), Јованка (Jovanka), Иванка (Ivanka)|
|Slovak||Ján, Ivan||Jana, Ivana, Ivona|
|Slovene||Janez, Ivan, Ivo, Jan, Janko, Anže, Anžej|
|Spanish||Juan, Iván||Juana, Juanita|
|Swedish||Jan, Johan, John||Johanna, Hanna,|
|Syriac||ܝܘܚܢܢ (Yoḥannan), ܚܢܐ (Ḥanna), ܐܝܘܢ (Ewan)|
|Turkish||Yahya, Yuhanna, Jan|
|Ukrainian||Іван (Ivan), Іванко (Ivanko)|
|Welsh||Evan, Ianto, Ieuan, Ifan, Ioan, Siôn||Siân, Sioned, Siwan|
- Hanks, Patrick; Hardcastle, Kate; Hodges, Flavia (2006), A Dictionary of First Names, Oxford Paperback Reference (2nd ed.), Oxford: Oxford University Press, p. 146, ISBN 978-0-19-861060-1
- Behind the Name: John
- For example, Joan van der Capellen tot den Pol.
- Behind the Name: Jón
- For example, Jón Sigurðsson.
- "Popular Baby Names". Ssa.gov. Retrieved February 26, 2011.
- "Top UK baby names 2004". Babycentre.co.uk. Retrieved February 26, 2011.
- "National Statistics". Statistics.gov.uk. September 8, 2009. Retrieved February 26, 2011.
- Mike Campbell. "Meaning, Origin and History of the Name John". Behind the Name. Retrieved February 26, 2011.
- Mike Campbell. "Meaning, Origin and History of the Name Jonathan". Behind the Name. Retrieved February 26, 2011.
- The Holy Bible. http://www.holybible.or.kr/B_GAE/cgi/bibleftxt.php?VR=GAE&VL=42&CN=1&CV=5 Retrieved January 23, 2013. See e.g. Luke 1:13,60,63