John Addington Symonds
John Addington Symonds (5 October 1840 – 19 April 1893) was an English poet and literary critic. Although he married and had a family, he was an early advocate of male love (homosexuality), which he believed could include pederastic as well as egalitarian relationships. He referred to it as l'amour de l'impossible (love of the impossible). A cultural historian, he was known for his work on the Renaissance, as well as numerous biographies about writers and artists. He also wrote much poetry inspired by his homosexual affairs.
John Symonds was born at Bristol, England in 1840. His father, the senior John Addington Symonds, M.D. (1807–1871), was the author of Criminal Responsibility (1869), The Principles of Beauty (1857) and Sleep and Dreams (2nd ed., 1857). Considered delicate, the younger Symonds did not take part in games after age 14 at Harrow School, and he showed no particular promise as a scholar.
In January 1858 Symonds received a letter from his friend Alfred Pretor (1840–1908), telling of Pretor's affair with their headmaster, Charles John Vaughan. Symonds was shocked and disgusted, feelings complicated by his growing awareness of his own homosexuality. He did not mention the incident for more than a year until, in 1859 and a student at Oxford University, he told the story to John Conington, the Latin professor. Conington approved of romantic relationships between men and boys. He had earlier given Symonds a copy of Ionica, a collection of homoerotic verse by William Johnson Cory, the influential Eton master and advocate of pederastic pedagogy. Conington encouraged Symonds to tell his father about his friend's affair, and the senior Symonds forced Vaughan to resign from Harrow. Pretor was angered by the younger man's part and never spoke to Symonds again.
In the fall of 1858, Symonds went to Balliol College, Oxford as a commoner but was elected to an exhibition in the following year. In spring of that same year, he fell in love with Willie Dyer (William Fear Dyer 1843–1905), a Bristol choirboy three years younger. They engaged in a chaste love affair that lasted a year, until broken up by the senior Symonds. The friendship continued for several years afterward, until at least 1864. Dyer became organist and choirmaster of St Nicholas' Church, Bristol.
At Oxford, Symonds became engaged in his studies and began to demonstrate his academic ability. In 1860 he took a first in Mods and won the Newdigate prize with a poem on "The Escorial"; in 1862 he obtained a first in Literae Humaniores, and in 1863 won the Chancellor's English Essay.
In 1862 Symonds was elected to an open fellowship at the conservative Magdalen. He made friends with a C.G.H. Shorting, whom he took as a private pupil. When Symonds refused to help Shorting gain admission to Magdalen, the younger man wrote to school officials alleging "that I [Symonds] had supported him in his pursuit of the chorister Walter Thomas Goolden (1848–1901), that I shared his habits and was bent on the same path." Although Symonds was officially cleared of any wrongdoing, he suffered a breakdown from the stress and shortly thereafter left the university for Switzerland.
There he met Janet Catherine North (sister of botanical artist Marianne North, 1830–1890). They married at Hastings on 10 November 1864. They settled in London and had four daughters: Janet (born 1865), Charlotte (born 1867), Margaret (born 1869) and Katharine (born 1875). (She was later honoured for her writing as Dame Katharine Furse.)
While in Clifton in 1868, Symonds met and fell in love with Norman Moor, a youth about to go up to Oxford, who became his pupil. Symonds and Moor had a four-year affair but did not have sex. According to Symonds' diary of 28 January 1870, "I stripped him naked and fed sight, touch and mouth on these things." The relationship occupied a good part of his time. (On one occasion he left his family and travelled to Italy and Switzerland with Moor.) It also inspired his most productive period of writing poetry, published in 1880 as New and Old: A Volume of Verse.
Symonds intended to study law, but his health again broke down and forced him to travel. Returning to Clifton, he lectured there, both at the college and ladies' schools. From his lectures, he prepared the essays in his Introduction to the Study of Dante (1872) and Studies of the Greek Poets (1873–1876).
Meanwhile he was occupied with his major work, Renaissance in Italy, which appeared in seven volumes at intervals between 1875 and 1886. Since his prize essay on the Renaissance at Oxford, Symonds had wanted to study it further and emphasise the reawakening of art and literature in Europe. His work was interrupted by serious illness. In 1877 his life was in danger. His recovery at Davos-Platz led him to believe this was the only place where he was likely to enjoy life.
He practically made his home at Davos and wrote about it in Our Life in the Swiss Highlands (1891). Symonds became a citizen of the town; he took part in its municipal business, made friends with the peasants and shared their interests. There he wrote most of his books: biographies of Shelley (1878), Philip Sidney (1886), Ben Jonson (1886) and Michelangelo (1893), several volumes of poetry and essays, and a translation of the Autobiography of Benvenuto Cellini (1887).
There, too, he completed his study of the Renaissance, the work for which he is chiefly remembered. He was feverishly active throughout his life. Considering his poor health, his productivity was remarkable. Two works, a volume of essays, In the Key of Blue, and a monograph on Walt Whitman, were published in the year of his death. His activity was unbroken to the last.
He had a passion for Italy and for many years resided during the autumn in the house of his friend, Horatio F Brown, on the Zattere, in Venice. He died in Rome and was buried close to the grave of Percy Bysshe Shelley.
Symonds left his papers and his autobiography in the hands of Brown, who wrote an expurgated biography in 1895, which Edmund Gosse further stripped of homoerotic content before publication. In 1926, upon coming into the possession of Symonds' papers, Gosse burned everything except the memoirs, to the dismay of Symonds' granddaughter.
Symonds was morbidly introspective, but with a capacity for action. In Talks and Talkers, the contemporary writer Robert Louis Stevenson described Symonds (known as "Opalstein" in Stevenson's essay) as "the best of talkers, singing the praises of the earth and the arts, flowers and jewels, wine and music, in a moonlight, serenading manner, as to the light guitar." Beneath his good fellowship, he was a melancholic.
This side of his nature is revealed in his gnomic poetry, and particularly in the sonnets of his Animi Figura (1882). He portrayed his own character with great subtlety. His poetry is perhaps rather that of the student than of the inspired singer, but it has moments of deep thought and emotion.
It is, indeed, in passages and extracts that Symonds appears at his best. Rich in description, full of "purple patches," his work lacks the harmony and unity essential to the conduct of philosophical argument. His translations are among the finest in the language; here his subject was found for him, and he was able to lavish on it the wealth of colour and quick sympathy which were his characteristics.
Homosexuality and homosexual writings
In 1873, Symonds wrote A Problem in Greek Ethics, a work of what would later be called "gay history." He was inspired by the poetry of Walt Whitman, with whom he corresponded. The work, "perhaps the most exhaustive eulogy of Greek love," remained unpublished for a decade, and then was printed at first only in a limited edition for private distribution. Although the Oxford English Dictionary credits the medical writer C.G. Chaddock for introducing "homosexual" into the English language in 1892, Symonds had already used the word in A Problem in Greek Ethics. Aware of the taboo nature of his subject matter, Symonds referred obliquely to pederasty as "that unmentionable custom" in a letter to a prospective reader of the book, but defined "Greek love" in the essay itself as "a passionate and enthusiastic attachment subsisting between man and youth, recognised by society and protected by opinion, which, though it was not free from sensuality, did not degenerate into mere licentiousness."
Symonds studied classics under Benjamin Jowett at Balliol College, Oxford, and later worked with Jowett on an English translation of Plato's Symposium. Jowett was critical of Symonds' opinions on sexuality, but when Symonds was falsely accused of corrupting choirboys, Jowett supported him, despite his own equivocal views of the relation of Hellenism to contemporary legal and social issues that affected homosexuals.
Symonds also translated classical poetry on homoerotic themes, and wrote poems drawing on ancient Greek imagery and language such as Eudiades, which has been called "the most famous of his homoerotic poems". While the taboos of Victorian England prevented Symonds from speaking openly about homosexuality, his works published for a general audience contained strong implications and some of the first direct references to male-male sexual love in English literature. For example, in "The Meeting of David and Jonathan", from 1878, Jonathan takes David "In his arms of strength / [and] in that kiss / Soul into soul was knit and bliss to bliss". The same year, his translations of Michelangelo's sonnets to the painter's beloved Tommaso Cavalieri restore the male pronouns which had been made female by previous editors. By the end of his life, Symonds' homosexuality had become an open secret in Victorian literary and cultural circles.
In particular, Symonds' memoirs, written over a four-year period, from 1889 to 1893, form the earliest known self-conscious homosexual autobiography. In addition to realising his own homosexuality, Symonds' daughter, Madge Vaughan, was probably writer Virginia Woolf's first same-sex crush, though there is no evidence that the feeling was mutual. Woolf was the cousin of her husband William Wyamar Vaughan. Another daughter, Charlotte Symonds, married the classicist Walter Leaf. Henry James used some details of Symonds' life, especially the relationship between him and his wife, as the starting-point for the short story The Author of Beltraffio (1884).
Over a century after Symonds' death his first work on homosexuality Soldier Love and Related Matter was finally published by Andrew Dakyns (grandson of Symonds' associate, Henry Graham Dakyns), Eastbourne, E. Sussex, England 2007. Soldier Love, or Soldatenliebe since it was limited to a German edition. Symonds' English text is lost. This translation and edition by Dakyns is the only version ever to appear in the author's own language.
List of works
- The Renaissance. An Essay (1863)
- Miscellanies by John Addington Symonds, M.D.,: Selected and Edited with an Introductory Memoir, by His Son (1871)
- Introduction to the Study of Dante (1872)
- Renaissance in Italy, 7 vol. (1875–86)
- Shelley (1878)
- Animi Figura (1882)
- A Problem in Greek Ethics (1883)
- Wine, Women, and Song. Medieval Latin Students' Songs (1884) English translations/paraphrases.
- Autobiography of Benvenuto Cellini (1887) An English translation.
- A Problem in Modern Ethics (1891)
- Our Life in the Swiss Highlands (1891)
- In the Key of Blue (1893)
- Walt Whitman. A Study (1893)
- Morris B. Kaplan, Sodom on the Thames: Sex, Love, and Scandal in Wilde Times, p. 112
- Memoirs of John Addington Symonds, ed. by Phyllis Grosskurth, Chicago: U of Chicago Press, p. 131
- Howard J. Booth "Same-Sex Desire, Ethics and Double-Mindedness: the Correspondence of Henry Graham Dakyns, Henry Sidgwick and John Addington Symonds" in Journal of European Studies, 1 June 2002
- "Infopt.demon.co.uk". Archived from the original on 24 October 2006. Retrieved 15 November 2006.
- Bart Schultz, Henry Sidgwick: Eye of the Universe – An Intellectual Biography p.408-409
- "Dictionaryofartistorians.org". Retrieved 15 November 2006.
- Oliver S. Buckton, Secret Selves: Confession and Same-Sex Desire in Victorian Autobiography, p. 95
- "Infopt.demon.co.uk". Archived from the original on 9 November 2006. Retrieved 15 November 2006.
- Katz, Love Stories, pp. 243–244. Katz notes that "Whitman's knowledge of and response to ancient Greek love is the subject for a major study" (p. 381, note 6).
- DeJean, "Sex and Philology," p. 139.
- Katz, Love Stories, p. 244. A Problem in Greek Ethics was later published without attribution in Havelock Ellis's Sexual Inversion (1897); see Eric O. Clarke, Virtuous Vice: Homoeroticism and the Public Sphere (Duke University Press, 2000), p. 144.
- DeJean, "Sex and Philology," p. 132, pointing to the phrase "homosexual relations" (here as it appears in the later 1908 edition).
- Katz, Love Stories, p. 262.
- As quoted by Pulham, Art and Transitional Object, p. 59, and Anne Hermann, Queering the Moderns: Poses/Portraits/Performances (St. Martin's Press, 2000), p. 148.
- Robert Aldrich, The Seduction of the Mediterranean: Writing, Art, and Homosexual Fantasy (Routledge, 1993), p. 78.
- Dowling, Hellenism and Homosexuality, p. 74, notes that Jowett, in his lectures and introductions, discussed love between men and women when Plato himself had been talking about the Greek love for boys.
- Dowling, Hellenism and Homosexuality, pp. 88, 91.
- Aldrich, The Seduction of the Mediterranean, p. 78.
- Soldier Love and Related Matter translated and edited by Andrew Dakyns. email@example.com
- Phyllis Grosskurth, John Addington Symonds: A Biography (1964)
- Phyllis Grosskurth (ed.), The Memoirs of John Addington Symonds Hutchinson (1984)
- Whitney Davis Queer Beauty, Chapter 4 "Double Mind: Hegel, Symonds, and Homoerotic Spirit in Renaissance Art." Columbia University Press, 2010.
- David Amigoni and Amber K. Regis (ed.) '(Re)Reading John Addington Symonds.' Special Issue of English Studies, 94:2 (2013).
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- Works by John Addington Symonds at Project Gutenberg
- LibriVox audiorecording of A Problem in Modern Ethics by John Addington Symonds, read by Martin Geeson: http://www.archive.org/details/problem_modern_ethics_1106_librivox
- John Addington Symonds papers, University of Bristol Library Special Collections
- Symonds's translation of The Life of Benvenuto Cellini, Vol. 1, Posner LIbrary, Carnegie Mellon University Vol. 2, Carnegie Mellon University
- John Addington Symonds, Waste: a lecture delivered at the Bristol institution for the advancement of science, literature..., 1863
- John Addington Symonds, The Principles of Beauty, 1857
- John Addington Symonds, The Renaissance, an essay, 1863
- Biography, GLBTQ encyclopaedia
- 1998 Symonds International Symposium
- 2010 Symonds International Symposium
- Michael Matthew Kaylor, Secreted Desires: The Major Uranians: Hopkins, Pater and Wilde (2006)
- Robert Peters' MSS, Indiana University
- David Beres, Review of The Letters of John Addington Symonds, ed. Herbert M. Schueller and Robert L. Peters, Psychoanalytic Quarterly 40 (1971)
- Rictor Norton, "The Life and Writings of John Addington Symonds (1840—1893)"