John B. Campbell

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John B. Campbell
Born (1777-03-13)March 13, 1777
Virginia
Died August 28, 1814(1814-08-28) (aged 37)
Chippawa, Ontario
Allegiance  United States of America
Service/branch  United States Army
Rank Colonel
Unit

19th U.S. Infantry

11th U.S. Infantry
Commands held 11th U.S. Infantry
Battles/wars

War of 1812

Relations

Colonel Arthur Campbell

General William Campbell

John B. Campbell (March 13, 1777– August 28, 1814) was a soldier during the War of 1812, most famous for his expedition to destroy the Miami Indian villages along the Mississinewa River and perhaps most infamous for destroying private houses and other property along with the stocks of grain and mills, which led to a Court of Enquiry and unprecedented letter to the enemy British Army explaining himself.

Early life and career[edit]

Born in Virginia his family moved to Kentucky about 1807, where he became a lawyer in Hopkinsville, Kentucky. He was the son of Colonel Arthur Campbell, a soldier of the Revolutionary War and Indian Wars for whom Campbell County, Tennessee was named, as well as a nephew of General William Campbell. His brother James H. Campbell died also in the War of 1812 at Mobile, Alabama.

War of 1812[edit]

Western Frontier[edit]

On March 12, 1812, he was appointed from Kentucky as lieutenant-colonel of the 19th infantry. He was brevetted colonel on Dec. 18, 1812, for gallant conduct while commanding a detachment in the campaign against the Mississineway Indians. On April 9, 1814, he was promoted colonel and transferred to the 11th infantry.

Canada[edit]

After the Raid on Port Dover British Major General Phineas Riall addressed the commanding officer of the United States troops by letter, asking an explicit declaration, whether the landing and the acts of outrage on private property at port Dover, were authorised by the United States authorities. The answer was received under General Jacob Brown's seal, but without any communication from himself. It was a letter from colonel "John B. Campbell, of the 11th regiment United States troops," probably the one instance of the kind, in correspondence of this character, between officers of opposing armies in the time of war.

Niagara Frontier, 16 June 1814.

Sir,—I have the honour to receive your communication of the 9th current. I commanded the detachment of the United States army which lately made a landing at Dover on lake Erie. What was done at that place and its vicinity proceeded from my orders. The whole business was planned by myself and executed upon my own responsibility.

Colonel Campbell next commanded the 11th Infantry in the Capture of Fort Erie.

He was mortally wounded at the Battle of Chippewa, Canada, July 5, 1814, where he commanded the right wing of the army under Brigadier General Winfield Scott and died August 28, 1814.

References[edit]

  • Powell, William Henry, List of officers of the army of the United States from 1779 to 1900, L. R. Hamersly & co., 1900.
  • Heitman, Francis Bernard, Historical register of the United States Army: from its organization, September 29, 1789, to September 29, 1889, The National Tribune, 1890.
  • Brown, John Howard, Lamb's biographical dictionary of the United States, Volume 1, James H. Lamb Co., 1900.
  • Quimby, Robert S., The U.S. Army in the War of 1812: an operational and command study, Volume 2, Michigan State University Press, 1997.
  • Kingsford, William, The history of Canada, Volume 8, Roswell & Hutchinson, 1895.
  • Drake, Francis Samuel,Dictionary of American biography, including men of the time: containing nearly ten thousand notices of persons of both sexes, of native and foreign birth, who have been remarkable, or prominently connected with the arts, sciences, literature, politics, or history, of the American continent, J.R. Osgood and company, 1876.
  • Walton, Eliakim Persons, Records of the Governor and Council of the State of Vermont: Record of the Governor and Council ... 1813-1822 Volume 6 of Records of the Governor and Council of the State of Vermont, Vermont. Council of Safety, 1777–1778, Authors Vermont, Vermont. Conventions, 1775–1777, Vermont. Council of Safety, 1777–1778, Vermont. Governor, Vermont. Supreme Executive Council, Vermont. Board of War, 1779–1783, J. & J. M. Poland, 1878.