John Gilchrist (linguist)
John Borthwick Gilchrist FRSE (June 1759 – 1841) was a Scottish surgeon, an Indigo farmer, and an Indologist. He compiled and authored An English-Hindustani Dictionary, A Grammar of the Hindoostanee Language, The Oriental Linguist, and many more. His lexicon of Hindustani was published in Arabic script, Nāgarī script, and also in Roman transliteration.
Gilchrist was born in Edinburgh to merchant Walter Gilchrist, who disappeared the year he was born. After graduation from George Heriot's Hospital, a school for orphans, and the High School (1773), he obtained employment first as a surgeon's mate in the Royal Navy, then, in 1783, as an assistant surgeon in the East India Company's Medical Service. He landed at Bombay in 1782, then travelled overland with the Company's army troops and was rewarded with a position in General Goddard's detachment. As claimed by Gilchrist after sixteen years later, he decided to learn Hindustani(Urdu) in order to communicate with the Indian soldiers or sepoys.
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The Hindustani language developed as a need of the new migrants to communicate with local populace in and around Delhi, southern parts of Uttarakhand, and Western Uttar Pradesh—Meerut and Saharanpur. The new migrants to North India were Persian and Turkish. The local populace spoke Khariboli, one of the Hindi languages. Although Khariboli supplied its basic vocabulary and grammar, it absorbed a lot of words from Persian. Gilchrist popularized Hindustani as the language of British administration. When he first arrived as a surgeon on the East India Company's payroll, he was told that Persian as India's main language, but he quickly discovered that none of the people he met either spoke Persian or Arabic very well. His interactions with people helped him to discover that Hindustani was already known to some in the East India Company. They referred the language as Moors language or simply Jargon - It is Gilchrist who recognized that Moor's language as the new language of administration for British India. As the Hindustani people spread towards southern and western parts of India, they settled down in the Deccan and retained their language, which was called Dakhini.
Fort William College
When the East India Company decided to set up a training institution for its recruits in Calcutta, Gilchrist was summoned to teach Urdu aka Hindustani language to Company servants. The institution initially started as Oriental Seminary or Gilchrist ka madrasa, was enlarged within a year to become Fort William College in 1800. Gilchrist served as the [first] principal of the college till 1804.
During his stint, he published a number of books, namely, The Stranger's East India Guide to the Hindoostanee or Grand Popular Language of India, The Hindustani Manual or Casket of India, Nastaliq-e-Hindoe, The Hindu Roman Orthoeptical Ultimatum, The Oriental Fabulist, and alike.
The first new centre of Urdu prose was Fort William, founded in 1800, by the East India Company. The Urdu they produced was meant for young Britishers to acquire a general practical knowledge for administrative purposes, and not for native speakers of the language. The language and dictionary of Hindustani produced by Gilchrist was the first attempt to teach foreigners and was also the moving spirit during the first years of Fort William College. For this, he gathered around him writers from all over India who were able to produce a simple Urdu style that is intelligible to Company servants and merchants who had no use for poetry.
Gilchrist devoted most of his attention to Urdu prose; later, the Delhi College, founded in 1825, became the vehicle for the promotion of Urdu language--Henry Martyn, whose first Urdu teacher was Gilchrist; an Anglican priest of Church of England; chaplain for East India Company; and missionary to India and Persia, revised Hindustani version of New Testament;later, translated New Testament, Psalms, and Book of Common Prayer into Urdu and Persian languages. By early nineteenth century, Persian language was gradually replaced by Urdu as the vernacular to serve as the administrative language in a growing colonial bureaucracy.
In 1803, he inducted to the Fort William College two Hindi writers like Lallu Mal and Sadal Misra that helped make rapid strides in Hindi language and literature; subsequently, Hindi translation of the Bible appeared in 1818 and Udant Martanda, the first Hindi newspaper, appeared in 1826 in Calcutta.
By early nineteenth century, Persian language was gradually replaced by Urdu as the vernacular to serve as the administrative language in a growin colonial bureaucracy—By 1837, East India Company decreed to abolish Persian language and replace it with English and vernacular languages. However, the Company allowed Urdu to take the place of lingua franca in Northern India, where it was the most influential vernacular language. As Urdu was seen as too Persianized and still too far away from the language of the people to bring administration in touch with those it governed, both British and Hindus(non-Muslims) pressed for a Standerized Hindi as an alternative to Urdu language; consequently, this crystallized into opposing language movemements in 1860. The Hindi language movement identified Hindi based on Nagari script with the Hindu majority and Urdu based on Arabic script, a foreign script, with the Muslim minority—From 1860, through "Hindi Nagari Movement" and "Nagari Pracarini Sabha" began seeking changes in the usage of Hindi in Nagari script through political action—The Hindi Nagari Movement identified Urdu in Perso-Arabic script with Islam and Hindi in Nagari Script with Hinduism. In 1860, the government brought a new language policy that declared Hindi and Urdu as medium of instruction in government schools, but only Urdu as a recognized language for official purposes. With campaign to make Hindi in the Nagari script as the symbol of being Hindu, and Urdu with Perso-Arabic script as a Muslim, Urdu no longer became the language of administration, instead it became the language of Muslims. Gilchrist's Hindustani, however, came to be equated with Urdu was standardized and given official status over a large part of North India, though a geographically defined dialects of Hindi were also distinguished.
According to Gilchrist, the rise of the new prose tradition was also the "bifurcation of Khariboli into two forms" [sic]—Hindustani language with Khariboli as the root resulted in two languages (Hindi and Urdu) with its own character and script.
He not only invented[discovered] Hindustani language, he is credited as a great patron of Urdu and also for reinvigoration of Hindi language indirectly. During his stint at Fort William College from 1803, he encouraged to use the purer form of Khariboli from which contemporary Hindi evolved. In words of K.B. Jindal, author of A history of Hindi literature:
|“||Hindi as we know it today is the product of the nineteenth century.||”|
|“||an artificial dialect the mother-tongue of no-native born Indian, a newly invented speech, that wonderful hybrid known to Europeans as Hindi and invented by them.||”|
Dictionary and grammar
By the end of nineteenth century, during the colonial period, East India Company to further rapport with the natives launched a project to devise a language and grammar based directly on speech similar to the language projects in England and France during the same period. The clientele was not indigenous peoples, instead the Company servants only. As part of Colonial empiricism, linguistic surveys were carried out to identify the spoken languages of India in order to replace the Persian language with vernacular languages. This project continued in a transformed manner when India became part of the British Empire--British Raj.
In Northern India, Gilchrist began studying the Hindustani (Urdu) language in order to communicate with Indian soldiers or sepoys, and creating his first dictionary. In 1785 he requested a year's leave from duty. In 1787 leave was granted, and Gilchrist never returned to Medical Service. He spent 12 years living at various places, including Patna, Faizabad, Lucknow, Delhi, and Ghazipur. He extensively travelled in Northern India in order to work with native speakers and also to garner material. He gathered around his writers from all over India who were able to produce a comparatively simple Urdu style, pragmatic, simple to grasp, and intelligible to East India Company servants and merchants who had no use for poetry.
Meanwhile in 1786 his first advertisement had announced A Dictionary English and Hindoostanee. To which Is Prefixed a Grammar of the Hindoostanee Language--By John Gilchrist-- Calcutta: Printed by Stuart and Cooper. M.DCC.LXXXVI. The Hindoostanee Grammar and Dictionary was published in 1786, and Gilchrist's efforts eventually led to Urdu replacing Persian as the language used by Britain to administer its Indian territories. The dictionary was published by subscription, and issued in installments to be completed in 1790. It was apparently the first publication in devanagari type, as developed by noted Orientalist Charles Wilkins. The Government promised to take 150 sets at 40 rupees each; the price rose eventually to 60 rupees.
In 1794 he was promoted to surgeon with the East India Company. In 1796, over ten years of efforts, he finally published his grammar of Urdu, which appeared at the Chronicle press, Calcutta.
On his suggestion, the Governor-General, the Marquess Wellesley, and the Company officers at Fort William agreed to organize the College of Fort William. In 1801 Gilchrist was named head of the college, and professor of Persian and Hindustani.
Edinburgh and London
In 1805 Gilchrist evidently started business as a merchant in the linen trade in Edinburgh, though he resided much of the time in London where he gave lectures. In 1806, when the East India College was established in Hertford Castle, its original plan called only for the teaching of Arabic and Persian. However, the first appointed Oriental Professor, Jonathan Scott, a scholar of Arabic and Persian, resigned even before the College opened its doors. Gilchrist succeeded him but held the post only a few months.
In 1806 Gilchrist returned to Edinburgh where he founded a banking firm. There he also became a fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh (1807; proposed by William Moodie, John Playfair and James Bonar), the Horticultural Society, the East Indian Society, etc. In 1815 his banking business fell into difficulties and was dissolved. He then moved to London in 1817, where he resided until 1827 or 1828. While there he helped to found University College London and served as its first Professor of Hindustani. He also worked with Dr. George Birkbeck to establish the London Mechanics Institution (later Birkbeck College), and helped organize the London Oriental Institution. From there he moved to Paris.
In 1841, upon his death, he endowed the Gilchrist Educational Trust to promote education. Its interest has provided scholarships and funded scientific lectures.
- A Dictionary: English and Hindoostanee, Calcutta: Stuart and Cooper, 1787-90.
- A Grammar, of the Hindoostanee Language, or Part Third of Volume First, of a System of Hindoostanee Philology, Calcutta: Chronicle Press, 1796.
- A Dictionary English and Hindoostanee. To which Is Prefixed a Grammar of the Hindoostanee Language. By John Gilchrist . . . Calcutta: Printed by Stuart and Cooper. M.DCC.LXXXVI
- The Anti-Jargonist; a short and familiar introduction to the Hindoostanee Language, with an extensive Vocabulary, Calcutta, 1800.
- Dialogues, English and Hindoostanee, calculated to promote the colloquial intercourse of Europeans, on the most useful and familiar subjects, with the natives of India, upon their arrival in that country, Calcutta, 1802(?). Second edition: Edinburgh, Manners and Miller et al., 1809. lxiii, 253 p.
- The Hindee Director, or Student’s Introductor to the Hindoostanee Language; comprising the Practical outlines of the improved Orthoepy and Orthography, along with first and general Principles of its Grammar, Calcutta, 1802.
- The Hindee-Arabic Mirror; or improved Arabic practical tables of such Arabic words which are intimately connected with a due knowledge of the Hindoostanee language, Calcutta, 1802.
- The Hindee-Roman Orthoepigraphical Ultimatum, or a systematic descriptive view of the Oriental and Occidental visible sounds of fixed and practical principles for the Language of the East, Calcutta, 1804.
- British Indian Monitor; or, the Antijargonist, Stranger's Guide, Oriental Linguist, and Various Other Works, compressed into a series of portable volumes, on the Hindoostanee Language, improperly called Moors; with considerable information respecting Eastern tongues, manners, customs, &c., Edinburgh: Walker & Grieg, 1806-8.
- Parliamentary reform, on constitutional principles; or, British loyalty against continental royalty, the whole host of sacerdotal inquisitors in Europe, and every iniquitous judge, corrupt ruler, venal corporation, rotten borough, slavish editor, or Jacobitical toad-eater within the British Empire, Glasgow: W. Lang. 1815.
- The Orienti-Occidental Tuitionary Pioneer to Literary Pursuits, by the King's and Company's Officers of all Ranks, Capacities, and Departments, either as probationers at scholastic establishments, during the early periods of life, their outward voyage to the East, or while actually serving in British India...A Complete Regular Series of Fourteen Reports...earnestly recommending also the general Introduction, and efficient Culture immediately, of Practical Orientalism, simultaneously with Useful Occident Learning at all the Colleges, respectable Institutions, Schools, or Academies, in the United Kingdom,...a brief prospectus of the art of thinking made easy and attractive to Children, by the early and familiar union of theory with colloquial practice, on commensurate premises, in some appropriate examples, lists, &c. besides a Comprehensive Panglossal Diorama for a universal Language and Character...a perfectly new theory of Latin verbs, London: 1816.
- The Oriental Green Bag!! Or a Complete Sketch of Edwards Alter in the Royal Exchequer, Containing a full Account of the Battle with the Books between a Belle and a Dragon: by a radical admirer of the great Sir William Jones's civil, religious, and political creed, against whom information have recently been lodged for the Treasonable Offence and heinous crime of deep-rooted Hostility to Corruption and Despotism, in every Shape and Form; on the sacred oath of Peeping Tom at Coventry, London: J.B. Gilchrist, 1820.
- The Hindee-Roman Orthoepigraphical Ultimatum;or a systematic, descriminative view of Oriental and Occidental visible Sounds, on fixed and practical principles for acquiring the ... pronunciation of many Oriental languages; exemplified in one hundred popular anecdotes, ... and proverbs of the Hindoostanee story teller, London: 1820.
- The General East India Guide and Vade Mecum: for the public functionary, government officer, private agent, trader or foreign sojourner, in British India, and the adjacent parts of Asia immediately connected with the honourable East India Company, London: Kingsbury, Parbury and Allen, 1825.
- Dialogues, English and Hindoostanee; for illustrating the grammatical principles of the Strangers' East Indian Guide, and to promote the colloquial intercourse of Europeans on the most indispensable and familiar subjects with the Natives of India immediately upon their arrival in Hindoostan, London: Kingsley, Parbury, and Allen, 1826.
- A Practical Appeal to the Public, Through a Series of Letters, in Defence of the New System of Physic, London: Parbury, Allen, & Co. 1833.
- A Bold Epistolary Rhapsody Addressed to the Proprietors of East-India Stock in particular, and to every individual of the Welch, Scottish and English nations in general, London: Ridgway, 1833.
- Thomas Duffus Hardy, Memoirs of the Right Honourable Henry Lord Langdale, Richard Bentley, 1852, pages 398-413.
- Natasha Glaisyer, Sara Pennell, Didactic Literature in England 1500-1800: Expertise Constructed, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2003, pages 155-159. ISBN 0-7546-0669-4.
- Richard Steadman-Jones, "Etymology and Language Learning at the Start of the 19th Century", in The History of Linguistic and Grammatical Praxis, Piet Desmet (ed.), Peeters Publishers, 2000, pages 190-193. ISBN 90-429-0884-X
- Richard Steadman-Jones, Colonialism and grammatical representation: John Gilchrist and the analysis of the Hindustani language in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries Publications of the Philological Society; 41, 2007 9781405161329
- Sadiqur-Rahman Kidwai, Gilchrist and the 'Language of Hindoostan', Ph.D. thesis, University of Delhi. Rachna Prakashan, 1972.
- History of the Gilchrist Educational Trust
- Ramchandani, Indu (2000). Students' Britannica India, Volumes 1-5. Popular Prakashan. pp. 298–300. ISBN 978-0-85229-760-5. ISBN 0-85229-760-2.
- Mukherjee, Sujit (1999). A Dictionary of Indian Literature: Beginnings-1850. Orient Blackswan. pp. 113–114. ISBN 978-81-250-1453-9. ISBN 81-250-1453-5.
- Malik, Jamal (2008). Islam in South Asia: A Short History. BRILL. p. 285. ISBN 978-90-04-16859-6. ISBN 90-04-16859-1.
- Schimmel, Annemarie (1975). Classical Urdu Literature from the Beginning to Iqbāl. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 207. ISBN 978-3-447-01671-1. ISBN 3-447-01671-X.
- Glaisyer, Natasha; Sara Pennell (2003). Didactic Literature in England, 1500-1800. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 155. ISBN 978-0-7546-0669-7. ISBN 0-7546-0669-4.
- Masood, Ehsan (2010). Scienče & Is̊lam: A History. Icon Books. ISBN 978-1-84831-081-0. ISBN 1-84831-081-1.
- Veer, Peter Van Der (1994). Religious Nationalism: Hindus and Muslims in India. University of California Press. pp. 170–. ISBN 978-0-520-08256-4. ISBN 0-520-08256-7.
- Sen, Sailendra Nath (2007). Textbook of Indian History and Culture. Macmillan. pp. 270–274. ISBN 978-1-4039-3200-6. ISBN 1-4039-3200-X.
- Powell, Avril Ann (1993). Muslims and Missionaries in Pre-Mutiny India. Routledge. pp. 90–100. ISBN 978-0-7007-0210-7. ISBN 0-7007-0210-5.
- Everaert, Christine (2010). Tracing the Boundaries Between Hindi and Urdu. BRILL. pp. September. ISBN 978-90-04-17731-4. ISBN 90-04-17731-0.
- "Watershed - The Hindi-Urdu Controversy in 1867, when Hindi went to replace Urdu as the official language, was already a first sign of a future partition of the Indian subcontinent?". watershed.com.br. Retrieved August 5, 2012. "In 1837, when the East India Company started exercising executive powers, they decreed to abolish Persian from its official use and replaced it with English and native vernaculars. They however accepted Urdu, as lingua franca, to be the language of the courts in northern India. This boosted the morale of the Muslims and some Hindu elite. However the Hindu masses were restless and demanded the official status of Hindi."
- Kapoor, Subodh (2002). The Indian Encyclopaedia: Hinayana-India (Central India). Genesis Publishing Pvt Ltd. p. 2890. ISBN 978-81-7755-267-6. ISBN 81-7755-267-8.
- McGregor, Ronald Stuart (65-66 1974). A History of Indian Literature. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. ISBN 978-3-447-01607-0. ISBN 3-447-01607-8.
- Bosworth, Clifford Edmund (1989). The Encyclopaedia of Islam: Fascicules 111-112 : Masrah Mawlid, Parts 111-112. BRILL. p. 805. ISBN 978-90-04-09239-6. ISBN 90-04-09239-0.