John Brown (servant)
John Brown at Osborne House, 1866
8 December 1826|
|Died||27 March 1883
Windsor Castle, Berkshire, England
|Resting place||Crathie Kirk, Crathie,
|Occupation||Ghillie & Personal Servant|
John Brown (8 December 1826 – 27 March 1883) was a Scottish personal servant and favourite of Queen Victoria for many years. He was appreciated by many (including the Queen) for his competence and companionship, and resented by others for his influence and informal manner. The exact nature of his relationship with Victoria was the subject of great speculation by contemporaries, and continues to be controversial today.
Brown was born in Crathie, Aberdeenshire, to John Brown and Margaret Leys, and went to work as an outdoor servant (in Scots ghillie or gillie) at Balmoral Castle, which Queen Victoria and Prince Albert leased in February 1848 and purchased outright in November 1851.
Brown had several younger brothers, three of whom also entered the royal service. The most notable of these, Archibald Anderson "Archie Brown", fifteen years John's junior, eventually became personal valet to Victoria's youngest son, Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany. Archie was dismissed from this post after a complaint from Walter Stirling, another member of the prince's household, but was allowed to stay on in the royal service in a lower capacity.
Relationship with Victoria
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (May 2010)|
Prince Albert's untimely death in 1861 was a shock from which Queen Victoria never fully recovered. John Brown became a good friend and supported the mourning Queen. The Queen gave him gifts and created two medals for him, the Faithful Servant Medal and the Devoted Service Medal. She commissioned a portrait of him. After his death, she had a life-sized statue of him built on the grounds of Balmoral Castle. When he died, she honoured him with this tribute:
- "Friend more than Servant, Loyal, Truthful, Brave
- Self less than Duty, even to the Grave"
Victoria's children and ministers resented the high regard she had for Brown, and, inevitably, stories circulated that there was something improper about their relationship. The Queen's daughters joked that Brown was "Mama's lover", while Edward Stanley, 15th Earl of Derby, wrote in his diary that Brown and Victoria slept in adjoining rooms "contrary to etiquette and even decency".
The diaries of Lewis Harcourt contain a report that one of the Queen's chaplains, Rev. Norman Macleod, made a deathbed confession repenting of his action in presiding over Queen Victoria's marriage to John Brown. Debate continues over what credence to give this report. It should be emphasised that Harcourt did not receive the confession directly (he was nine at the time that Macleod died) but that it passed (if it did) from Macleod's sister to the wife of Henry Ponsonby, the Queen's private secretary, and thence to Harcourt's father Sir William Harcourt, the then Home Secretary. Sir William served as Home Secretary in the final three years of Brown's life. While it is true that some widowed monarchs have contracted private marriages with their servants, there is little evidence that Victoria married Brown.
Perhaps the most compelling evidence of the depth of Victoria and Brown's relationship comes from the pen of the Queen herself. A recently discovered letter written by Victoria shortly after Brown's death, to Viscount Cranbrook, reveals the true extent of the loss:
"Perhaps never in history was there so strong and true an attachment, so warm and loving a friendship between the sovereign and servant ... Strength of character as well as power of frame – the most fearless uprightness, kindness, sense of justice, honesty, independence and unselfishness combined with a tender, warm heart ... made him one of the most remarkable men. The Queen feels that life for the second time is become most trying and sad to bear deprived of all she so needs ... the blow has fallen too heavily not to be very heavily felt..."
The phrase "life for the second time" relates to the death of her husband Prince Albert. The historian who discovered the letter believed that it suggested that Victoria, in her mind, equated Brown's death with Albert's, and that she therefore viewed him as more than a servant. Whether Brown and Victoria were actual lovers, however, is not known.
Those who believe that the Queen saw Brown as little more than a servant point to the fact that after his death she became similarly attached to an Indian servant, Abdul Karim (the Munshi), one of two who had come to work for her in late June 1887. She called him the Munshi, and he came to be resented even more than John Brown had been: unlike Brown, whose loyalty was without question, there was evidence that the mendacious and manipulative Karim exploited his position for personal gain and prestige.
Tony Rennell's book Last Days of Glory: The Death of Queen Victoria reveals that Victoria had entrusted detailed instructions about her burial to her doctor, Sir James Reid (in lieu of Brown himself, who had died in 1883: the Queen's wish had been for him to attend to her). These included a list of the keepsakes and mementoes, photographs and trinkets she wished to be placed into the coffin with her: along with Albert's dressing gown and a plaster cast of his hand, the Queen was buried with a lock of Brown's hair, his photograph, and a ring worn by Brown's mother and given to her by Brown, along with several of his letters. The photograph, wrapped in white tissue paper, was placed in her left hand, with flowers discreetly arranged so as to hide it from view. The ring she wore on the third finger of her right hand.
The statues and private memorials that Victoria had created for Brown were destroyed and discarded at the order of her son, Edward VII, with whom Brown had often clashed and who bitterly resented Brown for his influence on his mother.
- Victoria Devoted Service Medal (gold medal, which bears on the reverse, To John Brown, Esq., in recognition of his presence of mind and devotion at Buckingham Palace, February 29, 1872.)
- Faithful Servant Medal (silver medal, with bar denoting ten additional years of service)
Design and manufacture of both medals were commissioned by Queen Victoria.
- Silver medal (Servant medal?), showing the head of Louis III, Grand Duke of Hesse
In popular culture
The 1997 film Mrs. Brown is the fictionalised story of John Brown. Billy Connolly stars as Brown and Dame Judi Dench as Victoria, with Antony Sher appearing as Benjamin Disraeli. His character, with a wink at Victoria's unspeakable grief over Albert's death, is informed that she would like to say goodbye at his deathbed. To which he replies: "Oh Lord, no. She will only want me to take a message to Albert."
- Scottish Tartans Authority
- Kate Hubbard, Serving Victoria: Life in the Royal Household, p211
- Scotland, Royal Deeside. "John Brown, faithful servant to Queen Victoria". Royal Deeside, Scotland.
- Thornton, Michael. "Victoria's secret? New evidence shows Queen Victoria married her Scottish groom and bore him a secret daughter who was spirited to America". Mail Online.
- Bendor Grosvenor, article "Dear John", History Today (Volume 55, Number 1, 2005)
- Bates, Stephen (16 December 2004). "Letter from Queen Victoria points to affair with Brown". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 6 May 2010.
- Reid, Michaela (1987), Ask Sir James:Sir James Reid, Personal Physician to Queen Victoria and Physician-in-Ordinary to Three Monarchs, London: Hodder & Stoughton
- Lamont-Brown, Raymond (2003). "Queen Victoria's 'secret marriage'". Contemporary Review.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to John Brown (servant).|