John Camden Hotten
Hotten was born John William Hotten in Clerkenwell, London to a family of Cornish origins. His father was William Hotten of Probus, Cornwall, a master carpenter and undertaker; his mother was Maria Cowling of Roche, Cornwall. At the age of fourteen Hotten was apprenticed to the London bookseller John Petheram, where he acquired a taste for rare and unusual books. He spent the period from 1848 to about 1853 in America but by mid-1855 had opened a small bookshop in London at 151a Piccadilly and went on to found the publishing business under his own name which after his death became Chatto & Windus.
Hotten was a member of the Ethnological Society of London, which he joined in 1867. His literary knowledge and intelligence brought him a large circle of acquaintances. He died in Hampstead, 14 June 1873, and was buried in Highgate cemetery. His publishing business was subsequently bought from his widow by Chatto & Windus.
Hotten was a compiler of an English language dictionary of slang, first published in 1859 under the title A dictionary of modern slang, cant, and vulgar words. The book was reissued posthumously in 1874 and reprinted numerous times. Other works bearing his imprint followed, in the composition of nearly all of which he took some part; many he wrote himself. His most laborious and least-known compilation was the Handbook of Topography and Family History of England and Wales (1863).
Hotten contributed weekly articles of literary news to the Literary Gazette during its last year (1862); to George Godwin's short-lived Parthenon (1862–3); and to the London Review (1863–6). He was author of minor biographies of Thackeray (under the name of Theodore Taylor), 1864, and Dickens, 1870, 1873; the History of Signboards (with Jacob Larwood) (1867); Literary Copyright, Seven Letters Addressed to Earl Stanhope (1871); and The Golden Treasury of Thought. A Gathering of Quotations (1874). Hotten also undertook several translations of Erckmann-Chatrian's works, and edited among many other titles, Sarcastic Notices of the Long Parliament (1863), The Little London Directory of 1677 (1863), and The Original List of Persons who went from Great Britain to the American Plantations, 1600–1700 (1874), which remains important for genealogists today, and was reprinted in 1938, 1962, and 2012. A supplemental list edited by James C. Brandow was published in 1982 under the (shortened) title Omitted Chapters from Hotten’s Original Lists…: Census Returns, Parish Registers, and Militia Rolls from the Barbados Census of 1679/80. Hotten's last work was Macaulay the Historian (1873), which was published eight days after his death.
Hotten's perseverance established him among the best-known publishers, and he moved to a larger shop. In 1866, the publisher Edward Moxon issued Algernon Charles Swinburne’s Poems and Ballads, which brought a charge of indecency and forced Moxon to withdraw the work from circulation. Hotten offered himself as the poet’s publisher, and issued the volume in dispute as well as Swinburne’s response to his critics. Cecil Lang claims in his preface to Swinburne's Letters that Hotten had effectively blackmailed Swinburne into providing him with pornographic verse. Hotten subsequently published Swinburne’s Song of Italy (1867) and William Blake: a Critical Essay (1868).
Hotten was also a collector, author and clandestine publisher of erotica such as The Romance of Chastisement, Exhibition of Female Flagellants and the erotic comic opera Lady Bumtickler's Revels, some in a series entitled The Library Illustrative of Social Progress. Rachel Potter and others claim these are not erotic but pornographic,
Hotten was the first publisher to introduce into England the humorous and other works of American writers, including James Russell Lowell’s Biglow Papers (1864); Artemus Ward, his Book (1865); Oliver Wendell Holmes’s Wit and Humour (1867 and 1872); Walt Whitman’s Poems (1868); Charles Godfrey Leland’s Hans Breitmann’s Barty and other Ballads (1869); Bret Harte’s Lothaw and Sensation Novels (1871); Mark Twain’s The Innocents Abroad (1870), Burlesque Autobiography (1871), Eye Openers (ca. 1871), Screamers: a Gathering of Scraps of Humour, Delicious Bits, & Short Stories (1872), and Choice Humorous Works of Mark Twain (1874); and Ambrose Bierce’s Nuggets and Dust: Panned Out in California (1872).
Around 1859, Hotten married Charlotte Stringer, by whom he had three daughters.
- Eliot, Simon (2004). "Hotten, John Camden (1832–1873)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/13859. Retrieved 2013-11-06. (subscription or UK public library membership required)
- The Journal of the Ethnological Society of London. Trübner. 1869. p. xxi. Retrieved 3 April 2013.
- Lee, Sidney, ed. (1891). "Hotten, John Camden". Dictionary of National Biography 27. London: Smith, Elder & Co.
- Hotten, John Camden at GetCited
- Library of Congress Online Catalog at http://catalog.loc.gov/. The full title is The Original List of Persons of Quality, Emigrants, Religious Exiles, Political Rebels, Serving Men Sold for a Term of Years, Apprentices, Children Stolen, Maidens Pressed, and Others, who went from Great Britain to the American Plantations, 1600–1700. With their Ages, the Localities where they Formerly Lived in the Mother Country, the Names of the Ships in which they Embarked, and Other Interesting Particulars. From MSS. Preserved in the State Paper Dept. Of Her Majesty’s Public Record Office, England.
- Library of Congress Online Catalog at http://catalog.loc.gov/
- Prins, Yopie (1999). Victorian Sappho. Princeton University Press. p. 153. ISBN 0-691-05919-5.
- Kendrick, Walter M. (1996). The secret museum: pornography in modern culture. University of California Press. p. 168. ISBN 0-520-20729-7.
- Allison Pease, "Modernism, mass culture, and the aesthetics of obscenity", Cambridge University Press, 2000, ISBN 0-521-78076-4, p.203
- Thomas, Donald Serrell (1969). A long time burning: the history of literary censorship in England. Routledge & Kegan Paul. p. 270.
- Rachel Potter, "Obscene Modernism and the Trade in Salacious Books", Modernism/modernity, Volume 16, Number 1, January 2009, pp.87-104 doi:10.1353/mod.0.0065 
- John Sutherland, "The Stanford Companion to Victorian Fiction", Stanford University Press, 1990, ISBN 0-8047-1842-3, p. 307.
- Simon Eliot, "Hotten: Rotten: Forgotten? An Apologia for a General Publisher", Book History 3 (2000) 61-93 doi:10.1353/bh.2000.0007
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Lee, Sidney, ed. (1891). "Hotten, John Camden". Dictionary of National Biography 27. London: Smith, Elder & Co.
- Oxford DNB entry for John Camden Hotten
- Works by John Camden Hotten at Project Gutenberg
- Works by or about John Camden Hotten at Internet Archive (search optimized for the non-Beta site)
- Slang Dictionary: Etymological, Historical, and Anecdotal By John Camden Hotten. 1874 ed. at Internet Archive