John Campbell, 2nd Duke of Argyll
|The Duke of Argyll|
10 October 1678|
|Died||4 October 1743
|Resting place||Westminster Abbey|
|Other names||Iain Ruaidh nan Cath or Red John of the Battles|
|Wars and battles||Jacobite rebellion 1715, the Nine Years' War and the War of the Spanish Succession|
|Predecessor||Archibald Campbell, 1st Duke of Argyll|
|Successor||Archibald Campbell, 3rd Duke of Argyll|
|Parents||Archibald Campbell and Elizabeth Tollemache|
Field Marshal John Campbell, 2nd Duke of Argyll, 1st Duke of Greenwich KG (10 October 1678 – 4 October 1743), known as Iain Ruaidh nan Cath or Red John of the Battles, was a Scottish nobleman and senior commander in the British Army.
He was born in Petersham, Surrey, England, in his maternal grandmother's residence 'Ham House'. His parents were Archibald Campbell, 1st Duke of Argyll and Elizabeth Tollemache, daughter of Sir Lionel Tollemache, 3rd Baronet.
He was tutored by Walter Campbell of Dunloskin, followed by John Anderson and then Alexander Cunningham. In 1694 his father convinced William III to give John, just 14, the position of colonel in the regiment raised by the Argyll family for the king after his acceptance of the Scottish crown in 1689. He served briefly on the contintent in the Nine Years' War.
After the regiment was disbanded, he went on a European tour from 1699-1700 with his tutor Alexander Cunningam.
He succeeded his father as Duke of Argyll and Chief of Clan Campbell in 1703. In 1705, for his support of the Act of Union, he was created Baron Chatham and Earl of Greenwich. He fought during the War of the Spanish Succession under the British Army's overall commander, the Duke of Marlborough, and he fought at the battles of Ramillies, Oudenarde and Malplaquet.
In 1710 he was made a Knight of the Garter, and in 1711 he was appointed commander-in-chief of British forces in Spain by the Tory ministry of Lord Oxford and Lord Bolingbroke and was Governor of Minorca from 1712 to 1716. By 1713, however, Argyll had become critical of the ministry, and he joined the Whig opposition in making speeches against the government in the House of Lords. In July 1714, during Queen Anne's last illness, the unexpected presence of Argyll and the Duke of Somerset at the Privy Council prevented Bolingbroke from taking full power on the fall of Oxford, and thus perhaps secured the Hanoverian succession.
He married first, Mary Brown, daughter of John Brown and Ursula Duncombe, in 1701. They separated soon after the marriage and she was buried in Westminster Abbey in 1717. He married secondly, Jane Warburton, daughter of Thomas Warburton and Anne Williams and maid of honour to Queen Anne, in 1717. Jane died in 1767 and was buried with him in Westminster Abbey. He had four daughters who reached maturity.
Without a male heir he was succeeded by his brother, Archibald Campbell.
In the 1715 Jacobite Rebellion, Argyll led the government army at the Battle of Sheriffmuir against the Jacobites led by the Earl of Mar. The outcome of the battle was indecisive but favored the government strategically. In 1719 he was rewarded by being created Duke of Greenwich. He was Master General of the Ordnance from 1725 to 1740 and was promoted to Field Marshal in 1736. He is listed as a founding Governor of the Foundling Hospital on that charity's Royal Charter, granted by George II in 1739. In 1742, a year before his death, he was given the position of Commander in Chief of the British Army.
He received the colonelcy of various regiments, including the 1st (His Majesty's Own) Troop ("The Oxford Blues"), the 3rd Regiment of Foot (The Buffs) and 4th (Scots) Troop of the Horse Guards Regiment (now part of the Household Cavalry Regiment),and the 3rd (The Queen's) Dragoon Guards (now part of 1st The Queen's Dragoon Guards). He was also the colonel of the 1st Regiment ("Lorne's Foot"), 2nd Regiment ("Lorne's Foot"), and Argyll's Foot.
He is buried in Westminster Abbey; his grave is marked by a small lozenge stone to the north east of Henry VII's tomb. A large monument was erected for him in the south transept designed by the French sculptor, Louis François Roubiliac; this was unveiled in 1749.
In popular culture
- Duke of Argyll
- Royal family
- John Campbell, 4th Duke of Argyll
- John Campbell, 5th Duke of Argyll
- John Campbell, 9th Duke of Argyll
- Caroline Townshend, 1st Baroness Greenwich, his daughter
- Lady Mary Coke, his daughter
- William Wentworth, 2nd Earl of Strafford (1722-1791), his son-in-law
- Military of the United Kingdom
- History of the United Kingdom
- Biography on John Campbell, 2nd Duke of Argyll
- regiments.org List of British Field Marshals[dead link]