John Campbell, 5th Duke of Argyll

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For other people named John Campbell, see John Campbell (disambiguation).
The Duke of Argyll
John Campbell, 5th Duke of Argyll (1723-1806) by Thomas Gainsborough.jpg
5th Duke of Argyll
Born June 1723
Died 24 May 1806 (aged 82)
Resting place Kilmun Parish Church
Title Duke of Argyll
Other names The Duke of Argyll
Nationality British
Wars and battles Jacobite rising of 1745
Predecessor John Campbell, 4th Duke of Argyll
Successor George Campbell, 6th Duke of Argyll
Spouse(s) Elizabeth Campbell

Field Marshal John Campbell, 5th Duke of Argyll (June 1723 – 24 May 1806), styled Marquess of Lorne from 1761 to 1770, was a Scottish soldier and nobleman. After serving as a junior officer in Flanders during the War of the Austrian Succession, he was given command of a regiment and was redeployed to Scotland where he opposed the Jacobites at Loch Fyne at an early stage of the Jacobite Rebellion and went on to fight against them at the Battle of Falkirk Muir and then at the Battle of Culloden. He later became adjutant-general in Ireland and spent some 20 years as a Member of Parliament before retiring to Inveraray Castle.

Military career[edit]

Born the son of John Campbell, 4th Duke of Argyll and Mary Campbell (née Bellenden, the daughter of John Bellenden, 2nd Lord Bellenden of Broughton), Campbell was educated at a private school in London and commissioned as second lieutenant in the 21st Royal Scots Fusiliers in 1739.[1] He was promoted to captain in 1741 and major in 1743.[1] He became Member of Parliament for Glasgow Burghs in March 1744 but was immediately deployed to Flanders to serve in the War of the Austrian Succession.[2]

Campbell became lieutenant colonel commanding the 30th Regiment of Foot early in 1745 and was redeployed to Scotland where he opposed the Jacobites at Loch Fyne in November 1945 at an early stage of the Jacobite Rebellion.[2] He went on to see action under Lieutenant General Henry Hawley at the Battle of Falkirk Muir where the British cavalry was completely routed in January 1746.[2] He also served under the Duke of Cumberland at the Battle of Culloden where the Jacobites were finally defeated in April 1746.[2]

In 1749 Campbell transferred to the command of the 42nd Regiment of Foot who were serving in Ireland: he went on to became adjutant-general in Ireland in 1754.[1] Promoted to colonel on 10 November 1755, he became colonel of the 54th Regiment of Foot in December 1755 and colonel of the 14th Dragoons in April 1757.[2] He was promoted to major-general on 25 August 1759[3] and to lieutenant general on 19 January 1761.[2] He took the courtesy title of Marquess of Lorne, and stood down from the House of Commons on his disqualification from representing a Scottish seat, when his father became 4th Duke of Argyll on 15 April 1761.[4] He became Deputy Commander-in-Chief, Scotland in 1762 and was elected unopposed as Member of Parliament for Dover, an English seat, in January 1765.[1] He became colonel of the 1st Regiment of Foot later that year.[4]

Campbell stood down from the House of Commons again when, on the formation of the Chatham Ministry, he was created Baron Sundridge in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in November 1766.[4] He was appointed Commander-in-Chief, Scotland in 1767, succeeded his father as 5th Duke of Argyll in November 1770 and was promoted to full general on 24 March 1778.[5] He went on to be colonel of the 3rd Regiment of Footguards in May 1782[6] and, having been appointed Lord Lieutenant of Argyllshire on 6 May 1794,[7] was promoted to field marshal on 30 July 1796.[8]

In retirement Campbell lived at Inveraray Castle and became an expert on agricultural improvement with a seat on the Board of Agriculture.[9] He died on 24 May 1806 and was buried at Kilmun Parish Church.[10]

Family[edit]

The Battle of Culloden at which Campbell commanded a regiment

In 1759 Campbell married Elizabeth, Dowager Duchess of Hamilton.[2] They had five children:

  1. Lady Augusta Campbell
  2. George John Campbell, Earl of Campbell (1763–1764)
  3. George Campbell, 6th Duke of Argyll (1768–1839)
  4. Lady Charlotte Campbell (1775–1861)
  5. John Campbell, 7th Duke of Argyll (1777–1847).

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "Campbell, John, Marquess of Lorne (1723-1806), of Roseneath, Dunbarton". History of Parliament. Retrieved 5 July 2014. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Heathcote, p.74
  3. ^ The London Gazette: no. 9924. p. 2. 21 August 1759. Retrieved 5 July 2014.
  4. ^ a b c Heathcote, p.75
  5. ^ The London Gazette: no. 11859. p. 1. 21 March 1778. Retrieved 5 July 2014.
  6. ^ The London Gazette: no. 12294. p. 4. 7 May 1782. Retrieved 5 July 2014.
  7. ^ The London Gazette: no. 13652. p. 409. 6 May 1794. Retrieved 5 July 2014.
  8. ^ The London Gazette: no. 13918. p. 743. 2 August 1796. Retrieved 5 July 2014.
  9. ^ The London Gazette: no. 13635. p. 266. 25 March 1794. Retrieved 5 July 2014.
  10. ^ "John Campbell, 5th Duke of Argyll". Find-a-grave. Retrieved 5 July 2014. 

Sources[edit]

  • Heathcote, Tony (1999). The British Field Marshals, 1736–1997: A Biographical Dictionary. Barnsley: Leo Cooper. ISBN 0-85052-696-5. 
Parliament of Great Britain
Preceded by
Neil Buchanan
Member of Parliament for Glasgow Burghs
1744–1761
Succeeded by
Lord Frederick Campbell
Preceded by
Sir Joseph Yorke
Edward Simpson
Member of Parliament for Dover
with Sir Joseph Yorke

1765–1766
Succeeded by
Sir Joseph Yorke
John Bindley
Military offices
Preceded by
New regiment
Colonel of the 54th Regiment of Foot
1755–1757
Succeeded by
John Grey
Preceded by
Louis Dejean
Colonel of the 14th Regiment of Dragoons
1757–1765
Succeeded by
Charles FitzRoy
Preceded by
Sir Henry Erskine
Colonel of the 1st (Royal) Regiment of Foot
1765–1782
Succeeded by
Lord Adam Gordon
Preceded by
The Earl of Loudoun
Colonel of the 3rd Regiment of Foot Guards
1782–1806
Succeeded by
The Duke of Gloucester
Honorary titles
New office Lord Lieutenant of Argyllshire
1794–1799
Succeeded by
Marquess of Lorne
Peerage of Scotland
Preceded by
John Campbell
Duke of Argyll
1770–1806
Succeeded by
George Campbell
Peerage of Great Britain
New creation Baron Sundridge
1766–1806
Succeeded by
George Campbell