John Carroll (bishop)
|Archbishop of Baltimore|
|See||Archdiocese of Baltimore|
|In office||November 6, 1789 – December 3, 1815|
|Successor||Leonard Neale †|
|Ordination||February 14, 1761|
|Consecration||August 15, 1790|
|Born||January 8, 1735
Upper Marlboro, Maryland
|Died||December 3, 1815
John Carroll, (January 8, 1735 – December 3, 1815) was the first Roman Catholic bishop and archbishop in the United States, serving as the ordinary of the Archdiocese of Baltimore. He is also known as the founder of Georgetown University, (the oldest Roman Catholic university in the United States), and ofSt. John the Evangelist Parish of Rock Creek, (now Forest Glen), the first secular (diocesan) parish in the country.
- 1 Early life and education
- 2 Jesuit
- 3 Superior of the Missions
- 4 Bishop
- 5 Death
- 6 Early support for a vernacular liturgy
- 7 Attitudes toward slavery
- 8 Legacy
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 Sources
- 12 External links
Early life and education
John Carroll was born to Daniel Carroll I, a native of Ireland, and Eleanor Darnall Carroll, of English descent, at the large plantation which Eleanor Darnall had inherited from her family. He spent his early years at the family home, sited on thousands of acres near Upper Marlboro, the county seat of Prince George's County in Maryland. (Several remnant surrounding acres are now associated with the house museum known as "Darnall's Chance", listed on the National Register of Historic Places and part of the system of the Maryland-National Capital Park and Planning Commission for northern suburban Washington, D.C.).
Older Carroll relatives were instrumental in the development of the colonial Province of Maryland and the establishment of the soon-to-be third largest city in America, the founding of the Chesapeake Bay port town of Baltimore (1729). His older brother Daniel Carroll II, (1730-1796), became one of only five men to sign both the "Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union" (1778) and the Constitution of the United States (1787). His cousin, Charles Carroll of Carrollton, (1737-1832), was also an important member of the Revolutionary Patriot cause, and was the last surviving signer of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and lived long enough to have his life cross over into a new level of the industrial revolution" with the ceremonies of the setting of the "first stone" for the beginning of the construction of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad in 1828.
John Carroll was educated at the College of St. Omer in French Flanders (northern France, bordering southern edge of modern Belgium). (This was established for the education of English Catholics after suffering discrimination following the Protestant Reformation instituted by King Henry VIII in England. During the upheavals following the French Revolution, (1789-1793), the College migrated to Bruges, and then Liège before finally settling at Stonyhurst in England in 1794, where it remains today.) Also attending St. Omer with him was his cousin Charles Carroll of Carrollton, (1737-1832), who was to become the only Catholic signatory of the Declaration of Independence (1776) and the first United States Senator (1789) from Maryland.
Carroll joined the Society of Jesus (the "Jesuits") as a postulant at the age of 18 in 1753. In 1755, he began his studies of philosophy and theology at Liège. After fourteen years he was ordained to the diaconate and later the priesthood in 1769. Carroll remained in Europe until he was almost 40, teaching at St-Omer and Liège, and acting as chaplain to a British aristocrat traveling on the continent. When Pope Pius VI suppressed the Society of Jesus in 1773, Carroll made arrangements to return to Maryland. The brief suppression of the "Jesuits" was a painful experience for Carroll who suspected the Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith of being responsible for this ill-informed decision. As a result of laws discriminating against Catholics, there was then no public Catholic Church in Maryland, so Carroll worked as a missionary in Maryland and Virginia.
Carroll founded St. John the Evangelist Parish at Forest Glen (Silver Spring) in 1774. In 1776, the Continental Congress asked Father Carroll, along with his cousin, delegate Charles Carroll of Carrollton, (1737-1832), fellow Marylander Samuel Chase, (1741-1811), and Benjamin Franklin, (1705/06-1790), to travel north to the valley of the St. Lawrence River at Quebec and attempt to persuade the French Canadians to join the Revolution with the lower "Thirteen Colonies" (who had just 13 years before been forced to surrender New France to the occupying British Army at the end of the Seven Years War (French and Indian Wars). Although the group was unsuccessful, (since the British government had earlier made concessions in regards to the practicing of the Catholic faith and the use of their native language), it made Carroll well known to the government of the new Republic. It is said, that Carroll was excommunicated by the local Quebec bishop, Jean-Olivier Briand, for his political activities. Snubbed by the local clergy on the orders of the Bishop of Quebec, Carroll took an early opportunity to accompany the ailing Franklin back to the colonial capital at Philadelphia.
The Jesuit fathers, led by Carroll and five other priests, began a series of meetings at White Marsh (in eastern Baltimore County) beginning on 27th June 1783; through these General Chapters, they gradually organized the Roman Catholic Church in the United States on what is now the site of Sacred Heart Church in Bowie, Maryland, (Prince George's County).
Superior of the Missions
The Roman Catholic clergy at the time of the new Republic were keenly aware that anti-British sentiment made their canonical allegiance to Bishop Richard Challoner, the vicar-apostolic of the London district, somewhat suspect. As a result, they explored various options, and when Bishop Challoner died in 1781, his successor, James Talbot, refused to exercise jurisdiction in the new nation. But the American clergy, then numbering some two dozen, did not feel the time was right for a bishop in the new nation.
The papal nuncio to France conferred with the American ambassador in Paris, Benjamin Franklin, as to how the issue might be resolved in a way that would be acceptable to the new nation. Franklin responded to the inquiry by stating that the separation of Church and State in the United States did not permit the government to have any official opinion on who should govern American Catholics, but suggested privately that perhaps a French bishop might be given oversight of the small but growing Roman Catholic community in the U.S.
It does not appear that Franklin's suggestion of placing the American Church under the jurisdiction of a French bishop was seriously considered by the Vatican. The nuncio did, however, take into account remarks by Franklin of the high esteem he and others had for John Carroll. Carroll was appointed and confirmed by Pope Pius VI, 9 June 1784, as provisional "Superior of the Missions in the thirteen United States of North America", with faculties to celebrate the sacrament of confirmation. Rome made this decision in part because it wanted to please Benjamin Franklin, who had warmly recommended John Carroll for the position.
Financial Reform and Lay Involvement
Because the U.S. government and state governments did not regulate churches, former British colonists and immigrants that made up the Roman Catholic Church in the new land were of varying ideas on how to structure their local parish communities in this new era. Some set up churches run entirely by laity without Carroll's permission, and in other cases clergy exercised excessive control, with predictable financial crises. Carroll sought to navigate a new way of structuring the Church in a new country, taking into account the need for lay involvement and a reasonable degree of hierarchical control. In 1791, the formal message of congratulations from American Catholics to President George Washington on his election was co-signed by Carroll and lay Catholics.
In his role as the representative of Roman Catholics in the United States, Carroll often penned articles for publications defending the Catholic tradition against demagogues who furthered the popular cause of anti-Catholicism in the United States. He fought notions of state establishment of Protestantism as the official religion, but he always treated non-Catholics with respect, insisting that Catholics and Protestants should work together to build up the new nation. An early advocate of Christian Unity, Carroll put forward the idea that the chief obstacles to unity among Christians in the United States were the lack of clarity on the boundaries of Papal Primacy and the use of Latin in the liturgy.
The American clergy, originally reluctant to request the formation of a diocese due to fears of public misunderstanding and the possibility of a foreign bishop being imposed upon them, eventually recognized the need for a Roman Catholic bishop. The election of Samuel Seabury (1729–1796) in 1783 as the first Anglican bishop in the United States had already shown that Americans would not necessarily be hostile to the appointment of a Protestant bishop. The American clergy had also received the assurances of the Continental Congress that it would not object to election of a bishop whose allegiance was to Rome.
Seeing the need of a bishop, and that an American, Carroll, as Prefect Apostolic in February 1785, urged Cardinal Antonelli, that some method of appointing church authorities be adopted by Rome that would not make it appear as if they were receiving their appointment from a foreign power. A report of the status of Catholics in Maryland was appended to his letter, where he stated that despite there being then only nineteen priests in Maryland, some of the more prominent families were still Catholics in faith, though prone to dancing and novel-reading. The pope was so pleased with Father Carroll's report that he granted his request "that the priests in Maryland be allowed to suggest two or three names from which the Pope would choose their bishop".
The priests of Maryland petitioned Rome for a bishop for the United States. Cardinal Antonelli replied, allowing the priests on the mission to select the city and, for this case only, to name the candidate for presentation to the pope. Carroll was selected Bishop of Baltimore by the clergy of the new nation in April 1789 by a vote of 24 out of 26 and on November 6, 1789 Pope Pius VI in Rome approved the election, naming Carroll the first Roman Catholic bishop in the newly independent United States. He was ordained and consecrated a bishop by Bishop Charles Walmesley on August 15, 1790, (the Feast of the Assumption) in the chapel of Lulworth Castle in Dorset, England, without the oath which the Anglican bishop Seabury had encountered.
He was invested in his office in Maryland upon his return after another trans-Atlantic journey at the parish of St. Thomas Manor, in Charles County, Maryland and on his arrival in Baltimore took his chair in the Church of St. Peter, which would serve as his pro-cathedral. St. Peter's was the first Catholic parish in Baltimore Town in 1770 and was located at the northwestern corner of North Charles Street and West Saratoga Street, with an attached rectory, school and surrounded by a cemetery.
Interestingly, Old St. Peter's was across the street and opposite from the "Mother Church of the Anglican Church in Baltimore", Old St. Paul's Church (Anglican/Episcopal) at the southeast corner of Charles and Saratoga, surrounded by its cemetery overlooking the cliffs of the Jones Falls stream to the east. St. Paul's has had four successive structures at the same site since first moving to Baltimore Town in 1730, the year after it was laid out, from "Patapsco Neck" in southeastern Baltimore County, where it was organized in 1692 as one of the "Original Thirty" Anglican Church parishes designated in the colonial Province of Maryland. An example of Catholic-Anglican neighbors for over seventy years in downtown Baltimore (1770-1841).
Founding of Georgetown University
Among the major educational concerns of Carroll were the education of the faithful, providing proper training for priests and the inclusion of women in higher education (something he had encountered resistance to). As a result, Carroll orchestrated the founding and early development of Georgetown University. Administration of the school was entrusted to the Jesuits. Instruction at the school began on November 22, 1791 under the direction of its first President, Robert Plunkett, with future Congressman William Gaston as its first student.
First Diocesan Synod in the United States
In 1791 Carroll convened the first diocesan synod in the United States. The twenty-two priests (of five nationalities) at the First Synod of Baltimore discussed baptism, confirmation, penance, the celebration of the liturgy, anointing of the sick, mixed marriages and supplemental legislation concerning things such as the rules of fasting and abstinence. The decrees of this synod represent the first local canonical legislation in the new nation. Among the regulations were that parish income should be divided in thirds: one third for the support of the clergy, one third for the maintenance of church facilities, and one third for the support of the poor.
To train priests for his diocese of three million square miles, Bishop Carroll had asked the Fathers of the Company of Saint Sulpice to come to Baltimore, where they arrived in 1791 and started the nucleus of St. Mary's College and Seminary. Carroll gave his approval to the founding of Visitation nuns, who in 1799, under the direction of Leonard Neale, his successor, would begin Visitation Academy in Georgetown. He was not successful, however, in inducing the Carmelites, who had come to Maryland in 1790, to take up the work of education. He took the lead in effecting a restoration of the Society of Jesus in Maryland in 1805, without informing Rome, by an affiliation with the Russian Jesuits, who had been protected from suppression by Catherine the Great. Thaat same year Carroll urged English Dominicans to begin a priory and college in Kentucky for the large number of Maryland Catholics migrating there. In 1809 the Sulpicians who invited Elizabeth Ann Seton to come to Emmitsburg to found a school. Carroll also had to contend with a "medley of clerical characters. One of the most notorious was Simon Felix Gallagher of Charleston, an eloquent alcoholic with a large following.
Construction of the First Cathedral in the United States
In 1806, Carroll oversaw the construction of the first cathedral in the 13 United States, the Cathedral of the Assumption (today called the Basilica of the National Shrine of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary) in Baltimore, Maryland, which was designed by Benjamin Henry Latrobe, architect of the United States Capitol. The cornerstone of the cathedral was laid on July 7, 1806, by Carroll, but he did not live to see its completion.
Elevation to Archbishop
In 1804 Carroll was given administration of the Danish West Indies and other nearby islands that were under no ecclesiastical jurisdiction and in 1805 the Louisiana Territory. In April 1808, Pope Pius VII made Baltimore the first archdiocese in the United States, with suffragan bishops in Boston, New York, Philadelphia, and Bardstown, Kentucky. Three of the four new bishops were ordained by Archbishop Carroll in the fall of 1810, after which followed two weeks of meetings in what was an unofficial provincial council.
Carroll died in Baltimore on December 3, 1815. His remains are interred in the crypt of the Basilica of the National Shrine of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, which can be visited by the public.
Early support for a vernacular liturgy
Carroll was dedicated to the wider readership of Scripture among the Catholics of the United States. He insisted that the readings of the liturgy be read in the vernacular, and was a tireless promoter of "The Carey Bible," an edition of the English-language Douay-Rheims translation that was published in sections. He encouraged clergy and laity to purchase subscriptions so that they could read the Scriptures.
As both superior of the missions and bishop, Carroll instituted a series of broad reforms in the Church, especially regarding the conduct of the clergy. He promoted the use of vernacular languages in the liturgy, but was unable to gain the support for such reform by the church hierarchy. In 1787 he wrote,
"Can there be anything more preposterous than an unknown tongue; and in this country either for want of books or inability to read, the great part of our congregations must be utterly ignorant of the meaning and sense of the public office of the Church. It may have been prudent, for aught I know, to impose a compliance in this matter with the insulting and reproachful demands of the first reformers; but to continue the practice of the Latin liturgy in the present state of things must be owing either to chimerical fears of innovation or to indolence and inattention in the first pastors of the national Churches in not joining to solicit or indeed ordain this necessary alteration."
It would be nearly 200 years until Carroll's wish would be realized in the United States as a result of the Second Vatican Council.
Attitudes toward slavery
Carroll tolerated slavery, and had two black servants - one free and one a slave (the latter of which was released from slavery in his will with a generous inheritance). While calling for the humane treatment and religious education of slaves, he never agitated for the abolition of slavery.
Over the course of his life, Carroll's attitude toward slavery evolved from advocating for humane treatment and religious instruction of slaves to a policy of gradual emancipation (albeit through manumission rather than law). His view was that gradual emancipation of a plantation's slaves allowed for families to be kept together and for elderly slaves to be provided for. He addressed critics of his approach as follows:
"Since the great stir raised in England about Slavery, my Brethren being anxious to suppress censure, which some are always glad to affix to the priesthood, have begun some years ago, and are gradually proceeding to emancipate the old population on their estates. To proceed at once to make it a general measure, would not be either humanity toward the Individuals, nor doing justice to the trust, under which the estates have been transmitted and received."
|Reference style||The Most Reverend|
|Spoken style||Your Excellency|
- John Carroll University, a Jesuit University in University Heights, Ohio
- Archbishop Carroll High School (Radnor, Pennsylvania)
- Archbishop Carroll High School (Washington, DC)
- Carroll High School (Dayton, Ohio)
- John Carroll Catholic High School (Fort Pierce, Florida)
- The John Carroll School, in Bel Air, Maryland.
- John Carroll Society, an organization for Catholic professional laypersons in the service of the archbishop of the Archdiocese of Washington
- Carroll Square, an trophy class office building located at 975 F Street NW in Washington DC. The building is situated on land owned by the Catholic Archdiocese of Washington and is next door to the historic St. Patrick's Catholic Church.
- Bishop John Carroll School, an elementary school in Oklahoma City
- O'Donovan, Louis. "John Carroll." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 3. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1908. 7 Jul. 2013
- Hagerty, James. "Charles Carroll of Carrollton." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 3. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1908. 7 Jul. 2013
- Pilch, John J., "American Catholicism's Bicentennial", The Catholic Review, Archdiocese of Baltimore
- "Cardinal Foley entertains Knight’s dinner, asks for lifting of excommunication" Catholic News Agency, August 5, 2008
- "Archbishop John Carroll", The Baltimore Basilica
- "Sacred Heart Church - The Parish with Colonial Roots - since 1728". Sacred Heart Church. Retrieved 2007-06-14.
- James J. Henesey, S.J.,American Catholics: A History of the Roman Catholic Community in the United States
- The American Catholic quarterly review, Volume 14 Lulworth Chapel, Bishop Carroll and Bishop Walmesley
- "Maryland Historical Trust". St. Thomas Manor, Charles County. Maryland Historical Trust. 2008-06-08.
- "Georgetown's Catholic and Jesuit Identity". Georgetown University. February 15, 2008. Retrieved 2009-03-24.
- "William Gaston and Georgetown". Bicentennial Exhibit. Georgetown University. November 11, 2000. Retrieved 2007-07-03.
- Pastoral Letter of 1792
- "Most Rev. John Carroll", Archdiocese of Baltimore
- Peter Guilday, The Life and Times of John Carroll, Archbishop of Baltimore, 1735-1815
- Richard Shaw, John Dubois founding father: The life and times of the founder of Mount St James, 1983
- Marvin L. Krier Mich, Catholic social teaching and movements, 1986
- About JCU - John Carroll University
- Archbishop Carroll High School, Radnor, Pennsylvania
- Archbishop Carroll High School, Washington, D.C.
- The John Carroll School
- Breidenbach, Michael D. (2013), 'Conciliarism and American Religious Liberty, 1632-1835' (Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Cambridge)
- O'Donovan, Louis (1908), "John Carroll", Catholic Encyclopedia, retrieved March 29, 2007
- Archbishop John Carroll (1790-1815), Basilica of the National Shrine of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, archived from the original on February 2, 2007, retrieved March 29, 2007
- Spalding, Thomas W., CFX (1997), Most Rev. John Carroll, Archdiocese of Baltimore, retrieved March 29, 2007[dead link]
- Hennesey, James, S.J. (1981), American Catholics: A History of the Roman Catholic Community in the United States, New York: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-502946-1
- Eberhardt, Newman C., C.M. (1964), A Survey of American Church History, St. Louis: B. Herder Book Co.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to John Carroll (bishop).|
- Basilica of the National Shrine of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary
- Archdiocese of Baltimore
- Pastoral letter of 1792
- John Carroll University
|Consecrated by:||Charles Walmesley, O.S.B.|
|Bishop||Date of consecration|
|Leonard Neale, S.J.||7 December 1800|
|Michael F. Egan, O.F.M.||28 October 1810|
|Jean-Louis Lefebvre de Cheverus||1 November 1810|
|Benedict J. Flaget, P.S.S.||4 November 1810|
|Catholic Church titles|
|Bishop and Archbishop of Baltimore
June 9, 1784 – December 3, 1815