John Spencer, Viscount Althorp

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The Right Honourable
The Earl Spencer
PC, FRS
John Charles Spencer, Viscount Althorp, 3rd Earl Spencer (1782-1845) by Henry Pierce Bone.jpg
Lord Spencer as Chancellor of the Exchequer by Henry Pierce Bone.
Chancellor of the Exchequer
In office
22 November 1830 – 14 November 1834
Monarch William IV
Prime Minister The Earl Grey

The Viscount Melbourne

Preceded by Henry Goulburn
Succeeded by Sir Robert Peel, Bt
Personal details
Born 30 May 1782 (2014-11-26UTC05:57:40)
St James's, Middlesex, England
Died 1 October 1845(1845-10-01) (aged 63)
Wiseton, Nottinghamshire, England
Nationality British
Political party Whig
Spouse(s) Esther Acklom (1788-1818)
Alma mater Trinity College, Cambridge

John Charles Spencer, 3rd Earl Spencer PC, FRS (30 May 1782 – 1 October 1845), styled Viscount Althorp from 1783 to 1834, was a British statesman. He was notably Chancellor of the Exchequer under Lord Grey and Lord Melbourne from 1830 to 1834.

Early years[edit]

His father George Spencer, 2nd Earl Spencer had served in the ministries of Pitt the Younger, Charles James Fox and Lord Grenville, and was First Lord of the Admiralty (1794–1801). He was married to the eldest daughter of Lord Lucan. Their eldest son, John Charles, was born at Spencer House, London, on 30 May 1782. In 1800, after Harrow, he took up his residence at Trinity College, Cambridge,[1] and for some time applied himself energetically to mathematical studies; but he spent most of his time in hunting and racing. In 1804 he entered parliament as a member for Okehampton in Devon. He vacated his seat in 1806, to contest the University of Cambridge against Lord Henry Petty and Lord Palmerston (when he was hopelessly beaten), but he was elected that same year for St Albans, and appointed a lord of the treasury. At the general election in November 1806, he was elected for Northamptonshire, and he continued to sit for the county until he succeeded to the peerage. For the next few years after this speech Lord Althorp occasionally spoke in debate and always on the side of Liberalism, but from 1813 to 1818 he was only rarely in the House of Commons. His absence was partly due to a feeling that it was hopeless to struggle against the will of the Tory ministry, but more particularly to his marriage on 14 April 1814, to Esther, only daughter of Richard Acklom of Wiseton Hall, Nottinghamshire, who died in childbirth in 1818, to her husband's intense grief.

Leader of the Commons[edit]

In 1819, on his return to political life, he pressed for establishing a more efficient bankruptcy court, and of expediting the recovery of small debts; and he saw both these reforms accomplished before 1825. During the greater part of the reign of George IV the Whigs lost their influence in the state from their want of cohesion, but this defect was soon remedied in 1830 when Lord Althorp was chosen their leader in the lower house, and his capacity for the position was proved by experience. In Lord Grey's government Althorp was both Leader of the House of Commons and Chancellor of the Exchequer. He was instrumental in success of the government measures. Along with Lord John Russell, he led the fight to pass the Reform Bill of 1832, making more than twenty speeches, and is generally considered the architect of its victory.

The Lords[edit]

After the dissolution of 1833 the Whig government had been slowly dying, and was further weakened by Althorp's promotion to the House of Lords following the death of his father in 1834. The new Lord Spencer abandoned the cares of office and returned to country life with unalloyed delight. Henceforth agriculture, not politics, was his principal interest. He was the first president of the Royal Agricultural Society (founded 1838), and a notable cattle-breeder. Often as he was urged by his political friends to come to their assistance, he rarely quit the peaceful pleasures which he loved. He died without issue at Wiseton on 1 October 1845, and was succeeded by his brother Frederick (d. 1857).

Reputation and legacy[edit]

The Whigs required, to carry the Reform Bill, a leader above party spirit: he has been called "the most decent man who ever held high Government office ". Henry Hardinge, 1st Viscount Hardinge said that one of John Wilson Croker's speeches was demolished by the simple statement of Lord Althorp that he "had collected some figures which entirely refuted it, but had lost them."

Spencer Street in Melbourne, Australia, is named in his honour.

Ancestry[edit]

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ "Spencer, John Charles, Viscount Althorp (SPNR800JC)". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Cokayne (1896), p. 203.
  3. ^ Cokayne (1896), p. 202 ; who was a younger brother of Charles Spencer, fifth Earl of Sunderland, who later became third Duke of Marlborough.
  4. ^ Burke, (1931), p. 2202
  5. ^ Burke (1931), p. 2202 ; daughter of the Duke of Marlborough.
  6. ^ Cokayne (1896), p. 202.
  7. ^ Cokayne (1896), p. 202
  8. ^ Cokayne (1892), p. 82 ; son of Rt. Hon. George Carteret, Baron Carteret of Hawnes, Bedfordshire, and his wife Grace Carteret (née Granville), Countess Granville.
  9. ^ Burke and Burke (1844), p. 104
  10. ^ Cokayne (1892), p. 83 ; daughter of Sir Robert Worsley, fourth Baronet, and his wife Frances, daughter of Thomas Thynne, 1st Viscount Weymouth.
  11. ^ Burke (1836), p. 539 ; of London; son of Newdigate Poyntz
  12. ^ Burke (1836), p. 539 ; daughter of Joseph Morteage
  13. ^ Cokayne (1896), p. 203 ; daughter and coheir of her father.
  14. ^ Banks (1837), p. 24 ; daughter of "Lieutenant-Colonel Collyer".
  15. ^ Brydges (1812), p. 329
  16. ^ Cokayne (1893), p. 170
  17. ^ a b Cokayne (1902), p. 399
  18. ^ Cokayne (1893), p. 170 ; coheir of her father.
  19. ^ Cokayne (1893), p. 170 ; of Lucan, county Dublin.
  20. ^ Cokayne (1893), p. 170 ; daughter and heiress of William Sarsfield, elder brother of General Patrick Sarsfield.
  21. ^ Cokayne (1896), p. 203 ; of Canons Leigh, Devon, and of St. Andries/Audries, Somerset ; very often spelt "James Smyth".
  22. ^ a b Does not seem to be named in published material ; see also Weaver and Mayo (1895), p. 182.
  23. ^ Cokayne (1893), p. 170 ; Bartlett (1865), p. 87, transcribes a monument thus: "Margaret Countess of Lucan, widow of Charles Earl of Lucan, and daughter and co-heiress of James Smyth, of St. Audries, in the county of Somerset, Esqr., and of Grace Dyke, of Pixton, in the county of Devon, his wife".
  24. ^ Chadwyck-Healey (1901), p. 317 ; his will granted administration in 1740 ; of Pixton.
  25. ^ Chadwyck-Healey (1901), p. 317 ; her will proved 1737 ; daughter of Richard Blackford, of Dunster, a Master in Chancery, d. c. 1689, and his wife, Elizabeth ; her will mentions Grace Dyke and her husband James Smyth.

Bibliography[edit]

  • T.C. Banks (1837). The Dormant and Extinct Baronage of England, volume 4.
  • W.A. Bartlett (1865). The History and Antiquities of the Parish of Wimbledon, Surrey.
  • E. Brydges (1812). Collin's Peerage of England, volume 3.
  • A.P. Burke (1931). A Heraldic and Genealogical History of the Peerage.
  • J. Burke (1836). A Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Commoners of Great Britain and Ireland, volume 3.
  • C.E.H. Chadwyck-Healey (1901). The History of the Part of West Somerset Comprising the Parishes of Luccombe, Selworthy, Stoke Pero, Porlock, Culbone and Ore.
  • J. Burke and J.B. Burke (1841). A Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Extinct and Dormant Baronetcies of England, Ireland, and Scotland.
  • G.E. Cokayne (1892). Complete Peerage, 1st edition, volume 4.
  • G.E. Cokayne (1893). Complete Peerage, 1st edition, volume 5.
  • G.E. Cokayne (1896). Complete Peerage, 1st edition, volume 7.
  • G.E. Cokayne (1902). Complete Baronetage, volume 2.
  • F.W. Weaver and C.H. Mayo (eds.) (1895). Notes and Queries for Somerset and Dorset, volume 4.
  • Public Domain This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Myers, Ernest (1890) Lord Althorp. 240 p. London: R. Bentley
  • Wasson, Ellis Archer (1987) Whig Rennaisance: Lord Althorp and the Whig Party 1782-1845. 439 p.; London: Garland.

External links[edit]

Parliament of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
Francis Dickins
Member of Parliament for Northamptonshire
1806–1832
Succeeded by
constituency abolished
Preceded by
new constituency
Member of Parliament for South Northamptonshire
1832–1834
Succeeded by
Sir Charles Knightley
Political offices
Preceded by
Henry Goulburn
Chancellor of the Exchequer
1830–1834
Succeeded by
Sir Robert Peel, Bt
Preceded by
Sir Robert Peel
Leader of the House of Commons
1830–1834
Succeeded by
Lord John Russell
Party political offices
First
None recognized before
Whig Leader in the Commons
1830-1834
Succeeded by
Lord John Russell
Peerage of Great Britain
Preceded by
George John Spencer
Earl Spencer
1834–1845
Succeeded by
Frederick Spencer