John D. Hamaker

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John D. Hamaker (1914–1994), was an American mechanical engineer, ecologist, agronomist and science writer in the fields of soil remineralization, rock dusting, mineral cycles, climate cycles and glaciology.

Biography[edit]

Background[edit]

John Hamaker was born in St. Louis, Missouri, United States and graduated from Purdue University in Mechanical Engineering. Concerned for the environment, he became a student of ecology and agriculture and was influenced by books such as Bread From Stones,[1][1][2] which showed plants grow better in soils generated by mimicking natural soil-forming processes that take millennia, such as the advance and retreat of glaciers scouring over the Earth’s crust, or rock weathering of volcanic lava. In the 1960s, Hamaker cultivated a strong interest in soil and climate issues, and began publishing articles about how the health of an individual, society and planetary ecology only thrive as an integrated interdependent whole. For 30 years, he wrote and campaigned for organic agriculture based on soil remineralization, and was the first to call for the remineralization of the Earth to forestall the next glacial period within the current ice age cycle. Hamaker produced a notable book The Survival Of Civilization in 1982, republished in 2002[3] by Remineralize The Earth.[4] [1]

Early developments[edit]

In the 1970s, a series of scientific conferences concluded that the world's climate is cooling.[5] Books such as The Cooling,[6] The Weather Conspiracy,[7] The Weather Machine & The Threat Of Ice,[8] Climates Of Hunger,[9] Ice Ages[10] and Climate: Present, Past & Future,[11] warned of a coming ice age within decades. In 1975, Newsweek ran an article entitled "The Cooling World" that foretold the decimation of agricultural productivity based on a dramatic decrease in the Earth's temperature.[12] and the New York Times published the article "Scientists ask why world is changing; Major cooling may be ahead".[13] In parallel, books such as A Blueprint For Survival,[14] The Limits To Growth,[15] and The Population Bomb,[16] warned of multiple social, economic, ecological and population crises. At the same time, Hamaker continued to generate articles and bulletins[17][18] as well as campaign, on what was by now his main pre-occupation, the remineralization of the world’s soils.

According to his writings, in 1976, Hamaker spread rock dust on part of his 10 acres (40,000 m2) in Michigan. The following year, his corn produced 65 bushels per acre, compared to yields of under 25 from other local farms, and also tested higher in many minerals. He calculated that remineralizing the soil with river, seashore, mountain and glacial rock dust, would enable American agriculture to produce four times as much food or the same amount with a 25% reduction in cost, without the need for pesticides or chemical fertilizers.

The Survival Of Civilization[edit]

In 1982, he produced with Californian ecologist Donald A. Weaver The Survival Of Civilization: Carbon Dioxide, Investment Money, Population – Three Problems Threatening Our Existence, which was re-published by Remineralize The Earth in 2002[19] and in 2006 by SoilandHealth.org. Annotations and supporting evidence were provided by Weaver. The book which initially sold 14,000 copies, concerned the threat of an imminent ice age, remineralizing the world's soils on a local and global scale and reforesting the planet to return atmospheric carbon dioxide to a normal interglacial level near 280 ppm, to help slow the glacial advance.[20]

The treatise was a synthesis of Hamaker's thinking that emerged from his studies and research in several disciplines including soil science and paleoclimatology. His message, dubbed the Hamaker Thesis, was that due to modern agricultural and agro-forestry practices, the soils were running out of minerals, causing the dying and burning of forests worldwide and nutrient deficiencies in food. He offered soil remineralization as a solution, advocating regeneration of soil and forests with rock dusts as an economic and ecologically sustainable alternative to chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Hamaker regarded this as one of the most powerful ideas in human history. The book and its message was well received by soil and nutritional scientists and regarded as a blueprint for restoring the planet's ecological integrity by the worldwide remineralization movement.[21]

Testimonials[edit]

Endorsing the book, Buckminster Fuller, inventor of the geodesic dome, author of the book Critical Path and Professor Emeritus at the University of Pennsylvania, wrote in a publicized letter to Donald Weaver in 1983: "I have received and read John Hamaker’s The Survival of Civilization. Well done. Completely convincing.... I will tell all those inquiring of me about matters relevant to our survival that they had best read Hamaker's book." [22] Reviewing the book, writer Bertram Cohen expressed concern that a global climate shift would make the temperate zone part of the sub-arctic zone and deprive humanity of its food supply.[23] Cohen also pointed out that "Dr Herbert Shelton, both in his books and in Hygienic Review, emphasised the importance of soil remineralization in creating a Hygienic Agriculture." [23]

In support of the book, The Earth Renewal Society presented a statement to a Congressional hearing in Chicago in March 1984.[24]

Discoveries and inventions[edit]

Rock medicine[edit]

Hamaker believed remineralizing the world’s soil with rock dust, a quarrying by-product, could revitalise barren soil and reverse climate change. Rock dust nourished soil micro-organisms whose protoplasm is the basis of all living things. When mixed with compost, the dust created rich, deep soils which could produce high growth vegetation free from pests and predators, at an accelerated rate. The idea was later confirmed by agricultural scientists such as Arden Andersen, who showed how high sugar and mineral levels in soil gave immunity to soil bacteria, stopping insect and fungal attacks.[25] For Hamaker and Andersen, minerals were the primal food for micro-organisms which provided life and health for the soil.

Rock grinders[edit]

Hamaker invented an autogenous rock grinder, designed to grind rock upon rock with minimal wear of metal parts, and a macro version, both for creating rock dust. The full design for the rock grinder was described in The Survival Of Civilization and Donald Weaver's To Love And Regenerate The Earth. On 19 October 1984, China's Research Institute of Forests accepted a copy of Hamaker's rock grinder patent papers, since at the time, China was taking the lead in reforestation programs.[26]

Scientific basis[edit]

Climate cycles[edit]

The Earth’s soil is demineralized during every interglacial period, the short 10,000-year warm period between every 90,000-year glacial period which is within the current Ice Age or Quaternary Period encompassing the Pleistocene and Holocene, or current interglacial. This causes a decline in the world’s forests and other vegetation which are carbon dioxide sinks, and so more carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere.[27] Carbon dioxide levels in Earth’s atmosphere rose throughout the 20th century and continue to do so. Excessive heat from the sun is trapped by CO2 and other greenhouse gases, affecting global climate. Hamaker explained the 100,000-year cycle of major ice ages by postulating that the greenhouse effect takes place mainly in the tropics, which receives the most sun, instead of in polar regions.

Polar expansion[edit]

When temperature differences between the poles and the tropics increase, a cycle of heavy wind, hurricanes, storms and tornadoes occurs.[28][29][30] More evaporated moisture is carried to higher latitudes where it is deposited in ice and snow, the eventual result being glaciation and another ice age.[31] Record snow in the Northern hemisphere and the shortening of the growing season is a prevailing pattern. As glaciers advance and recede during each ice age, they grind down rocks in their path.[32] The mineral-rich dust is distributed over the Earth's surface, by powerful wind and water systems, remineralizing soils and enlivening plant life.

Shorter growing season[edit]

Hamaker believed that within as little as a decade, the growing season would decrease leading to mass starvation in rich and poor nations alike. He therefore proposed the remineralization of the world’s soils and reforesting the land, to propagate carbon sinks, thereby absorbing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, and so contributing to general climatic stability. By assuming the task of remineralizing the Earth’s soils, just like glaciers do during an ice age, remineralization would create fertile soils – the basis for the re-creation of stable ecosystems.

Glacial threat[edit]

Hamaker believed in a distinct and imminent threat of a new glacial period, following a long series of glaciations in the geological and glacial-interglacial cycle timeframe.[33][34] He felt that remineralizing the world’s soils and reforesting the land could generate a climax geosystem (as opposed to a pioneer one), through mass reforestation. This would solve the climate crisis as well as the food crisis, by assisting the planet’s ability to geophysiologically self-regulate, and potentially, postpone the next glaciation indefinitely.

Volcanic El Ninos[edit]

Hamaker also believed that increased tectonic activity occurring with snow and ice buildup, could heat up tropical oceans through sea floor volcanism, and in addition to the intensified greenhouse effect, be a prime cause of the El Nino phenomenon.

Corroborated findings[edit]

In 1983, Nicholas Shackleton and other UK scientists published an article in Nature which stated that the last glacial period began when the CO2 in the atmosphere reached about 290ppm, and that the world was already ahead of that figure at a critical 343-345 ppm. Hamaker explained the significance of Shackleton's findings in Acres USA:[2] "CO2 has its primary importance as the initiator of glaciation. Once an extensive ice field is established, its cooling effect maintains the temperature differential which keeps glaciation going. Variations in the amount of CO2 simply cause variations in the world albedo, but they do not stop or start glaciation. The world is committed to glaciation when the ice fields alone reflect enough sunlight to ensure cooling." [26]

On 3 June 1984, Hamaker appeared on Ted Turner's Atlanta Superstation declaring that increased high-latitude albedo is what initiates glacial advances/retreats. He was citing Sir George Simpson's 1938 analysis on ice ages[35] and later commentary by Richard Somerville and Lorraine Remer of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in their article in the Journal of Geophysical Research: "It's that cloud that you have to worry about because it's reflecting 80% of the sun's energy back into space and it's never becoming effective in warming the Earth. So we're getting cooling as the result of the carbon dioxide buildup." [36] Around this time, Scientific American summarized: "They (Somerville & Remer) suggest the global warming might be lessened by concurrent changes in the properties of clouds... Denser clouds will reflect a larger proportion of incoming solar radiation; the reduction in the energy reaching the surface will counteract the greenhouse effect." [37]

Also in 1984, Robert Beckman produced The Downwave citing the studies of Dr. Raymond Wheeler and its climate-societal implications.[38]

In 2007, climatologist George Kukla, expressed support for the belief in an imminent ice-age.[39]

Remineralization benefits[edit]

Primary benefits[edit]

Further benefits[edit]

Influence[edit]

John D. Hamaker's work inspired a growing movement of people to become involved in remineralization, including permaculturists, organic farmers, biodynamic farmers, gardeners, vegetarians, environmentalists, scientists, climatologists, journalists, religious groups, political groups, community organizations and ordinary citizens.

Remineralize The Earth[edit]

In the 1980s, Hamaker became a catalyst for the formation of Remineralize The Earth (RTE), set up by Joanna Campe, its President and Executive Director who produced the Soil Remineralization Newsletter in the 1980s and Remineralize the Earth magazine in the 1990s, before the non-profit organization's incorporation in 1994.

RTE began promoting the regeneration of soils and forests worldwide with finely ground rock dust as a sustainable alternative to chemical fertilizers and pesticides. As well as recycling and returning organic matter to the soil, the organization asserted that returning all of the mineral nutrients which create fertile soils and healthy crops and forests, was equally important. For RTE, remineralization was essential to restoring ecological balance and stabilizing the climate.

In 1994, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), U.S. Bureau of Mines, National Stone Association and National Aggregates Association co-sponsored a symposium "Soil Remineralization and Sustainable Agriculture" at USDA headquarters in Washington DC.

In 1995, Campe coordinated a two-year research project with the University of Massachusetts Amherst into remineralization.

In Campe's letter to Newsweek Magazine in October 2006, she warned that global warming could trigger an ice age [45] and that soil remineralization and reforestation were the solutions.[46] In the same period, major magazines expressed concern of a coming ice age including The Atlantic Monthly,[47] National Geographic,[48] Discover Magazine,[49] The Spectator[50] and BBC Focus Magazine.[51] Institutes in Northern Europe and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute shared the concern.

Campe was invited by the U.S. State Department to speak at the Washington International Renewable Energy Conference 2008.

In 2009, the Global Coral Reef Alliance invited RTE to produce a chapter for the DVD ROM book The Green Disk: New Technologies for A New World, being distributed to all U.N. delegates at the United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP15) in Copenhagen during December 2009.[52]

RTE's Real Food Campaign, directed by Dan Kittredge, is a project promoting nutrient rich food and creating a new standard for food quality. Award-winning ecological designer, Dr. John Todd, of Ocean Arks International directs RTE's Agroforestry Project in Costa Rica, a project intercropping commercial hardwoods, fruit trees and jatropha, which produces a sustainable biofuel while regenerating the soil.

Sustainable Ecological Earth Regeneration[edit]

Inspired by Hamaker, in the 1990s, Cameron and Moira Thomson set up the charitable trust Sustainable Ecological Earth Regeneration (SEER)[3] in Scotland, to develop the ideas which Hamaker founded.[53]

In Paul Kelbie's article Remineralization Might Save Us From Global Warming,[54] in The Independent, he wrote that since the last ice age, three million years ago, the Earth has gone through 25 glaciations, each lasting about 90,000 years, and that we are now 10,800 years into an interglacial – a hiatus between ice–ages. Previous interglacials averaged 10 to 12,000 years in duration, with the most significant environmental change being interglacial soil demineralization and retrogressive vegetational succession.[55] Since this meant modern soils were relatively barren, leading to the adoption of imbalanced and artificial fertilisers, it was SEER’s belief that by "By spreading the dust, we are doing in minutes what the earth takes thousands of years to do – putting essential minerals in the rocks back into the earth." SEER won funding from the Scottish Executive to conduct the UK’s first official rock dust trials, and maintained that rock dust could fight climate change because calcium and magnesium in the dust converts carbon in the air into carbonates, in addition to enhanced biosequestration by soil organisms and vegetation. The theory captured the attention of NASA who were researching the growing of plants on other planets.[56]

For SEER, as well as producing high yields, and re-balancing the Earth’s ecology and geophysiology, rock dusting also brought nutritional benefits due to the enrichment of crops, and so benefits to human health.[57]

But the SEER centre has been frustrated in their hopes to provide scientific proof of their claims for higher yields and enriched crops, through the use of rock dust. Their 3 year flagship research programme with Glasgow University (2009) found that rock dust made no difference to crop yield or nutrient-content in the test conditions.[58]

Regenerate The Earth[edit]

In 2002, 20 years after Hamaker’s book was published, Donald Weaver produced To Love And Regenerate The Earth, an update on Hamaker's book, which was published by Remineralize The Earth[59] and re-published in 2006 by Soiland Health.org.[60] The new book clarified ideas raised in the original book whilst providing new evidence from the 1990s and 2000s to show the direction of climate and environmental change.

Weaver considered Hamaker a broad synthesist in the fields of ecology and climate, who recognized how the forests and the trees integrated with the whole biological-tectonic-climatic Earth system. For Weaver and Hamaker, a new glacial period, one in a long series of glacial periods, was due in the geological and glacial-interglacial cycle timeframe. Weaver explained that Hamaker was convinced that humanity was rushing into the next glacial period due to carbon dioxide build-up after the normal interglacial soil demineralization and retrogressive vegetational succession, as summarized by Johannes Iversen and Svend Andersen, State Geologists from Denmark in the book The Holocene by Neil Roberts.[61][62][63]

Institute For A Future[edit]

In the mid-1980s, author, and Harvard clinical psychologist, Dr. Larry Ephron, set up the U.S. based Institute For A Future and wrote The End: The Coming Ice Age & How We Can Stop It,[64] which examined the theory and themes raised in Hamaker’s book[65] citing climatologist Reid Bryson, of the University of Wisconsin: "Breakthrought never come from within the establishment."[66]

The book specifically examined man's influence on nature and climate change.[67] Topics covered included astrophysics, climatology, geology, glaciology, microbiology, paleobotany, paleontology, palynology, plate tectonics, soil remineralization, seismology, soil science, solar physics and human survival.

Ephron showed how climatologists such as John Gribbin and Stephen Schneider who recognized the connection between global warming and the buildup of snow and ice, saw ice buildup only as a side effect of continued overall warming, rather than linking CO2 increase, global warming, ice buildup, glaciation and ice ages, together. An exception was Pierre Lehman, a Swiss atmospheric physicist who noted the important link between soil and climate.[68] NASA climatologist James Hansen was also noted as saying "it is not certain whether CO2 warming will cause the ice sheets to shrink or grow. For example, if the ocean warms but the air above the ice sheets remains below freezing, the effect could be increased snowfall, net ice sheet growth."[69]

In the book, Dave Foreman, Founder of Earth First! wrote: "An ice age is coming, and I welcome it as a much needed cleansing. I see no possible solution to our ruination of Earth except for a drastic reduction of the human population." Also quoted is S. W. Matthews, Assistant Editor, National Geographic: "The ice age, which has really not left the planet for two million years, is reasserting itself. The warm time... is over. The next great return of ice has begun." and Paul Gersper, Professor of Soil Science, University of California: "The actions recommended here are urgently needed to avoid global disaster."

A film was made of the book called Stopping The Ice Age[70] in 1988, which Ephron co-produced and directed. Like the book, it carried endorsements from various scientists and universities including Kenneth Watt, Professor of Environmental Studies, University of California: "An astonishing service for humanity" and recording artist, Sting: "Everybody has to see this". Ephron's writing on the ice age threat also appeared in the Toronto Globe and Mail, the Los Angeles Weekly and Acres USA.

New Energy Movement[edit]

In the 1980s, a contemporary of Hamaker, Alden Bryant,[71][72] founded a campaign organization called Earth Regeneration Society [4] with former IBM engineer Fred Wood, Barbara Logan and others, advocating global soil remineralization, reforestation, carbon dioxide reduction and a new energy movement. After attending many international conferences on climate issues, Bryant set up the New Energy Movement organization.[5]

Further proponents[edit]

Several books citing remineralization have been published including The Tree War: How to Save the Earth and Bring Together the Nations,[73] The Enlivened Rock Powders,[74] The Secrets of the Soil[75] Empty Harvest[76] and The Secret Life Of Plants.[77]

In the late 1980s, Peter von Fragstein of the University of Kassel, Germany, began researching remineralization with many different rock types as a slow-release fertilizer and to deter insects.

Hamaker’s research also complemented work by Bill Mollison[78] on permaculture, John Jeavons[79] and Masanobu Fukuoka on sustainable organiculture, Emilia Hazelip on synergistic agriculture and Rudolf Steiner on biodynamic farming. It further brought interest from science writer Philip Callaghan[80] who developed the rock dusting theme in his work on paramagnetism, a field related to radionics, biophotonics, bio-energetics, bio-resonance, Schumann waves, magnetometeorology and subtle energy.[81]

In the 1990s, the Men of the Trees organization in Australia conducted remineralization trials on many species of trees in Australia with significant results, such as five times the growth of tree seedlings of one variety of eucalyptus, compared to the untreated controls.

Barry Lynes wrote Climate Crime in 1985 chronicling the case for global cooling,[82] and Robert Felix, author of Not by Fire But By Ice echoed concerns about re-glaciation, expressed by Hamaker and Bryant, which he documented at Ice Age Now.[83] [6]

In the 2000s, NCAR scientist Dr. Lee Klinger [7] began to investigate the relationship between rock dust and plant growth to save dying trees,[84][85][86] and NASA began to experiment with lunar soil, plant growth and hydrophonics.[87]

In 2001, Alanna Moore wrote the book Stone Age Farming: Eco-Agriculture for the 21st Century[88] which combined remineralization with permaculture for a new eco-agricultural paradigm.

In 2005, Allan Yeomans[89] documented in Priority One, the potential to bring atmospheric carbon to pre-industrial levels within 5 years, through remineralization of the world's agricultural lands. For Yeoman, as well as reducing global CO2 levels to safe levels, it would revitalize the soil and biological life on the planet, and increase human nutrition and health levels.

In 2006, British author, Graham Harvey,[90] produced the book We Want Real Food which documented the results of remineralization, in terms of soil health and nutritional values in food, and documented major declines in the mineral content of crops.

Rocks for Crops[edit]

In 2007, the research organization Rocks for Crops[91] [8] was initiated by soil scientist, Jairo Restrepo Rivera of the University of Pelotas, Río Grande del Sur (Brazil), who translated Bread From Stones into Spanish and gave conferences on remineralization in Colombia, Brazil and Mexico; Peter Von Straaten from the University of Guelph (Canada); and Suzi Teodoro from the University of Brasilia (Brazil).

The group confirmed that a branch of geology called agrogeology, originating at the University of Guelph, was evolving, since Von Straaten published the book Agrogeology: The Use of Rocks for Crops and Rivera produced the book and video, Manual Práctico ABC de la Agricultura Orgánica y Harina de Rocas,[92] which described how to regenerate overcultivated soils with rock dust. The science was developing in Germany, Canada and USA, and being researched in Brazil, Tanzania and the Canary Islands. Other university researchers included professors William Fyfe and Ward Chesworth.

The science of agrogeology is the study of natural geological materials suitable for restoring soils as an alternative to chemical fertilizers, particularly for worn out tropical soils. Due to intense tropical rainfall, chemical fertilizers are washed away from laterite soils within weeks, and cannot be stored by the soils, are thus especially harmful to the groundwater. Rock fertilizers supply nutrients over longer periods to cultivated plants. When the rocks break down, new minerals are made available to the soil micro-organisms and whole soil-food web. From the soil chemist's perspective, the process improves the ion-exchange capacity of soils while forming new clay minerals.[93]

In November 2009, a Rocks for Crops conference was held in Brasilia with 170 participants to discuss the new science. Further conferences were held in Rio de Janeiro and in Mexico, in December 2009 for the study and promotion of remineralization worldwide.[94]

Legacy[edit]

Hamaker conducted the groundwork for a mass movement of people concerned about the health of the world’s soils, sustainable forests, climate change and improved nutrition from food. His proposal, rock dusting, known to enhance plant growth by nourishing biological and chemical aspects of the rhizosphere, resulted in soil regeneration to boost global plant cover. This assisted Earth's self-regulation and offered a more natural geoengineering solution to the climate crisis not dependent on high technology, or on-going climate manipulation by man.[95] Some scientists have postulated that technological solutions may exist to assist the remineralization process, such as converting carbon dioxide into organic carbon to be mineralized as sediment before being weathered to soil.

Writings[edit]

Hamaker’s main book was The Survival Of Civilization (1983, 2002).[96] He also produced various articles and publications from the 1960s to the 1990s. His ideas were further elucidated by Donald A. Weaver in his book To Love & Regenerate The Earth (2002),[97] and in articles for publications including Living Nutrition magazine,[98][99][100][101][102] resulting in the publication of the e-book "Regenerate the Earth!: Nature's Call to Remineralize Our Soil, Re-Green Our Land, Rescue Our Climate and Restore Our Health" by Vibrance!,[103] in 2001. Weaver remains involved in education campaigns to alert humanity to the climate crisis and foundational rock dust solution.

Criticisms[edit]

Energy[edit]

Hamaker’s hypothesis is criticised because fossil fuel energy is potentially required to create and distribute rock dust, and this generates CO2 when derived from fossil fuel, however, rock dust is predominantly a byproduct of the existing aggregate and quarrying industries [104] Future rock dust production for broad-scale soil remineralization can be powered by renewable sources, such as wind enegy and bio-fuels grown on remineralized soils.

Climate control[edit]

Since land is naturally fertilized in glacial periods, remineralizing the Earth would emulate the glaciation process, allowing the reversal of what Hamaker and Weaver referred to as the interglacial soil demineralization and retrogressive vegetational succession (decline in the vegetative index).[105] They reasoned that this would indefinitely sustain the interglacial ecosystem and climate, or at least slow down the speed of re-glaciation. However, scientists such as Mukul Sharmar,[106] Charles A. Perry,[107] Yuk Yung, Nigel Calder,[108] Henrik Svensmark,[109] Eigil Friis-Christensen, Knud Lassen[110] and Alexander Chizhevsky[111] who have cited variations in the sunspot cycle as the dominant mechanism in climate cycles on Earth, not vegetation,[112][113][114] have yet to incorporate the demineralization dimension.

More than a mini ice age in 2013-2041, and, major ice age in 2500, as projected by Khabibullo Abdusamatov and studied by NASA,[115][116][117][118] Hamaker's immediate concern was the shortening of the growing season from the coming glacial period, which he believed could be forestalled through rock dusting, resulting in more abundant yields at harvest. He believed the coming glacial period would preceded by an interglacial-to-glacial transition phase already underway since the 1970s, and strongly advocated an intensive global co-operative soil remineralization effort to maintain the quantity of food while improving its quality. To achieve this, he recommended simultaneous remineralization of dying forests and soils, also needed to grow bio-fuels, as part of a goal to return excessive carbon dioxide to stable interglacial levels of 280 ppm.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Bread From Stones: A New and Rational System of Land Fertilization and Physical Regeneration, republished by Acres USA, Austin, Texas – Julius Hensel
  2. ^ Julius Hensel by John Mann
  3. ^ "Hamaker's book, The Survival of Civilization, published in 1982, declares that only a worldwide remineralization of the soil can stop a plunge into the worst catastrophe of recorded history. He wrote that we must stop fossil fuel use on a crash basis, grind rocks to put the minerals back into the soil to save our forests and crops, and manage the greatest social transition ever attempted. Otherwise we die.", The Big Climate Shift Coverup Revisited, Acres, U.S.A., Volume 16, page 28, published by Acres U.S.A., Kansas City, Missouri, 1989, digitized by Cornell University, Dec 16, 2008
  4. ^ The Survival Of Civilization by John D Hamaker, Remineralize The Earth, 2002
  5. ^ Implications of the Climatic Controversy for Global Society, Irving Kaplan, November 1980, "In 1972, a sizable group of climatologists meeting at Brown University issued letters to the governments of the world in which they warned of a global climatic disaster. Again in 1974, the International Federation of Institutes of Advanced Study issued a similarly grave message to the community of governments from a meeting in Bonn. In 1976, a meeting of 85 climatologists chaired by the late Nobel Laureate Willard Libby and pioneer climatologist Cesare Emiliani put forth another warning which it had written in 1974 and which provided the same message in greater detail. The consensus of the 1979 World Climate Conference was reported by Nature as stating that the world had entered a 10,000 year cooling, that the warming theory was complex and questionable and that the loss of life and economic substance to the climate would increase."
  6. ^ The Cooling, Lowe Ponte, 1976, "The cooling has already killed thousands of people in poor nations. If it continues and no strong measures are taken to deal with it, the cooling will cause world famine, world chaos, and probably world war, and this could all come about by the year 2000."
  7. ^ The Weather Conspiracy, Peter Kilroy, Alastair Clark and The Climate Impact Team, Heron Publishing/Ballantine Books (1977). ISBN 0-345-27209-9.
  8. ^ The Weather Machine & The Threat Of Ice, Nigel Calder, BBC Publications, 1974, "Going by past form, the warm periods between ice ages last about 10,000 years and ours has lasted 10,000 years. One might therefore argue that there is a virtual certainty of the next ice age starting some time in the next two thousand years. Then the odds are only about 20 to 1 against it beginning in the next 100 years."
  9. ^ Climates Of Hunger, Reid Bryson & Thomas Murray, University of Wisconsin Press, 1979
  10. ^ Ice Ages, Imbrie and Imbrie, 1979, Enslow Publishers
  11. ^ Climate: Present, Past & Future, H. H. Lamb, Routledge 1977
  12. ^ Newsweek, The Cooling World, 28 April 1975
  13. ^ http://www.wmconnolley.org.uk/sci/iceage/ny-times-1975-05-21.pdf
  14. ^ A Blueprint For Survival, Edward Goldsmith, Penguin Books, 1972
  15. ^ The Limits To Growth, Donella Meadows, Club Of Rome, 1972
  16. ^ The Population Bomb, Paul Ehrlich, Ballantine Books, 1976
  17. ^ Factors That May Be Bringing On The Next Ice Age and How We Can Stop It, John Hamaker, Hamaker Weaver Publishers
  18. ^ Solar Age Or Ice Age? Bulletin, John Hamaker, Hamaker-Weaver Publishers
  19. ^ http://www.remineralize.org/don/synopsis01.html The Survival Of Civilization: Carbon Dioxide, Investment Money, Population – Three Problems Threatening Our Existence; Soil, Tectonics, Climate & Economic Systems Explained-Problems and Solutions, John Hamaker & Donald Weaver, Hamaker Weaver Publishers, 1982 / Remineralize The Earth, 2002
  20. ^ "worldwide destruction of forests at 30 hectares per minute, plus acid rain and pollution, depleted minerals in soils – also causing trees and forests to die and burn, causing the rise of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere normally balanced by forests, causing extremes in climate, cold, heat, drought, floods, storms, wind and an imminent new ice age, causing crop failure, food shortages, global famine and starvation, - is the end of civilization." The Survival Of Civilization, John Hamaker, Hamaker-Weaver Publishers, 1982
  21. ^ "The book contained a carbon dioxide curve based on the Mauna Loa recorded concentration of carbon dioxide between 1957 and 1976, plus an anticipated extension of the curve based on soil demineralization and anticipated forest decline and burning. This curve demonstrates that more than 345 part per million of CO2 will produce a glacial period if nothing is done to reduce the carbon dioxide. The destruction of our forests must be offset and a sufficient soil forest-energy program must be carried out to stop and reverse the CO2 increase." The Big Climate Shift Coverup Revisited, Tree War Assembly (Massachusetts), in Acres USA, eco-agriculture newspaper, 1990s
  22. ^ To Love & Regenerate The Earth (book), Don Weaver, 2002, remineralize.org
  23. ^ a b Bertram Cohen, Health Science Journal, American Natural Hygiene Society, Tampa, Florida, July 1986
  24. ^ (Palynologist) Geneviève Woillard has shown that the transition period to an Ice Age occurs in a 75 to 150 period with an intense 20 year changeover period at the end. John Hamaker states that we are 10 years into this changeover period. His criteria are the increase of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere: the annual rate of increase doubled from 1975 to 1985 and will double again from 1985 to 1995. Other criteria: the increase of volcanic activity and of earthquakes, the shortening of the growing seasons, the increase of soil erosion - doubling in the United States from 1975 to 1981 - the increased flooding in spring, the increase of drought in the tropical areas and the drought in the temperate zones in summer, the increasing severity of winters, the increase of snow and ice masses in the polar regions, the advances of glaciers in localized areas such as China and the increase of forest fires." The Big Climate Shift Coverup Revisited, Acres USA, 1990s, page 28
  25. ^ Anatomy Of Life and Energy in Agriculture, Arden Andersen, Paperback. ISBN 0-911311-19-X. Publisher: Acres USA.
  26. ^ a b The Big Climate Shift Coverup Revisited, by Tree War Assembly (Massachusetts), in Acres USA, 1990s
  27. ^ Stone Age Science: Rejuvenating The Earth With Rock Dust, Dylan Keating, Permaculture, Spring 2007, "As we reach the end of the interglacial period, the minerals have mainly left the soil.... as these minerals leave the soil, plant life decreases and carbon is released. The increased carbon acts as a signal to the planet that minerals are needed. The Earth then goes through a glacial period to replace those nutrients."
  28. ^ The Next Ice Age, Larry Ephron, in The Futurist; September 01, 1989, "The hot tropical air rises faster, and cold polar air rushes in to replace it. The result is higher winds, including more and bigger hurricanes and tornadoes. These greenhouse winds often carry much moisture with them, evaporated from the overheated tropical oceans. Carried in clouds to the higher latitudes, this moisture falls as increasing rain during the spring and fall and as increasing snow during the winter. Thus, winters get longer and colder, and there are more devastating floods in the spring."
  29. ^ The Next Ice Age Is on Its Way, Philip V. Brennan, Newsmax.com, Wednesday, Oct. 12, 2005 "The CO2 becomes moisture and falls as rain in the summer, autumn and spring, and snow in winter."
  30. ^ How Global Warming May Cause The Next Ice Age, Thom Hartmann, adapted from chapter in The Last Hours of Ancient Sunlight, Three Rivers Press
  31. ^ "the global climate system seems to be more stable when the Earth has a huge volume of water locked in ice sheets in polar regions than under the present condition with ice sheets existing only on Antarctica and Greenland. It is therefore possible that the present global warming may act as the trigger of the next glaciation. If the interglacial is indeed a brief unstable period for Earth, then we should be very careful not to risk triggering the shift to the next glacial period through anthropogenic activities.", Isamu Kayane in Interactions between the Biospheric Aspects of the Hydrological Cycle and Land Use/Cover Change, Global Change Newsletter, 25: 8-9, March 1996, quoted in Global Warming Triggers New Ice Age, Living Nutrition, Volume 4, 1997
  32. ^ Remineralization by Jeff Johnston, Natural Life Magazine, 1997 "These glaciers ground rock into powders as fine as flour and distributed them over wide areas."
  33. ^ Climatic Cycles (Hamaker), Australia: Nexus Magazine, 1990s, vol. 1, no. 4
  34. ^ Climate: The Key to Understanding Business Cycles, Raymond H. Wheeler, Tide Press (1983)
  35. ^ Simpson, Sir George, Ice Ages, Nature 141: 591, 1938, reprinted in the Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution 1938, 289-302.
  36. ^ The Big Climate Shift Coverup Revisited, by Tree War Assembly (Massachusetts), in Acres USA (newspaper), 1990s
  37. ^ Scientific American article quoted in The Big Climate Shift Coverup Revisited, by Tree War Assembly (Massachusetts), in Acres USA, 1990s
  38. ^ The Downwave, Robert Beckman, 1984, "Dr Raymond Wheeler of the University of Kansas invested 20 years and a staff of over 200 to compile detailed charts covering 3,000 years of world weather, correlated with the exact dates of significant events in recorded history. According to Wheeler, the world should now be preparing for long shortages in water supplies and for shorter, not longer, growing seasons. Colder weather and longer droughts will bring a scarcity of food for the prosperous nations, famine and staration for the less economically stable."
  39. ^ An Unrepentant Prognosticator, Climatologist George Kukla still believes an ice age is likely, Mari Krueger, Gelf Magazine, April 24, 2007
  40. ^ Minerals’ Role in Detoxification and Body Building by Griselda Blazey, Ph.D., Living Nutrition Magazine, Volume 4
  41. ^ Organic Matters Growing Food Organically – Remineralization by Jeff Johnston
  42. ^ Loss of Soil Organic Matter and Its Restoration, William A. Albrecht, Professor of Soils, University of Missouri, SoilandHealth.org
  43. ^ Co-utilisation of mineral fines and composts
  44. ^ Why Remineralize?, Benefits of Remineralization, Remineralize The Earth
  45. ^ “we are still concerned that global warming could trigger an ice age. Remineralize the Earth advocates the remineralization of soils worldwide with finely ground rock dust as an alternative to chemical fertlilizers and pesticides and as a way to sequester carbon and stabilize the climate, whether it is ultimately warming or cooling.” Newsweek, October 2006
  46. ^ "Global warming is now accelerating so quickly and so alarmingly, that if the Arctic were to totally melt, it would possibly take us out of the glacial to interglacial cycle altogether. Otherwise, warming leading to cooling is still a possibility. Remineralization of soils is not only key to stabilizing the climate, but in this era of great concern about peak oil, could create an economics of abundance rather than scarcity (fertilizing soils with petrochemicals). Millions of tons of mineral fines are stored as a by-product of the aggregate industry and could be the basis for a new sustainable agriculture and forestry." Newsweek, October 2006
  47. ^ The Great Climate Flip-Flop, William Calvin, Atlantic Monthly, January 1998.
  48. ^ Sea Study Warns Mini Ice Age May Be Coming Soon, James Owen, National Geographic News, November 2005.
  49. ^ Discover, "Global Warming Surprise: A New Ice Age", "Oceanographers have discovered a huge river of freshwater in the Atlantic formed by melting polar ice. They warn it could soon bury the Gulf Stream, plunging North America and Europe into frigid winters."
  50. ^ Preparing For The Big Chill, Andrew Kenny, The Spectator, 22 June 2002
  51. ^ BBC Focus Magazine, Snowball Earth edition
  52. ^ The Potential of Remineralization with Rock Mineral Fines to Transform Agriculture, Forestry, Sustainable Biofuels Production, Sequester Carbon and Stabilize the Climate, Joanna Campe, Dan Kittredge and Lee Klinger, appearing in The Green Disk: New Technologies for a New World (Gibby Media Group Inc, 2009), "Soil Remineralization (SR) creates fertile soils by returning the minerals to the soil much the same way the Earth does: by weathering of minerals from rocks.", "SR is an essential tool for sustainable development, economic empowerment, and social justice by creating a local nutrient dense food supply for all, improved health and generating livelihoods within local communities and it can play a critical role in overcoming hunger and poverty, ecological restoration, carbon sequestration and climate stabilization." http://docs.google.com/Doc?docid=0AWwNnu6EDTeLZGM2OTJmOWdfMTgwa3c0OTgzZmc&hl=en&invite=CJ6G99QG
  53. ^ Stone Age Science: Rejuvenating The Earth With Rock Dust, Dylan Keating, Permaculture Magazine, Spring 2007
  54. ^ Remineralization Might Save Us From Global Warming, The Independent, Paul Kelbie, 21st March 2005
  55. ^ Global Warming Triggers New Ice Age, Don Weaver, Living Nutrition Volume 4, 1997 "We must learn from the paleo-ecological and paleo-climatological evidence of past interglacial periods and their alternation with approximately 90,000 years average glacial periods within our current ice age."
  56. ^ Lunar Base Agriculture: Soils For Plant Growth – D. Ming & D. Henninger, American Society of Agronomy (1989), ISBN 0-89118-100-8.
  57. ^ On a Fad Diet of Rock Dust, How the Garden Does Grow Henry Homeyer, June 24, 2004, New York Times.
  58. ^ The use of rock dust and composted materials as soil fertility amendments, Nicola Campbell (2009) Glasgow University
  59. ^ To Love & Regenerate The Earth, Don Weaver, Remineralize The Earth, 2002, http://www.remineralize.org
  60. ^ To Love & Regenerate The Earth, Don Weaver, SoilandHealth.org, 2006, http://www.soilandhealth.org/01aglibrary/010147tlarte.pdf
  61. ^ Andersen, Svend, 1966, The Palaeobotanist 15:117; Andersen, Svend, 1969
  62. ^ Interglacial vegetation and soil development, Medd. Dansk Geol. Foren, Kovenhavn, Bind 19.
  63. ^ Retrogressive development of a forest ecosystem demonstrated by pollen, Iversen, J., 1969, Oikos Supplement, 12, 35-49, Copenhagen
  64. ^ The End: The Coming Ice Age & How We Can Stop It – Larry Ephron Ph.D., California: Celestial Arts, 1988, ISBN 0-89087-507-3
  65. ^ "Given Hamaker's position as an outsider who doesn't publish in the right journals, his work was almost bound to be dismissed. It would not be easy for the scientific establishment to admit that an outsider might have solved the ice age problem." The End, Larry Ephron, California: Celestial Arts, 1988, chapter The Political Climate
  66. ^ The End by Larry Ephron, Celestial Arts, California, 1988, ISBN 0-89087-507-3
  67. ^ "Record cold winters again and again; increasing floods, hurricanes and tornadoes; dying forests; massive fossil fuel burning; and the clearcutting of the tropical rainforests. All these may be related. The next ice age may be virtually upon us – a natural 100,000 year cycle which we are accelerating in many ways. If we act very quickly, we may be able to stop the ice ages. If not, we may stop eating." The End by Larry Ephron, Celestial Arts, California, 1988, ISBN 0-89087-507-3
  68. ^ "Hamaker has at least made an attempt to put the climatic issue on a broader basis not very different from the Gaia approach of Jim Lovelock. Climate, biosphere and tectonic systems form an indissociable whole and condition each other. The biosphere and the atmosphere are interlocked in a permanent exchange of matter (carbon in particular) and energy which makes it impossible for the one not to be influenced by the other. So the soil fertility is a contributor to the climate." The Political Climate, in The End, Larry Ephron, Celestial Arts, 1988
  69. ^ The Political Climate, in The End, Larry Ephron, Celestial Arts, 1988
  70. ^ Stopping The Coming Ice Age, 1988, Institute For A Future, Director: Larry Ephron
  71. ^ Broken Planet, Broken Dreams, Alden Bryant, Earth Regeneration Society
  72. ^ Whose World to Lose?, Alden Bryant, Earth Regeneration Society, 1992
  73. ^ The Tree War: How to save the earth and bring together the nations, Barry Lynes, Mass: Springfield, 1983
  74. ^ The Enlivened Powders, Harvey Lisle, Acres USA, 1994
  75. ^ ,The Secrets of the Soil: New Solutions for Restoring Our Planet, Peter Tompkins and Christopher Bird (Arkana, 1992), ISBN 0-14-019311-1
  76. ^ Empty Harvest: understanding the link Between Our Food, Our Immunity, and Our Planet, Dr. Bernard Jensen & Mark Anderson, 1989
  77. ^ The Secret Life of Plants, Peter Tompkins and Christopher Bird, HarperPerennial 1989, ISBN 0-06-091587-0.
  78. ^ Permaculture: A Designers' Manual: A Designer's Manual by Bill Mollison and Andrew Jeeves, Tagari Publications, 1998
  79. ^ How to Grow More Vegetables: And Fruits, Nuts, Berries, Grains, and Other Crops Than You Can Imagine, John Jeavons, Ten Speed Press; 7th Revised edition (30 Nov 2006), ISBN 1-58008-796-5
  80. ^ Paramagnetism: Rediscovering Nature's Secret Force of Growth, Philip Callahan, Halcyon House Publishers; 1998
  81. ^ Rock Dusts in Agriculture: Insights on Remineralization and Paramagnetism by Steve Diver
  82. ^ Climate Crime, Barry Lynes, Tree War Assembly, 1985
  83. ^ The Ice Is Coming, Kort Patterson, 1999
  84. ^ Minerals for Ageing Soils - Lee Klinger at Remineralize.org
  85. ^ Klinger uses remineralization to restore dying trees at Remineralize.org
  86. ^ suddenoaklife.org
  87. ^ Lunar Plant Growth Challenge, NASA
  88. ^ Stone Age Farming: Eco Agriculture For the 21st Century, Alanna Moore, Python Press, Australia (1 Jul 2001)
  89. ^ Priority One: Together We Can Beat Global Warming, Allan J. Yeomans, Biosphere Media, 2007, 700 pages, ISBN 0-9794799-3-2
  90. ^ We Want Real Food by Graham Harvey, Constable, 2006, ISBN 1-84529-267-7
  91. ^ Agrogeology: The Use of Rocks for Crops, Peter Von Straaten, Enviroquest Ltd 2007, ISBN 0-9680123-5-3
  92. ^ Manual Práctico ABC de la Agricultura Orgánica y Harina de Rocas, Jairo Restrepo Rivera, Ventas Publicaciones/COAS, Mexico
  93. ^ "The total ionic charge that can be held in a soil. The number of positively or negatively charged sites in a soil body.", Cation Exchange Capacity, http://www.tereco.sr.unh.edu/definitions.html
  94. ^ First International Conference on Rock Dust and Soil Health, University of Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico, December 2009
  95. ^ The Royal Society’s Report on Geoengineering the Climate: Geoengineering or Geopiracy?, Sep 4 2009, ETC Group, Canada, etcgroup.org
  96. ^ The Survival Of Civilization, John Hamaker, Hamaker-Weaver Publishers, 1983, Remineralize The Earth 2002
  97. ^ To Love & Regenerate The Earth, Donald Weaver, Remineralize The Earth, 2002, republished by Soil and Health 2006
  98. ^ Whole Life Systems Depend On Healthy Soil, Don Weaver, Living Nutrition Magazine.
  99. ^ Mother Earth's Call To Humanity: Help Me Regenerate Now, Living Nutrition Magazine, November 2005.
  100. ^ Global Warming Triggers Ice Age, Remineralization Connection, Don Weaver, Living Nutrition Magazine, 1997
  101. ^ What Should We Do About Climate Change?, Don Weaver, Living Nutrition Magazine, December 1996
  102. ^ Restoring Our Earth To Vibrant Health, Don Weaver, Vibrance, Number 1, Spring 2008
  103. ^ http://www.vibranthealthandwealth.com/vibrance
  104. ^ Soil remineralization: a future market for aggregate industry fines, Robert J. Able, June 1995, Pit & Quarry
  105. ^ The Survival of Civilization, John Hamaker, Hamaker Weaver Publishers, 198
  106. ^ 100,000-year Climate Pattern Linked To Sun's Magnetic Cycles, Professor Mukul Sharma, Dept. Earth Sciences, Dartmouth College, 2002, http://www.dartmouth.edu/~news/releases/2002/june/060602.html
  107. ^ Klima Macht Geschichte, Kenneth Hsu, Orell Fussli, 2000
  108. ^ The Chilling Stars: A New Theory of Climate Change, Nigel Calder, Icon Books, 2nd edition, 2000s
  109. ^ The Cloud Mystery, 52 minutes, Language: English, TV2/Denmark, Denmark, 2008, Lars Oxfeldt Mortensen (Director).
  110. ^ Correlation Of Global Temperature To Sunspot Cycles. Swvensmark, Friis-Christensen and Lassen (Science 254, 698).
  111. ^ Solar Activity & The Biosphere: Heliobiology. From A.L. Chizhevsky To The Present by Boris M. Vladimirsky, N.A. Temuryants/Temurjants. Foreword & Editor: Prof. L. Blyumenfeld, Russian Academy of Natural Sciences. 1999. 30 pages, 93 figures, 24 tables, and Bibliography with 500 items. Distributed by: International Independent Ecological & Politological University, Zdanie MEI Moscow Power Generation Institute Building, Moscow, Russia.
  112. ^ The Deniers: The World Renowned Scientists Who Stood Up Against Global Warming Hysteria, Political Persecution, and Fraud – and Those Who are Too Fearful to Do So by Lawrence Solomon, Richard Vigilante Books, 2008, ISBN 0-9800763-1-5
  113. ^ Link Between Solar Cycle & Earth's Climate, Nexus, Volume 4, Number 4, June 1999; Science, April 1999.
  114. ^ Sun and Earth: A New View of Climate – Jack Sauers, 21st Century Science & Technology Magazine, Winter 1997
  115. ^ Long Range Solar Forecast, Solar Cycle 25 peaking around 2022 could be one of the weakest in centuries. NASA, 2006
  116. ^ Solar Storm Warning, NASA, 2006
  117. ^ Scientists Issue Unprecedented Forecast of Next Sunspot Cycle, UCAR, 2006
  118. ^ The sun moves climate change, Canada National Post, Lawrence Solomon, January 5, 2007

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