|John Connell Freeborn|
Squadron Leader John Freeborn, c. 1944
|Birth name||John Connell Freeborn|
1 December 1919|
|Died||28 August 2010
|Service/branch||Royal Air Force|
|Years of service||1938–1948|
|Unit||No. 602 Squadron RAF|
|Awards||Distinguished Flying Cross & Bar|
Regional Director for their Minster Minerals soft drinksAuthor
Wing Commander John Connell Freeborn, DFC* (1 December 1919 – 28 August 2010) was a World War II RAF pilot. He was not only an ace but also held the distinction of having flown more operational hours than any other RAF pilot during the Battle of Britain.
His father Harold was a branch manager with the Yorkshire Penny Bank (now Yorkshire Bank), and he was something of a disciplinarian at home. Freeborn remembered that his mother Jean (née Connell) was a stern woman, saying 'I never saw her smile'. He had five siblings, two sisters and three brothers.
They moved to Headingley when Freeborn was still an infant. He later attended Leeds Grammar School and, although a bright and confident pupil, his dislike of petty authority made him glad to leave as soon as possible.
Later, during the war, he borrowed a Gloster Gauntlet and flew up to revisit his alma mater, giving an aerobatic display before landing on the school cricket pitch. Freeborn described the irony of having the masters who, only a few years earlier, had berated and beat him telling a new crop of pupils what a shining example he was.
He joined the RAF on a short service commission in January 1938. In training, he was flying solo after only 4 hours 20 minutes logged flight time, a little over half the average; his accuracy at firing whilst in the air was more than twice the average. Commissioned as an acting pilot officer on probation on 26 March 1938 he initially flew Gloster Gauntlets, but in October 1938 he joined 74 Squadron, and from February 1939 flew Spitfires.
In July 1939 Freeborn was one of the 74 Squadron pilots to fly Spitfires to France to celebrate Bastille Day with the French Air Force.
The Second World War
The Battle of Barking Creek
On 6 September 1939 he took part in an action later to be called the Battle of Barking Creek - a tragic misunderstanding during which two No. 56 Squadron Hurricanes were intercepted and shot down by aircraft from 74 Squadron, thereby becoming the first aircraft destroyed by a Spitfire. John shot down the aircraft of Pilot Officer Montague Hulton-Harrop who did not survive, becoming the first RAF pilot to die in World War II.
Freeborn felt that his Commanding Officer, Sailor Malan, tried to evade responsibility for the attack. At the ensuing court martial, Malan testified for the prosecution against his own pilots, stating that Freeborn had been irresponsible, impetuous, and had not taken proper heed of vital communications. During the trial, Freeborn's counsel, Sir Patrick Hastings, called Malan 'a bare-faced liar!'.
Though the court exonerated Freeborn completely, he regretted the death of Hulton-Harrop for the rest of his life. In 2009 he said, "I think about him nearly every day. I always have done... I've had a good life, and he should have had a good life too."
Whilst their working relationship continued to be professional and exceptionally effective, the case left a strained personal relationship between Freeborn and Malan. It is noteworthy that Malan did not recommend Freeborn for either of his subsequent medals. On Malan's departure in March 1941, Freeborn was not given command despite being eminently capable and far more experienced than the man who did take over.
Confirmed in his rank of pilot officer on 17 January 1940, his first taste of enemy action was over Dunkirk covering the British Expeditionary Force's escape. 74 Squadron was there for six days from 21–27 May 1940. During that time they scored 19 confirmed kills—two of them Freeborn's—and 10 probable kills, with only four losses.
During one action his engine was hit by return fire from a Junkers Ju 88 and crash-landed in France. Evading the advancing German troops, at one point pinned down by machine-gun fire hiding in a cemetery, he walked for several days to Calais, where a Blenheim took him back to England.
The Battle of Britain
Freeborn fought throughout the Battle of Britain as part of 74 Squadron. On 10 July he claimed a Bf 109 of JG 51 and on 24 July shared a Do-17 'unconfirmed'. Another Bf 109 was claimed on 28 July. On 11 August 1940, the squadron flew into battle four times in eight hours, destroying 23 enemy aircraft, three by Freeborn (2 Bf 110s and a Bf 109) and damaging 14 more. That evening, back at base in Hornchurch, Winston Churchill congratulated the squadron and their ground crew. On 13 August he claimed a Dornier Do 17, but was shot down again, although he wasn't hurt. Freeborn's accomplished flying made him an ace during the Battle of Britain, with seven confirmed kills and he was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross on 13 August 1940 and promoted to command a flight on 28 August. His DFC citation said:
This officer has taken part in nearly all offensive patrols carried out by his squadron since the commencement of the war, including operations over the Low Countries and Dunkirk, and, more recently, engagements over the Channel and southeastern England. During this period of intensive air warfare he has destroyed four enemy aircraft. His high courage and exceptional abilities as a leader have materially contributed to the notable successes and high standard of efficiency maintained by his squadron.
Freeborn's portrait was drawn by war artist Cuthbert Orde in August 1940 and on 3 September he was promoted to flying officer. He claimed another Do 17 on 11 September and a share in a JG 27 Bf 109 on 17 November. By the end of November he had been with his squadron longer than any other Battle of Britain pilot and had flown more operational hours. Three Bf 109s (and one shared) were claimed on 5 December.
He received a second Distinguished Flying Cross in February 1941. The citation said:
This officer has continuously engaged in operations since the beginning of the war. He has destroyed at least twelve enemy aircraft and damaged many more. He is a keen and courageous leader.
Following American entry into the war at the end of 1941, Freeborn was posted to the United States. He trained pilots at bases in Alabama, then moved on to test piloting new aircraft, including the P-47 Thunderbolt (which he hated), the P-51 Mustang, P-38 Lightning, B-17 Flying Fortress and A-20 Havoc.
In December 1942 he returned to the UK and served as a flight commander with 602 Squadron flying Spitfires. He flew escort operations to bombers attacking German shipping and installations on the French and Dutch coasts.
In June 1943 he joined 118 Squadron as commanding officer, again flying Spitfires. This only lasted three months before the squadron moved to Scotland for less-confrontational patrolling and training duties.
In June 1944 Freeborn was promoted to become the RAF's youngest Wing Commander Flying, commanding 286 Wing based at Grottaglie in southern Italy. This was a period of frenetic activity, attacking German installations and convoys in the Balkans and defending Allied ones in Italy. In December, he was posted to RAF Netheravon.
Freeborn was always an outspoken and forthright man, and never held back from expressing his opinion even when it was as iconoclastic as disliking Sailor Malan. He also had somewhat hostile views about another of the pre-eminent war heroes he flew with, Douglas Bader, telling one author "He was not universally popular with his comrades, he made me sick. I’ve never met such a self-opinionated fool in all my life."
After the War
Believing the post-war RAF to be 'run by nincompoops,' Freeborn resigned with honour and distinction in 1946. He remained in the reserves for another two years, receiving a substantive promotion to flight lieutenant on 1 November 1947 (seniority from 1 September 1945). He had flown 42 different aircraft during his years of service.
In civilian life, Freeborn qualified as a driving instructor, but soon joined Tetley Walker to serve as Regional Director for their Minster Minerals soft drinks brand. He took early retirement and moved to Spain in the early 1980s, but later returned to the UK.
Although popular as an interviewee and event guest, for many years he shied away from committing his story to more lasting record. He relented to talk at length to military historian Bob Cossey, which led to the biography of his military career, A Tiger's Tale, in 2002. This, in turn, gave rise to Tiger Cub, Freeborn's own account of his time in 74 Squadron, which he co-authored with Christopher Yeoman and published in 2009.
He died peacefully in Southport and Formby Hospital on 28 August 2010.
John married Rita Fielder in early 1944 (she broke off her previous engagement to John's cousin after seeing a picture of John in the Yorkshire Post,) and they had one daughter, Julia. Rita died in 1979. John married his second wife, Margaret Ena (known as Peta) Thomas, in 1983. She died in 2001.
|22 May 40||Spitfire I||10m N Calais||1 * Junkers Ju 88|
|27 May 40||Spitfire I||5m from Dunkirk||1 * Messerschmitt Bf 109|
|10 July 40||Spitfire I||2m E Deal, Kent||1 * Messerschmitt Bf 109|
|28 July 40||Spitfire I||Dover||1 * Messerschmitt Bf 109|
|11 Aug 40||Spitfire I||Dover;
30m E Harwich;
|2 * Messerschmitt Bf 110
1 * Messerschmitt Bf 109
|1 * Messerschmitt Bf 109|
|13 Aug 40||Spitfire I||Thames Estuary off Birchington||1 * Dornier Do 17|
|11 Sep 40||Spitfire I||SE London||1 * Dornier Do 17|
|14 Sep 40||Spitfire I||Lowestoft||0.3 * Heinkel He 111|
|17 Nov 40||Spitfire II||Nr Brighton||0.5 * Messerschmitt Bf 109|
|5 Dec 40||Spitfire II||10-15m off Dungeness;
|2.5 * Messerschmitt Bf 109||1 * Messerschmitt Bf 109|
|5 Feb 41||Spitfire II P7366||S Dover||0.25 * Dornier Do 17|
|4 Mar 41||Spitfire II||15m N Dunkirk||0.5 * Messerschmitt Bf 109|
|TOTAL||11 kills, 2 shared||1 probable||5 damaged|
An additional 3.3 unconfirmed kills are attributed to him:
- 21 May 1940, 1 * Junkers Ju 88, near Dunkirk
- 24 May 1940, 1 * Messerschmitt Bf 109, near Dunkirk
- 27 May 1940, 1 * Messerschmitt Bf 109, near Dunkirk
- 24 July 1940, 0.3 * Messerschmitt Bf 109, off Dover
(Source for all combat record: Aces High - A Tribute to the Most Notable Fighter Pilots of the British and Commonwealth Forces in World War II)
- Yeoman, 2009, p14
- 1921 Register of Electors, City of Leeds, North Division, Headingley ward, District AG, p8
- Yeoman, 2009. p15
- Yeoman, 2009. p29
- Yeoman, 2009. p22
- London Gazette, 12 April 1938
- Cossey, 2002, p23
- Bill Nasson (University of Stellenbosch), A flying Springbok of wartime British skies: A.G. ʻSailorʼ Malan (PDF), Kronos, 35: 71-97, University of Western Cape, South Africa, 2009, retrieved 26 August 2010
- Yeoman, 2009, p53
- "Watch: Spitfire pilot John Freeborn's story". BBC TV, 3 September 2009. Retrieved 18 August 2010.
- Cossey, 2002, p39
- London Gazette, 8 March 1940
- Cossey, 2002, chapter 5
- Yeoman, 2009, p65-66
- 'Aces High'; Shores & Williams, page 268
- Cossey, 2002, chapter 6
- Yeoman, 2009, p88
- "London Gazette, 13 August 1940". Retrieved 18 August 2010.
- London Gazette, 20 September 1940
- Yorkshire Evening Post, 21 February 1941
- Yeoman, 2009. p121
- London Gazette, 10 February 1942
- Cossey, 2002. chap.9
- Cossey, 2002. chap.10
- Cossey, 2002. chap.11
- Cossey, 2002. chap.12
- London Gazette, 21 January 1944
- London Gazette, 4 August 1944
- Yeoman, 2009. p124
- Cossey, 2002. chap.13-14
- Patrick Bishop, Battle of Britain A Day By Day Chronicle 10 July 1940-31 October 1940, Quercus, 2009, ISBN 978-1-84724-984-5
- The Burning Blue, Research page 2, Air Battle site, retrieved 2 November 2010
- Cossey, 2002. chap.15
- London Gazette, 16 May 1950
- Yeoman, 2009, p129-130
- Cossey, 2002. p171
- "Tributes paid to RAF legend John Freeborn who died in Southport aged 90". Southport Visiter, 3 September 2010. Retrieved 20 September 2010.
- England & Wales, Marriage Index: 1916-2005, Leeds district, Vol 9b, page 367. Retrieved from ancestry.co.uk, 6 October 2010
- Cossey, 2002. p95
- England & Wales, Death Index: 1916-2005, Vol 37, page 0356. Retrieved from ancestry.co.uk, 15 September 2010
- England & Wales, Marriage Index: 1916-2005, Vol 14, page 0118. Retrieved from ancestry.co.uk, 15 September 2010
- Cossey, 2002. p172-3
- Tiger Cub - The Story of John Freeborn DFC* (John Freeborn & Christopher Yeoman) ISBN 978-1-84884-023-2
- A Tiger's Tale: The Story of Battle of Britain Fighter Ace Wg. Cdr. John Connell Freeborn (Bob Cossey) ISBN 978-1-900511-64-3
- Aces High - A Tribute to the Most Notable Fighter Pilots of the British and Commonwealth Forces in World War II (Christopher Shores and Clive Williams), 1994. ISBN 978-1-898697-00-8
- Fighter Boys: Saving Britain 1940 (Patrick Bishop) ISBN 978-0-7531-9915-2
- Spitfire pilot John Freeborn's story, The One Show, BBC 3 September 2009
- North Weald Airfield History: Battle of Barking Creek
- The South East Echo Archive: John Freeborn
- Interview with Air & Space magazine, 2004
- 74 Squadron Association
- Daily Telegraph
- Yorkshire Post
- The Times
- The Scotsman
- The Guardian
- New York Times
- Washington Post
- Southport Visiter
- Trouw (in Dutch)