John Galliano

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John Galliano
Born John Charles Galliano
Gibraltar
Nationality British
Other names Juan Carlos Antonio Galliano-Guillén[1]
Education Central Saint Martins
Occupation Fashion designer
Partner(s) Alexis Roche
Awards British Fashion Designer of the Year for 1987, '94, '95 and '97
Dress of the Year Fashion Museum, Bath for 1987
Order of the British Empire (2001)
French Legion of Honour (2009; revoked 2012)

John Charles Galliano[2] CBE, RDI (born 1960) is a Gibraltar-born British fashion designer who was the head designer of French fashion companies Givenchy (July 1995 to October 1996), Christian Dior (October 1996 to March 2011), and his own label John Galliano.[3]

Family[edit]

He was born in Gibraltar to a Gibraltarian father, Juan Galliano, and a Spanish mother, Anita, and has two sisters.[1] Galliano's father was a plumber.[4] His family moved to England in pursuit of work when Galliano was six, and settled in Streatham, South London, before moving to Dulwich[5][6] and later to Brockley.[7] He was raised in a strict Roman Catholic family. Galliano, who was shy and diffident, often spoke of his struggle to fit in. Recalling his early days, he once admitted: "I don't think people here understood where I was coming from." His mother, a flamenco teacher, would dress him in his "smartest" outfit even for a trip to the local shops. This, combined with his creative sensibilities, saw him frequently bullied at the London boys' grammar school he attended.[5]

Early career[edit]

After attending St. Anthony's School and Wilson's Grammar School in London, Galliano went on to study at Saint Martin's School of Art, from which he graduated in 1988 with a first class honours degree in Fashion Design. His first collection was inspired by the French Revolution and entitled Les Incroyables, with a music soundtrack mixed by DJ Jeremy Healy. The collection received positive reviews and was bought in its entirety for resale in the London fashion boutique Browns. Galliano then started his own fashion label alongside long-term collaborators Amanda Harlech, at that time stylist with Harpers and Queen, and Stephen Jones, a milliner.[8][9][10]

On the back of this success, Galliano rented studio space in London, but his talent was not matched by a head for business. Moreover, he would take his enjoyment of London's nightlife to extremes.[5] Initially, financial backing came from Johan Brun, and when this agreement came to an end, Danish entrepreneur Peder Bertelsen, owner of firm Aguecheek, who were also backing Katherine Hamnett at the time, took over. This agreement ended in 1988 and Galliano sought the backing of German agent Faycal Amor (owner and designer of fashion label Plein Sud) who directed him to set up his base in Paris. Galliano relocated to Paris in search of financial backing and a strong client base. His first show was in 1989 as part of Paris Fashion Week. By 1990, he was bankrupt and, after his own London-based label failed to re-ignite his fortunes, he moved to Paris.[5]

Media fashion celebrity Susannah Constantine has worked for Galliano,[11] and he has also aided the future success of other designers including shoe designer Patrick Cox. In 1991, he collaborated with Kylie Minogue, designing the costumes for her Let's Get to It Tour.[citation needed]

Paris[edit]

In 1993, Galliano's financial agreement with Amor ended and he did not have a showing in October, missing the season. With the help of American Vogue editor-in-chief Anna Wintour and Andre Leon Talley, then European Correspondent at Vanity Fair, Galliano was introduced to Portuguese socialite and fashion patron Sao Schlumberger and financial backers of venture firm Arbela Inc, John Bult and Mark Rice. It was through this partnership that Galliano received the financial backing and high society stamp needed to give him credibility in Paris. This collection was important in the development of Galliano as a fashion house, and is regarded as a 'fashion moment' in high fashion circles.[12][13]

Givenchy[edit]

In July 1995, he was appointed as the designer of Givenchy by Bernard Arnault, owner of luxury goods conglomerate LVMH, thus becoming the first British designer to head a French haute couture house.[citation needed] On 21 January 1996, Galliano presented his first couture show at the helm of Givenchy at the Stade de France. The collection received high praise within the fashion media.[citation needed] Some of Galliano's designs for Givenchy were licensed to Vogue Patterns.[14]

Dior[edit]

Galliano ballgowns designed for Dior as exhibited in Moscow, 2011
Galliano dior newspaper dress at the ROM. Donated by Kara Alloway.

In October 1996, LVMH moved Galliano to Christian Dior, replacing Italian designer Gianfranco Ferré.[15]

In 2010, Galliano identified his love of theatre and femininity as central to his creations; he said "my role is to seduce", and credited Standard Oil heiress Millicent Rogers as an influence.[16]

Controversy[edit]

On 25 February 2011, Dior announced that it had suspended Galliano following his arrest over an alleged anti-Semitic tirade in a Paris bar.[17] The same day, Paris-based citizen journalism site Citizenside received video of Galliano on a similar rant in the same bar the previous December. In the video a drunk Galliano, seated at a café table, insults a group of Italian women and declares "I love Hitler... People like you would be dead. Your mothers, your forefathers would all be fucking gassed." This incident happened just before the Paris Fashion Week for Autumn/Winter 2011-12.

The show-business industry expressed mixed feelings towards the designer's anti-semitic speech[18][19]

Galliano denied the allegations through his lawyer,[20] and launched a defamation lawsuit against the couple accusing him of antisemitism.[21] On 1 March 2011, Dior announced that it had begun procedures of dismissal for Galliano, with Dior's chief executive Sidney Toledano stating, "I very firmly condemn what was said by John Galliano".[20] Dior announced it will continue to support the Galliano brand financially due to license despite the scandal.[22]

In France, expressing anti-semitic ideas is illegal. It was reported on 2 March 2011 that Galliano was to face trial in Paris for allegedly "making racist comments to customers in a café". The trial commenced on 22 June 2011.[23][24] Galliano's lawyer argued that the "series of public outbursts during which he uttered racist and anti-Semitic insults in a Paris café" were the result of "work-related stress and multiple addictions."[25] On 8 September 2011, Galliano was found guilty of making anti-Semitic remarks and sentenced to pay a total of €6,000 (US$8,400) in suspended fines after a French court found him guilty of giving public insults on account of race.[26]

A Paris commercial court, in March 2011, rejected a claim for damages by Galliano’s company, Cheyenne Freedom, "following the termination of its consultancy agreements with Christian Dior Couture SA".[25] The court ordered Cheyenne Freedom to pay Dior €1.17 million "for hurting the company’s image and reputation".[25]

On 21 November 2013, the Paris Court of Appeals rejected an appeal by Christian Dior Couture SA, which was seeking to move the case to a commercial court from the Conseil de prud’hommes (Labor Relations Court) and ordered Christian Dior Couture SA and John Galliano SA to each pay the Galliano €2,500 and court costs.[25] Galliano "is seeking compensation in the range of 6 million euros".[25] Jean Néret of Jeantet Associés is representing Christian Dior Couture SA and John Galliano SA.[25] Chantal Giraud-van Gaver of Coblence & Associés represents John Galliano.[25]

Comeback[edit]

In early 2013, Galliano accepted an invitation from Oscar de la Renta, brokered by Anna Wintour, for a temporary residency at de la Renta's design studio to help prepare for a showing of his Fall 2013 ready-to-wear collection during February New York Fashion Week.[27] Galliano also received a measure of absolution from the Anti-Defamation League, which lauded his efforts to atone for his misdeeds and wished him well.[28] The ADL again came to his defence after the New York Post ran a photo of him on his way to the de la Renta show dressed in what it claimed was Hasidic-like garb.[29][30] Galliano remained backstage at the show, which received favourable reviews[31][32] amid speculation about his future, including as a possible successor to Mr. de la Renta[33] and that Galliano may take up a teaching post at Parsons the New School for Design.[34] On 12 June 2013, John Galliano's first filmed interview since his dismissal from Christian Dior was broadcast on United States television. He closed this conversation by stating "I am able to create. I am ready to create...[and] I hope through my atonement I'll be given a second chance."[35]

Honours[edit]

Personal life[edit]

In interviews, Galliano has given his full name as Juan Carlos Antonio Galliano-Guillén.[1] Galliano shared his Paris home with his long-term boyfriend Alexis Roche, a style consultant. Galliano became a familiar figure on the streets of Le Marais,[citation needed] an area of Paris popular for its gay and Jewish communities.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Le freak c'est chic (part two), Michael Spencer, guardian.co.uk, 30 November 2003
  2. ^ David James Smith, "The Secret Torments of Galliano", Sunday Times Magazine, 22 August 2011, p. 20, at p. 27: "I ordered his birth certificate from the Gibraltar registry and in fact he was named John Charles Galliano".
  3. ^ White, Belinda (15 April 2011). "John Galliano sacked from his eponymous label". London: The Telegraph. Retrieved 15 May 2012. 
  4. ^ Profile: John Galliano BBC News, 1 March 2011
  5. ^ a b c d Knight, Kathryn (5 March 2011). "Why Galliano imploded: The fashion king is now in rehab fighting his obsession with his own Jewish roots". Daily Mail (UK). Retrieved 6 March 2011. 
  6. ^ "John Galliano" by Colin McDowell, page 74 – ISBN 0-297-81938-0
  7. ^ Interview with JOHN GALLIANO by Paula Reed, Grazia Magazine, London 21 September 2010
  8. ^ Barber, Lynn (18 August 2007). "My brilliant career". The Guardian (London). 
  9. ^ http://nymag.com/thecut/2009/02/john_galliano_reminisces_about.html
  10. ^ http://www.questia.com/library/1P2-1882927/fashion-the-hat-trick-in-10-years-of-collaboration
  11. ^ "Just a couple of swells". London: The Guardian. February 11, 2011. Retrieved 2013-06-13. 
  12. ^ Chris Rovzar, Galliano Ascending, Vanity Fair, June 5, 2013
  13. ^ John Galliano, Vogue
  14. ^ PatternVault blog, 1 August 2011 John Galliano for Givenchy: Vogue Patterns
  15. ^ "John Galliano" by Colin McDowell, page 15; ISBN 0-297-81938-0
  16. ^ New York Times article: "In Paris, Tempted by History"
  17. ^ "John Galliano suspended by Dior following arrest over 'anti-semitic rant'". The Daily Telegraph (London). 25 February 2011. 
  18. ^ Belinda White, Dior ambassador Natalie Portman speaks out on Galliano, Telegraph, 1 March 2011
  19. ^ Lauren Milligan, My Friend John, Vogue, 6 June 2011
  20. ^ a b "John Galliano sacked by fashion house Dior". BBC News. 1 March 2011. 
  21. ^ "Now Galliano Files Defamation Lawsuit". Fashion Scandal. February 2011. Retrieved 2013-06-13. 
  22. ^ "MSNBC report on Galliano". msn.com. Retrieved 2013-06-13. 
  23. ^ "John Galliano to stand trial in June". London: telegraph.co.uk. 12 May 2011. Retrieved 2013-06-13. 
  24. ^ "John Galliano in court over race insults claims". The Guardian (London). 22 June 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-22. 
  25. ^ a b c d e f g Diderich, Joelle (28 November 2013). "Galliano Case to Head Back to Labor Court". WWD. Retrieved 29 November 2013. (subscription required)
  26. ^ "Designer Galliano sentenced in anti-Semitism case". msn.com. Retrieved 2013-06-13. 
  27. ^ "Is John Galliano Staging A Successful Comeback?", by Terri Pous, Time, January 25, 2013.
  28. ^ "ADL Welcomes Recovery and Redemption of Fashion Designer John Galliano", ADL Press Release, January 18, 2013.
  29. ^ "Jew-bash designer Galliano's costume mocks faithful" by Doree Lewak, David Seifman and Jeane MacIntosh, New York Post, February 13, 2013.
  30. ^ "ADL: New York Post Story on John Galliano ‘A Complete Distortion’", ADL Press Release, February 13, 2013.
  31. ^ "Oscar de la Renta / Fall 2013 RTW" by Mark Holgate, Vogue, February 12, 2013.
  32. ^ "Oscar de la Renta RTW Fall 2013", Women's Wear Daily, February 12, 2013.
  33. ^ "A Tentative Step by a Fallen Star to Come Back" by Eric Wilson, The New York Times, February 13, 2013
  34. ^ "Parsons Dean of Fashion ‘Loves John Galliano’" by Hilary Moss, The Cut, New York Magazine, March 20, 2013.
  35. ^ "John Galliano". Charlie Rose. Retrieved 13 June 2013. 
  36. ^ "Supplement No. 1, (Queen's Birthday Honours)". London Gazette. 16 June 2001. p. 24 of 50. Retrieved 2013-06-13. "John Charles Galliano, Fashion Designer. For services to the fashion industry." 
  37. ^ "Home > News > UK > This Britain The pink list 2007: The IoS annual celebration of the great and the gay". The Independent on Sunday (London). 6 May 2007. Retrieved 30 January 2011. 
  38. ^ Bumpus, Jessica (5 January 2009). "Galliano Honoured". Vogue. Retrieved 19 April 2011. 
  39. ^ [Le HuffPost/AFP] (24 August 2012). John Galliano privé de Légion d'honneur après ses propos antisémites. Le Huffington Post/Le Monde. Accessed January 2014.

External links[edit]

Preceded by
Hubert de Givenchy
Head Designer Givenchy
1995–1996
Succeeded by
Alexander McQueen
Preceded by
Gianfranco Ferré
Head Designer Christian Dior
1996–2011
Succeeded by
Raf Simons