John Gilbert Winant
|John Gilbert Winant|
|United States Ambassador to the United Kingdom|
|President||Franklin D. Roosevelt
Harry S. Truman
|Preceded by||Joseph P. Kennedy, Sr.|
|Succeeded by||W. Averell Harriman|
|60th Governor of New Hampshire|
1925 – 1927
1931 – 1935
|Preceded by||Fred H. Brown (1925)
Charles W. Tobey (1931)
|Succeeded by||Huntley N. Spaulding (1927)
Styles Bridges (1935)
|Born||February 23, 1889
New York City, USA
|Died||November 3, 1947(aged 58)|
John Gilbert Winant OM (February 23, 1889 – November 3, 1947) was an American politician with the Republican party after a brief career as a teacher in Concord, New Hampshire. Winant was born on East Side, New York City, the son of Frederick and Jeanette Winant, his father a prosperous partner in a real estate company. Winant held positions in New Hampshire, national, and international politics. He was the first man to serve more than a single two-year term as Governor of New Hampshire, winning election three times. Winant also served as US Ambassador to the United Kingdom during most of World War II. Depressed by career disappointments, a failed marriage, and heavy debts, he committed suicide in 1947.
Winant attended St. Paul's School in Concord, and progressed to Princeton University, but he was a poor student, and he left without graduating. He was appointed an instructor in history at St. Paul's in 1913, remaining there until 1917, and elected to the New Hampshire House of Representatives in 1916. In 1917 he joined the United States Army Air Service, trained as a pilot, and commanded the 8th Aero Squadron (Observation) in France, with the rank of captain.
Winant returned to his position at St. Paul's in 1919 after his military service, and was elected to the New Hampshire Senate in 1920. He lost money in oil stocks in 1929, which he had profited from through the 1920s.
Governor of New Hampshire
He twice served as Governor of New Hampshire from 1925 to 1927 and later from 1931 to 1935. He served his later terms during the Great Depression and responded in several ways. He oversaw an emergency credit act which allowed the state to guarantee debts of municipalities so that local governments could continue. He pushed through a minimum wage act for women and children. During the depression, Winant fought to keep improving the state's highways while reorganizing the state banking commission and pursuing more accurate accounting of state agencies' funds. Working closely with the federal government, Winant was the first of the states' governors to fill his enrollment quota in the Civilian Conservation Corps.
Subsequently President Franklin D. Roosevelt appointed Winant to be the first head of the Social Security Board in 1935, a position he held until 1937. At the time, it was rumored that Roosevelt appointed Winant to prevent him from running for President in 1936, but Winant never admitted to Presidential aspirations. The next year, he was elected to head the International Labor Office in Geneva, Switzerland, from January 1939.
U.S. Ambassador to Great Britain
In 1941, Roosevelt appointed Winant ambassador to Britain, and Winant remained in that post until he resigned in March, 1946. One of his students from St. Paul's, Anthony Joseph Drexel Biddle, Jr., was serving as ambassador to several of the occupied countries' governments-in-exile at the time. In a 2010 book, Citizens of London: The Americans Who Stood with Britain in Its Darkest, Finest Hour, author Lynne Olson described Winant as dramatically changing the U.S. stance as ambassador when succeeding pro-appeasement ambassador Joseph P. Kennedy, Sr., Winant announced upon landing at Bristol, England, airport in March, 1941, "I'm very glad to be here. There is no place I'd rather be at this time than in England." The remark, for a country that had come through the Battle of Britain and was in the midst of The Blitz, was dramatically on the front page of most British newspapers the next day. The new ambassador quickly developed close contacts with King George VI and Prime Minister Winston Churchill, even though the U.S. was only providing military aid and had not yet declared war on the Axis. Winant, according to the book, carried on an affair with Churchill's second daughter Sarah Churchill during his time as ambassador.
John Gilbert Winant was with Winston Churchill when he learned that Pearl Harbor was attacked.
Return to the USA
President Harry S. Truman appointed Winant U.S. representative to UNESCO in 1946, although he retired to Concord shortly after to write his memoirs. However, he found himself unable to adjust to a quieter pace of life. 'Everywhere Winant turned he saw the drama in which he had particpated so significantly drawing to a close'. Estranged from his socially ambitious wife and deeply in debt, he became profoundly depressed.
Winant shot himself in the head in 1947 at his Concord home on the day his book Letter from Grosvenor Square was published; he was buried at St. Paul's School. The book Citizens of London reports that after Roosevelt's death, with Winant's distance from his Republican Party base, "[h]e hoped that he was going to become secretary-general of the new UN .... On top of that [disappointed hope], his affair with Sarah Churchill ended badly. 'He was an exhausted, sick man after the war,'" author Olson continued in the interview on NPR.
Upon learning of Winant's death, Winston Churchill sent four dozen yellow roses to his funeral, and the British king and queen sent their condolences by telegram.
Winant was buried at Blossom Hill cemetery in Concord, New Hampshire; his wish to be buried in the St Paul's School's consecrated cemetery refused by the Episcopalian rector on the grounds that suicide was a sin. However, in the more enlightened times of 1968, his casket was exhumed and reinterred at St Paul's. His epitaph was his 1946 quote: "Doing the day's work day by day, doing a little, adding a little, broadening our bases wanting not only for ourselves but for others also, a fairer chance for all people everywhere. Forever moving forward, always remembering that it is the things of the spirit that in the end prevail. That caring counts and that where there is no vision the people perish. That hope and faith count and that without charity, there can be nothing good. That having dared to live dangerously, and in believing in the inherent goodness of man, we can stride forward into the unknown with growing confidence."
Winant married Constance Rivington Russell in 1919. They had a daughter, Constance, in 1921, and two sons, John Jr. and Rivington. Constance married Carlos Valando, a Peruvian scientist, in 1941. John Winant Jr. served as a bomber pilot in World War II and was taken prisoner by the Germans. Sent to Colditz, he was removed in April 1945 as one of the 'Prominente' to be used as a bargaining chip by Himmler and the SS as the end of the war approached; he was eventually released. Rivington Winant also served in World War II and went on to serve as treasurer of the United Nations.
In 1948, the Winant Clayton Volunteers formed in honor of Winant and the Reverend Philip “Tubby” Clayton, former private chaplain to the British Queen. Initially, American volunteers came to London to help British families rebuild churches and community centers damaged during World War II. In 1959 the exchange was reciprocated with Winant volunteers travelling from America to England while the Claytons go from England to work in the United States.
In 1982, The Carsey Institute at the University of New Hampshire established The John G. Winant Fellowship for students interested in working in non-profit or governmental organizations.
In 2009, Rivington Winant, with his wife Joan, donated 85 acres of land in Concord for the creation of Winant Park in honor of his late father and mother. The property sits on what was formerly the Winants' estate and offers the public biking, hiking and cross-country ski trails.
- Noel F. Busch (October 4, 1943). "Ambassador Biddle: As multiple envoy to governments-in-exile, he is foremost U.S. expert on postwar plans and problems of Europe's courageous little nations". Life magazine. pp. 106–114, 117–120. Retrieved March 22, 2011.
- Olson, Lynne, Citizens of London: The Americans Who Stood with Britain in Its Darkest, Finest Hour, Chapter 1, (2010, Random House, 496 p.) Report with excerpt "Chapter 1: There's No Place I'd Rather Be Than In England" National Public Radio, All things considered, February 3, 2010.
- Report with author interview at time of publication of Citizens of London: The Americans Who Stood with Britain in Its Darkest, Finest Hour by Lynne Olson (2010, Random House, 496 p.) National Public Radio All things considered, February 3, 2010.
- Olson, Lynne, Citizens of London: The Americans Who Stood with Britain in Its Darkest, Finest Hour 2010 Random House
- Freedman, J. O. (2000). John Gilbert Winant. Harvard Magazine Nov. - Dec. 2000. Harvard University.
- Freedman, James O. "John Gilbert Winant—Brief life of an exemplary public servant: 1889–1947". Harvard Magazine, November–December 2000. Retrieved April 16, 2009.
- Hare, J. (2010). Eventually, Winant ended up at St. Paul's. Concord Monitor, 5 Feb 2010.
- "The Roosevelt New Deal Sends An Ambassador To Britain's New Dealers". Life. March 3, 1941. Retrieved April 11, 2010.
- "Milestones, Feb. 24, 1941". Time. February 24, 1941. Retrieved April 11, 2010.
Bellush, Bernard. He Walked Alone: A Biography of John Gilbert Winant. The Hague: Mouton, 1968.
- – Winant Clayton Volunteers UK
- New Hampshire Division of Historical Resources – John G. Winant
- Social Security Pioneers – John Gilbert Winant
Fred H. Brown
|Governor of New Hampshire
1925 – 1927
Huntley N. Spaulding
Charles W. Tobey
|Governor of New Hampshire
1931 – 1935
|Non-profit organization positions|
Clarence A. Dykstra
|President of the National Municipal League
|U.S. Ambassador to the United Kingdom
1941 – 1946