John Anderson (natural philosopher)
|Born||26 September 1726
|Died||13 January 1796
John Anderson FRSE FRS FSA(Scot) (26 September 1726 – 13 January 1796) was a Scottish natural philosopher and liberal educator at the forefront of the application of science to technology in the industrial revolution, and of the education and advancement of working men and women. He was a joint founder of the Royal Society of Edinburgh.
Early life and career
Anderson was born at the manse at Rosneath, the son of Rev James Anderson, Argyll and Bute. His father and grandfather were prominent ministers of the church, but after his father's death he was raised in Stirling by an aunt.
He graduated from the University of Glasgow in 1745.
A leading scientist
In 1760 Anderson was appointed to the more congenial post of professor of natural philosophy at the University of Glasgow. He began to concentrate on physics. He had a love of experiments, practical mechanics and inventions. He encouraged James Watt in his development of steam power. He was acquainted with Benjamin Franklin, and installed the first lightning conductor in Glasgow.
Anderson also wrote the pioneering textbook Institutes of Physics published in 1786, which went through five editions in ten years. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society and this brought him into contact with many of the leading scientists of the day.
A pioneer of vocational education for working people
His greatest love though was in providing "useful learning" to the working class, especially in the application of science to industry. He did this alongside his University duties, by providing non-academic lectures for artisans during the evenings, to which, unusually for the age, women were also welcome. In these popular lectures he concentrated on experiments and demonstrations, and from his predilection for setting off explosions and fireworks, he acquired the nickname "Jolly Jack Phosphorus".
Anderson was also known for his radical political views and was a supporter of the French Revolution. In 1791 he invented a new type of six-pound gun, which was presented to the National Convention in Paris as "the gift of Science to Liberty". While in France, neighbouring Germany, fearing the spread of radical politics to its territory, imposed a blockade on French newspapers. Anderson suggested sending pamphlets on the wind to Germany attached to small hydrogen balloons, and this was done, with each balloon bearing an inscription translated as "O’er hills and dales, and lines of hostile troops, I float majestic, bearing the laws of God and Nature to oppressed men, and bidding them with arms their rights maintain."
Founder of a university
Building on the lectures for artisans, he bequeathed his property for the foundation of a school in Glasgow devoted to "useful learning", called Anderson's Institution or Andersonian University. As an example of its success it enabled a young millworker, David Livingstone, to become a famous missionary doctor and the foremost explorer of his day. The Institution underwent various name-changes and a number of mergers with other colleges before arriving at its current form as the University of Strathclyde, which honours Anderson in the name of the physics building and the main library, the Andersonian Library. The city centre campus is named the John Anderson Campus.
- Waterston, Charles D; Macmillan Shearer, A (July 2006). Former Fellows of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 1783-2002: Biographical Index (PDF) I. Edinburgh: The Royal Society of Edinburgh. ISBN 978-0-902198-84-5. Retrieved 17 November 2011.
- "Anderson, John" in Chambers's Encyclopædia. London: George Newnes, 1961, Vol. 1, p. 409.
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Anderson, John". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
- Significant Scots: John Anderson FRS at ElectricScotland.com retrieved 31 October 2007.