John Hines (Australian soldier)
|John "Barney" Hines|
|Nickname(s)||"Wild Eye", "Souvenir King"|
|Died||29 January 1958 (aged 84–85)
Concord Repatriation Hospital, Sydney
|Buried at||Rookwood Cemetery|
|Years of service||Royal Navy: 1889–1890
Australian Army: 1915–1918
|Unit||King's Liverpool Regiment
|Battles/wars||Second Boer War
World War I
John "Barney" Hines (1873–1958) was a British-born Australian soldier of World War I, known for his prowess at collecting 'souvenirs' from German soldiers. Hines was the subject of a famous photo taken by Frank Hurley which depicted him surrounded by the loot he had captured during the Battle of Polygon Wood in September 1917. This image is among the best-known Australian photographs of the war.
Born in Liverpool, England in 1873, Hines served in the Royal Navy and King's Liverpool Regiment, as well as working in several different occupations. He arrived in Australia shortly before World War I began and volunteered for the Australian Imperial Force in August 1915. Although discharged due to poor health in early 1916, he rejoined in August that year and served on the Western Front from March 1917 to mid-1918 when he was discharged again for health reasons. During his period in France he proved to be an aggressive soldier, and gained fame for the collection of souvenirs that he amassed. Following World War I, Hines lived in poverty on the outskirts of Sydney until his death in 1958.
Hines was born in Liverpool in 1873. When he was aged 14 he attempted to join the British Army, but was returned to his mother after she protested. At the age of 16 he successfully enlisted in the Royal Navy but was discharged the next year after contracting malaria. During the following decades Hines drifted between jobs, including spending three years in the King's Liverpool Regiment and serving as a guide in the Second Boer War, before arriving in Australia in mid-1914. He was a large man and much of his body was covered in tattoos. Hines may also have been illiterate, though he was capable of signing his name.
World War I
Hines first joined the Australian Imperial Force (AIF) on 24 August 1915, falsely claiming to be 28 years of age. In the year before he joined the Army he had worked as a seaman, engineer and sharer. However, on 20 January 1916 he was discharged from the AIF as medically unfit. On 8 May 1916 Hines successfully rejoined the AIF, this time giving an age of 36 years and seven months. By this stage of the war medical requirements were less strict due to the need for reinforcements to make good the AIF's casualties. Hines was assigned to the 45th Battalion and departed Sydney for Europe onboard HMAT A18 Wiltshire on 22 August 1916.
After completing training in England, Hines joined the 45th Battalion on the Western Front in March 1917. In June that year he captured a force of 60 Germans during the Battle of Messines by throwing hand grenades into their pillbox, and was later wounded. During the six-week period he spent recovering from his wound he stole a horse and traded it for a bottle of whiskey. He returned to his battalion in time for the Battle of Polygon Wood in September, where Frank Hurley photographed him on 27 September surrounded by the loot he had captured. Hines was an aggressive soldier and it has been claimed that he killed more Germans than any other member of the AIF. While he was brave in battle and admired by his fellow soldiers, his behaviour was erratic at times. The wartime commander of the 45th Battalion, Arthur Samuel Allen (who subsequently reached the rank of major general), described Hines to a journalist as "a tower of strength to the battalion, while he was in the line".
Hines' enthusiasm for collecting German military equipment and German soldiers' personal possessions became well known within and possibly outside of his battalion, and earned him the nickname of "Souvenir King". While he collected some items from battlefields at Ypres and the Somme region, most were stolen from German prisoners of war. He kept the items he collected for himself, and there are no records of any being handed over to the Australian War Records Section, the AIF unit responsible for collecting items for later display in Australia. Hines sold some of the items he collected to other soldiers, including for alcohol. The photograph of Hines at the Battle of Polygon Wood was published in late 1917 under the title Wild Eye, the souvenir king and became one of the best-known Australian photographs of the war. Many soldiers identified with Hines and were amused by his collection of souvenirs. The photograph was used as propaganda, and a false story developed that the German Kaiser Wilhelm II had become enraged after seeing it.
Away from the front line, Hines developed a record of indiscipline. He was court martialled on nine occasions for drunkenness, impeding military police, forging entries in his pay book and being absent without leave. He also claimed to have been caught robbing the strongroom of a bank in Amiens, though this is not recorded in his Army service record. As a result of these convictions, Hines lost several promotions he had earned for his acts of bravery. He was also fined on several occasions, and the resulting need for money may have been one of the factors that motivated his looting. A member of the 3rd Battalion described Hines as "not normally a weak man but rather one ... uncontrolled".
In mid-1918 Hines was discharged from the AIF as being medically unfit due to hemorrhoid problems. He arrived back in Australia on 19 October 1918. While his Army service file records that he was lightly wounded on two occasions, Hines later claimed to have been wounded five times.
Hines was traumatised by his experiences during World War I. For 40 years afterwards he lived in a humpy made of cloth bags near Mount Druitt on the outskirts of Sydney, and never married. The humpy was surrounded by a fence on which he hung helmets taken from German soldiers; he became well known to locals, though school children were afraid of him. Hines was unable to find consistent work and lived on his Army pension as well as income from odd jobs and selling his souvenirs. He gained renewed fame when the photo of him at Polygon Wood was displayed during the 1930s, and several newspapers and magazines aimed at former servicemen published profiles of him. An article in the Returned Sailors and Soldiers Imperial League of Australia's magazine Reveille in 1934 highlighted his desperate living conditions and stated that he had been unemployed for four years. Several former soldiers sent money to Hines in response to this article. Despite his poverty, Hines travelled to Concord Repatriation Hospital each week to donate a suitcase of vegetables from his garden to the former soldiers being treated there. Hines told a journalist in June 1939 that he wanted to re-join the Army and fight in another war. He subsequently attempted to enlist in the military during World War II, despite being aged in his 60s, but was rejected.
On 29 January 1958, Hines died at Concord Repatriation Hospital aged 85. He was subsequently buried in Rookwood Cemetery in a grave which was unmarked until 1971, when the Mount Druitt sub-branch of the Returned Services League of Australia paid for a headstone. The Blacktown City Council also renamed the street on which he lived in the suburb of Minchinbury to John Hines Avenue, and a monument commemorating him was built at the nearby Mount Druitt Waterholes Remembrance Garden in 2002. In 2014 a photograph of Hines was included in the Australian War Memorial's redeveloped permanent World War I exhibition.
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