John Howard

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For other people named John Howard, see John Howard (disambiguation).
The Honourable
John Howard
OMAC
Howard2003.JPG
25th Prime Minister of Australia
Elections: 1987, 1996, 1998, 2001, 2004, 2007
In office
11 March 1996 – 3 December 2007
Monarch Elizabeth II
Governor General Sir William Deane
Peter Hollingworth
Michael Jeffery
Deputy Tim Fischer
John Anderson
Mark Vaile
Preceded by Paul Keating
Succeeded by Kevin Rudd
29th Treasurer of Australia
In office
19 November 1977 – 11 March 1983
Prime Minister Malcolm Fraser
Preceded by Phillip Lynch
Succeeded by Paul Keating
22nd Leader of the Opposition
In office
5 September 1985 – 9 May 1989
Deputy Neil Brown
Andrew Peacock
Preceded by Andrew Peacock
Succeeded by Andrew Peacock
In office
30 January 1995 – 11 March 1996
Deputy Peter Costello
Preceded by Alexander Downer
Succeeded by Kim Beazley
2nd Chairperson-in-office of the Commonwealth of Nations
In office
2 March 2002 – 5 December 2003
Head Elizabeth II
Preceded by Thabo Mbeki
Succeeded by Olusegun Obasanjo
Minister for Special Trade Negotiations
In office
17 July 1977 – 20 December 1977
Prime Minister Malcolm Fraser
Preceded by Position Established
Succeeded by Victor Garland
Minister for Business and Consumer Affairs
In office
22 December 1975 – 17 July 1977
Prime Minister Malcolm Fraser
Preceded by Sir Bob Cotton
Succeeded by Wal Fife
Member of the Australian Parliament
for Bennelong
In office
18 May 1974 – 24 November 2007
Preceded by John Cramer
Succeeded by Maxine McKew
Personal details
Born John Winston Howard
(1939-07-26) 26 July 1939 (age 74)
Earlwood, New South Wales, Australia
Political party Liberal Party of Australia
Other political
affiliations
Coalition
Spouse(s) Janette Parker
Children 3
Alma mater University of Sydney
Religion Anglicanism
Signature

John Winston Howard, OMAC, (born 26 July 1939) was the 25th Prime Minister of Australia, from 11 March 1996 to 3 December 2007. He is the second-longest serving Australian Prime Minister, after Sir Robert Menzies.

Howard was a member of the House of Representatives from 1974 to 2007, representing the Division of Bennelong, New South Wales. He served as Treasurer in the Fraser government from 1977 to 1983. He was Leader of the Liberal Party and Coalition Opposition from 1985 to 1989, which included the 1987 federal election against Bob Hawke. He was re-elected as Leader of the Opposition in 1995.

Howard led the Liberal-National coalition to victory at the 1996 federal election, defeating Paul Keating's Labor government and ending a record 13 years of Coalition opposition. The Howard Government was re-elected at the 1998, 2001 and 2004 elections. Major issues for the Howard Government included taxation, industrial relations, immigration, the Iraq war, and Aboriginal relations. Howard's coalition government was defeated at the 2007 election by the Labor Party led by Kevin Rudd. Howard also lost his own parliamentary seat at the election; he was the second Australian Prime Minister, after Stanley Bruce in 1929, to do so.

Early life

John Howard as a boy

John Howard is the fourth son of Mona (née Kell) and Lyall Howard. His parents were married in 1925. His eldest brother Stanley was born in 1926, followed by Walter in 1929, and Robert (Bob) in 1936. Lyall Howard was an admirer of Winston Churchill,[1] and a sympathiser with the New Guard.[2] Howard's ancestors were English, Scottish and Irish.[3]

Howard was born and raised in the Sydney suburb of Earlwood, in a Methodist family.[4] His mother had been an office worker until her marriage. His father and his paternal grandfather, Walter Howard, were both veterans of the First AIF in World War I. They also ran two Dulwich Hill petrol stations where Howard worked as a boy.[5] Lyall Howard died in 1955 when John was sixteen, leaving his mother to take care of John[6] (or "Jack" as he was also known).[7]

Howard suffered a hearing impairment in his youth, leaving him with a slight speech impediment,[8] and he continues to wear a hearing aid. It also influenced him in subtle ways, limiting his early academic performance; encouraging a reliance on an excellent memory; and in his mind ruling out becoming a barrister as a likely career.[9]

Howard attended the state schools Earlwood Primary School and Canterbury Boys' High School.[7] Howard won a citizenship prize in his final year at Earlwood (presented by local politician Eric Willis), and subsequently represented his secondary school at debating as well as cricket and rugby.[10] Cricket remained a lifelong hobby.[4] In his final year at school he took part in a radio show hosted by Jack Davey, Give It a Go broadcast on the commercial radio station, 2GB, and a recording of the show survives.[11] After gaining his Leaving Certificate, he studied law at the University of Sydney, graduating in 1961,[7] and subsequently practising as a solicitor for twelve years.[12]

Howard married fellow Liberal Party member Janette Parker in 1971, with whom he had three children: Melanie (1974), Tim (1977) and Richard (1980).[13]

Early political career

Howard joined the Liberal Party in 1957. He held office in the New South Wales Liberal Party on the State Executive and served as President of the Young Liberals (1962–64), the party youth organisation.[14] Howard supported Australia's involvement in the Vietnam War, although has since said there were "aspects of it that could have been handled and explained differently".[15]

At the 1963 federal election, Howard acted as campaign manager in his local seat of Parkes for the successful candidacy of Tom Hughes, who defeated the 20-year Labor incumbent.

In 1967 with the support of party power brokers, John Carrick and Eric Willis, he was endorsed as candidate for the marginal suburban state seat of Drummoyne, held by ALP member Reg Coady. Howard's mother sold the family home in Earlwood and rented a house with him at Five Dock, a suburb within the electorate. At the election in February 1968, in which the incumbent state Liberal government was returned to office, Howard narrowly lost to Coady, despite campaigning vigorously.[16] Howard and his mother subsequently returned to Earlwood, moving to a house on the same street where he grew up.

At the 1974 federal election, Howard successfully contested the Sydney suburban seat of Bennelong and became a Member of Parliament in the House of Representatives during the Gough Whitlam-led Labor Government. Howard backed Malcolm Fraser for the leadership of the Liberal Party against Billy Snedden following the 1974 election.[17] When Fraser won office in December 1975, Howard was appointed Minister for Business and Consumer Affairs, a position in which he served until 1977.[12] At this stage, he followed the protectionist and pro-regulation stance of Fraser and the Liberal Party.[18]

Federal Treasurer (1977–1983)

In December 1977, at the age of 38, Howard was appointed Treasurer.[12] During his five years in the position, he became an adherent of free-market economics,[19] which was challenging economic orthodoxies in place for most of the century.[20] He came to favour tax reform including broad-based taxation (later the GST), a freer industrial system including the dismantling of the centralised wage-fixing system, the abolition of compulsory trade unionism, privatisation and deregulation.[4]

In 1978, the Fraser government instigated the Campbell Committee to investigate financial system reforms.[21] Howard supported the Campbell report, but adopted an incremental approach with Cabinet, as there was wide opposition to deregulation within the government and the treasury.[21][22] The process of reform began before the committee reported 2½ years later, with the introduction of the tender system for the sale of Treasury notes in 1979, and Treasury bonds in 1982. Ian Macfarlane (Governor of the Reserve Bank of Australia, 1996–2006) described these reforms as "second only in importance to the float of the Australian dollar in 1983."[23] In 1981, Howard proposed a broad-based indirect tax with compensatory cuts in personal rates; however, cabinet rejected it citing both inflationary and political reasons.[24] After the free-marketeers or "drys" of the Liberals challenged the protectionist policies of Minister for Industry and Commerce Phillip Lynch, they shifted their loyalties to Howard. Following an unsuccessful leadership challenge by Andrew Peacock to unseat Fraser as prime minister, Howard was elected deputy leader of the Liberal Party in April 1982. His election depended largely on the support of the "drys", and he became the party's champion of the growing free-market lobby.[25]

The economic crises of the early 1980s brought Howard into conflict with the economically conservative Fraser. As the economy headed towards the worst recession since the 1930s, Keynesian Fraser pushed an expansionary fiscal position much to Howard's and Treasury's horror. With his authority as treasurer being flouted, Howard considered resigning in July 1982, but, after discussions with his wife and senior advisor John Hewson, he decided to "tough it out".[20] The 1982 wages explosion—wages rose 16 per cent across the country—resulted in stagflation; unemployment touched double-digits and inflation peaked at 12.5% (official interest rates peaked at 21%).[26]

The Fraser Government with Howard as Treasurer lost the 1983 election to the Labor Party led by Bob Hawke. Over the course of the 1980s, the Liberal party came to accept the free-market policies that Fraser had resisted and Howard had espoused. Policies included low protection, decentralisation of wage fixation, financial deregulation, a broadly based indirect tax, and the rejection of counter-cyclical fiscal policy.[27]

Opposition years (1983–1996)

Following the defeat of the Fraser government and Fraser's subsequent resignation from parliament, Howard contested the Liberal leadership but was defeated by Andrew Peacock. Remaining Deputy Leader of the parliamentary party, Howard became Deputy Leader of the Opposition and the Liberal Party were defeated by Hawke's Labor Government at the 1984 election. In 1985, as Labor's position in opinion polls improved, Peacock's popularity sank, and Howard's profile rose, leadership speculation persisted. Peacock said he would no longer accept Howard as deputy unless he offered assurances that he would not challenge for the leadership. Following Howard's refusal to offer such an assurance, Peacock sought, in September 1985, to replace him with John Moore as Deputy Leader.[28] The party room re-elected Howard as Deputy on 5 September (38 votes to 31), and, believing his position untenable, Peacock resigned the leadership. With Peacock not contesting the Liberal Party leadership ballot, Howard defeated Jim Carlton 57 votes to 6[29] to become Leader of the party and the Opposition.[30][31]

Leader of the opposition and new economic policy

Howard was in effect the Liberal party's first pro-market leader in the conservative coalition and spent the next two years working to revise Liberal policy away from that of Fraser's.[32] In his own words he was an "economic radical" and a social conservative.[33] Referring to the pro-market liberalism of the 1980s, Howard said in July 1986 that "The times will suit me".[34] That year the economy was seen to be in crisis with a 40% devaluation of the Australian dollar, a marked increase in the current account deficit and the loss of the Federal Government's triple A rating.[34] In response to the economic circumstances, Howard persistently attacked the Labor government and offered his free-market reform agenda.[34] Support for the Labor Party and Hawke strengthened in 1985 and 1986 and Howard's approval ratings dropped in the face of infighting between Howard and Peacock supporters, a "public manifestation of disunity" over policy positions, and questions over Howard's leadership.[35][36]

Hawke called the 1987 election six months early. In addition to the Howard–Peacock rivalry, Queensland National Party criticism of the federal Liberal and National leadership led to a split in the Coalition whereby Nationals ran against Liberals,[37] and culminated in the "Joh for Canberra" campaign. Keating campaigned against Howard's proposed tax changes forcing Howard to admit a double-counting in the proposal,[38] and emphasising to the electorate that the package would mean at that stage undisclosed cuts to government services. The Hawke Government was re-elected with an increased majority.

Howard's social agenda

In his social agenda, Howard promoted the traditional family and was antipathetic to the promotion of multiculturalism at the expense of a shared Australian identity.[39] The immigration policy, One Australia, outlined a vision of "one nation and one future" and opposed multiculturalism.[33] Howard publicly suggested that to support "social cohesion" the rate of Asian immigration be "slowed down a little".[40] The comments divided opinion within the Coalition, and undermined Howard's standing amongst Liberal party figures including federal and state Ministers, intellectual opinion makers, business leaders, and within the Asia Pacific. Three Liberal MPs crossed the floor and two abstained in response to motion put forward by Prime Minister Hawke to affirm that race or ethnicity would not be used as immigrant selection criteria. Many Liberals later nominated the issue as instrumental in Howard subsequently losing the leadership in 1989.[41] In a 1995 newspaper article (and in 2002 as Prime Minister), Howard recanted his 1988 remarks on curbing Asian immigration.[42][43]

In line with "One Australia's" rejection of Aboriginal land rights, Howard said the idea of an Aboriginal treaty was "repugnant to the ideals of One Australia"[33] and commented "I don't think it is wrong, racist, immoral or anything, for a country to say 'we will decide what the cultural identity and the cultural destiny of this country will be and nobody else."[44]

Loss of the leadership

As the country's economic position worsened in 1989, public opinion moved away from Labor, however there was no firm opinion poll lead for Howard or the Coalition.[45] In February, Liberal Party president and prominent businessman, John Elliott, said confidentially to Andrew Peacock that he would support him in a leadership challenge against Howard,[38] and in May a surprise leadership coup was launched, ousting Howard as Liberal leader. When asked that day whether he could become Liberal leader again, Howard likened it to "Lazarus with a triple bypass".[46] The loss of the Liberal Party leadership to Peacock deeply affected Howard, who admitted he would occasionally drink too much.[47] Declining Peacock's offer of Shadow Education, Howard went to the backbench and a new period of party disunity ensued. Howard served as Shadow Minister for Industry, Technology and Communications, Shadow Minister Assisting the Leader on the Public Service, Chairman of the Manpower and Labour Market Reform Group, Shadow Minister for Industrial Relations and Manager of Opposition Business in the House.

Following the Coalition's 1990 election loss, Howard had wanted to run again however he did not have enough support Peacock was replaced with former Howard staffer John Hewson who defeated Peter Reith, Peacock supported Hewson with generational change which took Howard's name out.[48] Howard was a supporter of Hewson's economic program, with a Goods and Services Tax (GST) as its centrepiece. After Hewson lost the "unloseable" 1993 election to Paul Keating, Howard unsuccessfully challenged Hewson for the leadership. In 1994, he was again passed over for the leadership, which went to Alexander Downer.

Opposition leader again

In January 1995, leaked internal Liberal Party polling showed that with gaffe-prone Downer as leader, the Coalition had slim chance of holding its marginal seats in the next election, let alone of winning government. Media speculation of a leadership spill ended when, on 26 January 1995, Downer resigned as Liberal Leader and Howard was elected unopposed to replace him.[43] The Coalition subsequently opened a large lead over Labor in most opinion polls, and Howard overtook Paul Keating as preferred Prime Minister. Hoping to avoid a repeat of 1993, Howard revised his earlier statements against Medicare and Asian immigration, describing Australia as "a unique intersection between Europe, North America and Asia".[15][42] This allowed Howard to focus on the economy and memory of the early 1990s recession, and on the longevity of the Labor government, which in 1996 had been in power for 13 years.

Prime minister

Howard in June 1997, just over a year after becoming prime minister.
Main article: Howard Government

Election win and first term

By the time the writs were dropped for the 1996 election, the Coalition had been well ahead of Labor in opinion polls for over a year. The consensus of most opinion polls was that Howard would be the next Prime Minister.

With the support of many traditionally Labor voters—dubbed "Howard battlers"—Howard and the Liberal-National Coalition swept to power on the back of a 29-seat swing. This was the second-worst defeat of an incumbent government since Federation. With a 45-seat majority—the second-biggest majority in Australian history (behind only Fraser's 55-seat majority in 1975)--Howard came into office in a strong position. By this time, as he put it, he had "very clear views on where I wanted to take the country".[49] At the age of 56, he was sworn in as Prime Minister on 11 March 1996, ending a record 13 years of Coalition opposition.[12] Howard departed from tradition and made his primary residence Kirribilli House in Sydney rather than The Lodge in Canberra.[50]

Early in the term Howard had championed significant new restrictions on gun ownership following the Port Arthur massacre in which 35 people had been shot dead. Achieving agreement in the face of immense opposition from within the Coalition and some State governments, was credited with significantly elevating Howard's stature as Prime Minister despite a backlash from core Coalition rural constituents.[51][52][53][54]

Howard's initial silence on the views of Pauline Hanson—a disendorsed Liberal Party candidate and later independent MP—was criticised in the press as an endorsement of her views.[55] Howard said that she was entitled to express her opinion, that many others would share it, and that to denounce her would "elevate it".[56][57] Howard repudiated her views seven months after Hanson's controversial maiden parliamentary speech.[55]

Following the Wik Decision of the High Court in 1996, the Howard government moved swiftly to legislate limitations on its possible implications through the so-called Ten-Point Plan.

John Howard and US Secretary of Defense William Cohen in 1997

From 1997, Howard spearheaded the Coalition push to introduce a Goods and Services Tax (GST) at the 1998 election. Before winning the Prime Ministership, Howard said that he considered the Coalition's defeat in 1993 to be a rejection of the GST, and as a result it would "never ever" be part of Coalition policy.[58] A long held conviction of Howard's, his tax reform package was credited with "breaking the circuit" of party morale—boosting his confidence and direction, which had appeared to wane early in the Government's second term.[59] The 1998 election was dubbed a "referendum on the GST", and the tax changes—including the GST—were implemented in the government's second term after amendments to the legislation were negotiated with the Australian Democrats to ensure its passage through the Senate.

Through much of its first term, opinion polling was disappointing for the government and its members at times feared being a "one-term wonder".[60][61][62] The popularity of Pauline Hanson, and the new restrictions on gun ownership drew many traditionally Coalition voters away from the Howard government. Also unpopular with voters were large spending cuts aimed at eliminating the budget deficit (and Howard's distinction between "core" and "non-core" election promises when cutting spending commitments), industrial changes and the 1998 waterfront dispute, the partial sale of government telecommunications company Telstra, and the Government's commitment to a GST.

Howard called a snap election for October 1998, three months sooner than required. The Coalition actually lost the national two-party preferred vote to Labor, suffering a 14-seat swing. However, the uneven nature of the swing allowed Howard to win a second term in government, with a considerably reduced majority (from 45 seats to 12). Howard himself finished just short of a majority on the first count in his own seat, and was only assured of reelection on the ninth count. He ultimately finished with a fairly comfortable 56 percent of the two-party preferred vote.

Second term

In 1998, Howard convened a Constitutional Convention which decided in principle that Australia should become a Republic. At the convention Howard confirmed himself as a monarchist, and said that of the Republican options, he preferred the minimalist model. Howard outlined his support for retaining the status quo on the basis that it had provided a long period of stability and whilst he said there was no question that Australia was a fully independent nation, he believed that the "separation of the ceremonial and executive functions of government" and the presence of a neutral "defender of constitutional integrity" was an advantage in government and that no republican model would be as effective in providing such an outcome as the Australian constitutional monarchy.[63] Despite opinion polls suggesting Australians favoured a republic, a 1999 referendum rejected the model chosen by the convention.

Australian peacekeepers and East Timorese civilians in Dili during 2000

Although new Indonesian President B.J. Habibie had some months earlier agreed to grant special autonomy to Indonesian-occupied East Timor, his subsequent snap decision for a referendum on the territory's independence triggered a Howard and Downer orchestrated shift in Australian policy. In September 1999, Howard organised an Australian-led international peace-keeping force to East Timor (INTERFET), after pro-Indonesia militia launched a violent "scorched-earth" campaign in retaliation to the referendum's overwhelming vote in favour of independence. The successful mission was widely supported by Australian voters, but the government was criticised[who?] for "foreign policy failure" following the violence and collapse of diplomatic relations with Indonesia. By Howard's fourth term, relations with Indonesia had recovered to include counter-terrorism cooperation and Australia's $1bn Boxing Day Tsunami relief efforts, and were assisted by good relations between Howard and Indonesian President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono.[64][65]

Throughout his prime-ministership, Howard was resolute in his refusal to provide a parliamentary "apology" to Indigenous Australians as recommended by the 1997 "Bringing Them Home" Report. Howard argued this was inappropriate, because "Australians of this generation should not be required to accept guilt and blame for past actions and policies."[66] Howard did offer this personal apology before the release of the Report: "I feel deep sorrow for those of my fellow Australians who suffered injustices under the practices of past generations towards indigenous people. Equally, I am sorry for the hurt and trauma many here today may continue to feel, as a consequence of these practices".[67]

In 1999 Howard negotiated a "Motion of Reconciliation" with Aboriginal Senator Aden Ridgeway. Eschewing use of the word "sorry", the motion recognised mistreatment of Aborigines as the "most blemished chapter" in Australia's history; offered "deep and sincere regret" for past injustices.[68] Following his 2007 loss of the Prime Ministership, Howard was the only living former Prime Minister who declined to attend the February 2008 apology made by Kevin Rudd with bi-partisan support.[69]

Howard did not commit to serving a full term if he won the next election; on his 61st birthday in July 2000 he said he would consider the question of retirement when he turned 64.[70] This was interpreted as boosting Costello's leadership aspirations, and the enmity over leadership and succession resurfaced publicly when Howard did not retire at the age of 64.[71][72] In the first half of 2001, rising petrol prices, voter enmity over the implementation of the GST, a spike in inflation and economic slowdown led to bad opinion polls and predictions the Government would lose office in the election later that year.[73] With Howard telling Cabinet he would not be "sacrificed on the pyre of ideological purity", the government announced a series of policy reversals and softenings which boosted the government's fortunes, as did news that the economy had avoided recession. Following the Liberal Party win at the Aston by-election, Howard said that the Coalition was "back in the game".[73] The government's position on "border protection", in particular the Tampa affair where Howard refused the landing of asylum seekers rescued by a Norwegian freighter, consolidated the improving polls for the government, as did the 11 September 2001 attacks.[74] Howard led the government to victory in the 2001 federal election with an increased majority.[75][76][77]

Third term

Howard maintained a strong friendship with George W. Bush

Howard had first met US President George W. Bush in the days before the 11 September terrorist attacks and was in Washington the morning of the attacks.[78] In response to the attacks, Howard invoked the ANZUS Treaty and said that the invocation of the treaty "demonstrates Australia's steadfast commitment to work with the United States." In October, he committed Australian military personnel to the war in Afghanistan. Howard developed a strong personal relationship with the president,[79] and they shared often similar ideological positions – including on the role of the United States in world affairs and their approach to the "War on Terror". In May 2003, Howard made an overnight stay at Bush's Prairie Chapel Ranch in Texas, after which Bush said that Howard "...is not only a man of steel, he's showed the world he's a man of heart."[80]

In April 2002, Howard was the first Australian Prime Minister to attend a royal funeral, that of Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother. In October Howard responded to the 2002 Bali bombing, in which 88 Australian citizens were killed, by calling on Australians to "wrap their arms around the people of Indonesia" and said that, while affected, Australia remained "strong and free and open and tolerant".[81] Howard re-dedicated his government to the "War on Terror", saying the Bali bombing was proof that no country was "immune" to the effects of terrorism.

In March 2003, Australia joined the US-led "Multinational force in Iraq" in sending 2,000 troops and naval units to support in the invasion of Iraq. Howard said that the invasion to "disarm Iraq...is right, it is lawful, and it is in Australia's national interest." He later said that the decision to go into Iraq was the most difficult he made as Prime Minister.[82] In response to the Australian participation in the invasion, there were large protests in Australian cities during March 2003, and Prime Minister Howard was heckled from the public gallery of Parliament House.[83] While opinion polls showed that opposition to the war without UN backing was between 48 and 92 per cent,[84] Howard remained preferred prime-minister over opposition leader, Simon Crean, and his approval dropped compared to before the war.[85][86]

Throughout 2002 and 2003 Howard had increased his opinion poll lead over Labor leader, Simon Crean. In December 2003, Crean resigned after losing party support and Mark Latham was elected leader. Howard called an election for 9 October 2004. While the government was behind Labor in the opinion polls, Howard himself had a large lead over Latham as preferred Prime Minister. In the lead up to the election, Howard again did not commit to serving a full term.[87] Howard campaigned on the theme of trust, asking: "Who do you trust to keep the economy strong, and protect family living standards? Who do you trust to keep interest rates low?"[88] Howard attacked Latham's economic record as Mayor of Liverpool City Council and attacked Labor's economic history saying: "It is an historic fact that interest rates have always gone up under Labor governments over the last 30 years, because Labor governments spend more than they collect and drive budgets into deficit ... So it will be with a Latham Labor government... I will guarantee that interest rates are always going to be lower under a Coalition government."[89] The election resulted in a five-seat swing to the Coalition, netting it a majority almost as large as in 1996. It also resulted the first, albeit slim, government majority in the Senate since 1981. For the second time since becoming Prime Minister, Howard came up short of a majority in the first count for his own seat. He was assured of reelection on the third count, ultimately winning 53.3 percent of the two-party preferred vote.[90] On 21 December 2004, Howard overtook Bob Hawke to become the second-longest serving Australian Prime Minister after Sir Robert Menzies.[91]

Fourth term

John Howard with Vladimir Putin at the 2007 APEC Summit

In 2006, with the government now controlling both houses of parliament for the first time since the Fraser era, industrial relations changes were enacted. Named "WorkChoices" and championed by Howard, they were intended to fundamentally change the employer-employee relationship. Opposed by a broad trade union campaign and antipathy within the electorate, WorkChoices was subsequently seen as a major factor in the government's 2007 election loss.[92][93][94]

In April 2006, the government announced it had completely paid off the last of $96 billion of Commonwealth net debt inherited when it came to power in 1996.[95] By 2007, Howard had been in office for 11 of the 15 years of consecutive annual growth enjoyed by the Australian economy. Unemployment had fallen from 8.1% at the start of his term to 4.1% in 2007,[96][97] and average weekly earnings grew 24.4% in real terms.[98] Howard often cited economic management as a strong point of the government, and during his Prime Ministership, opinion polling consistently showed that a majority of the electorate thought his government were better to handle the economy than the Opposition.[99]

In 2006, Ian McLachlan and Peter Costello said that under a 1994 deal between Howard and Costello, Howard would serve one and half terms as Prime Minister if the Coalition won the next election before stepping aside to allow Costello to take over. Howard denied that this constituted a deal;[100][101][102] and there were calls for Costello to either challenge or quit.[103][104] Citing strong party room support for him as leader, Howard stated later that month that he would remain to contest the 2007 election.[105] Six weeks before the election, Howard said that, if elected, he would stand down during the next term, and anointed Costello as his successor.[106] Costello commented, in 2007 while still in government, that "The Howard treasurership was not a success in terms of interest rates and inflation... he had not been a great reformer," and questioned Howard's account of his conflicts with the Prime Minister Fraser.[107]

The Coalition trailed Labor in opinion polls from mid-2006 onward, but Howard still consistently led Labor leader Kim Beazley on the question of preferred Prime Minister – and was even described as a "revolutionary" in his opposition to unionism.[108] In December 2006, after Kevin Rudd became Labor leader, the two-party preferred deficit widened even further and Rudd swiftly overtook Howard as preferred Prime Minister. Howard chaired APEC Australia 2007, culminating in the APEC Economic Leaders Meeting in Sydney during September.[109] The meeting was at times overshadowed by further leadership speculation following continued poor poll results.[110]

2007 election defeat

Electioneering balloons from the Liberal and Labor parties in Bennelong during the 2007 federal election.

Leading up to the 24 November election, the Coalition trailed Labor in the polls since the Labor Party elected Kevin Rudd as party leader in late 2006. In the election, Howard and his government were defeated, suffering a 23-seat swing to Labor, which was almost as large as the 29-seat swing that propelled him to power in 1996. Howard lost his seat of Bennelong to former journalist Maxine McKew by 44,685 votes (51.4 percent) to Howard's 42,251 (48.6 percent).[111][112] The final tally indicated that McKew defeated Howard on the 14th count due to a large flow of Green preferences to her; 3,793 (78.84 percent) of Green voters listed McKew as their second preference.[113] Howard told a former colleague that losing Bennelong was a "silver lining in the thunder cloud of defeat" as it spared him the ignominy of opposition.[114] Howard is the second Australian Prime Minister, after Stanley Bruce, to lose his seat in an election.[115] He remained in office as caretaker Prime Minister until the formal swearing in of Rudd's government on 3 December.[116]

Federal Liberal Party director Brian Loughnane said "it was the failure of Kim Beazley's leadership that had masked voter concerns about Howard".[117] Media analysis of The Australian Election Study, a postal survey of 1873 voters during the 2007 poll, found that although respondents respected Howard and thought he had won the 6-week election campaign, Howard was considered "at odds with public opinion on cut-through issues", his opponent had achieved the highest "likeability" rating in the survey's 20-year history, and a majority had decided their voting intention before the election campaign.[118]

After politics

In January 2008, Howard signed with a prominent speaking agency called the Washington Speakers Bureau, joining Tony Blair, Colin Powell, Madeleine Albright, and others. He will be available for two speeches, Leadership in the New Century and The Global Economic Future.[119]

The Australian and New Zealand cricket boards unsuccessfully nominated Howard as their candidate for president of the International Cricket Council. [120] Howard is currently the chairman of the International Democrat Union, a body of international conservative political parties,[121] and in 2008 was appointed a Director of the Foundation established to preserve the legacy of Donald Bradman.[122]

As a result of an anaphylactic reaction to an anaesthetic used during dental surgery, Howard was admitted to hospital in 2009 and spent two nights under observation.[123][importance?]

Howard's autobiography Lazarus Rising: A Personal and Political Autobiography was released on 26 October 2010.[124]

Titles, styles and honours

Bust of John Howard by political cartoonist, caricaturist and sculptor Peter Nicholson located in the Prime Minister's Avenue in the Ballarat Botanical Gardens

Titles and styles

  • 26 July 1939 – 18 May 1974: Mr John Howard
  • 18 May 1974 – 22 December 1975: Mr John Howard, MP
  • 22 December 1975 – 15 June 2005: The Honourable John Howard, MP
  • 15 June 2005 – 24 November 2007: The Honourable John Howard, MP
  • 24 November 2007 – 26 January 2008: The Honourable John Howard
  • 26 January 2008 – 1 January 2012: The Honourable John Howard, AC
  • 1 January 2012 – Present: The Honourable John Howard, OM, AC

Honours

Orders
  • Australia 26 January 2008: Companion of the Order of Australia (AC) "for distinguished service to the Parliament of Australia, particularly as Prime Minister and through contributions to economic and social policy reform, fostering and promoting Australia's interests internationally, and the development of significant philanthropic links between the business sector, arts and charitable organisations".[125]
  • 1 January 2012 Member of the Order of Merit (OM) by Her Majesty, Queen Elizabeth II.[126]
Medals
Foreign honours
Howard (left) being awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President George W. Bush
Organisations

Appointments

Academic degrees
  • Israel December 2008 – : Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Honorary Doctorate for "outstanding statesmanship and leading role on the world stage in promoting democracy and combating international terrorism" and his "remarkable understanding of, and exceptional support for, the State of Israel and his deep friendship with the Australian Jewish community".[136]
  • 14 February 2009 – : Bond University, Honorary doctorate[137]
  • April 2012 – : Macquarie University, Honorary Doctor of Letters[138]

See also

References

  1. ^ Garran 2004, p. 10
  2. ^ Van Onselen & Errington 2007, pp. 7–9
  3. ^ Peter Van Onselen, Wayne Errington, John Winston Howard: The Definitive Biography, p. 2-4
  4. ^ a b c Kelly, Paul (19 May 1999), "The Common Man as Prime Minister", The Australian 
  5. ^ "Tin soldered for the King in Howard's home", Sydney Morning Herald, 19 June 2006, retrieved 29 August 2007 
  6. ^ Birnbauer, Bill, "Rise Of A Common Man", The Age, 4 March 1996
  7. ^ a b c "Canterbury tales", Sydney Morning Herald, 18 September 2004, retrieved 5 September 2007 
  8. ^ Transcript of the Prime Minister the Hon. John Howard MP, opening of the child deafness research laboratories at The Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital, East Melbourne, Parlinfo, 16 February 2000, retrieved 8 July 2008 
  9. ^ Van Onselen & Errington 2007, pp. 21, 35
  10. ^ Beazley and Howard- Politics and Sport, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 26 October 2001, retrieved 13 March 2007 
  11. ^ Sixteen-year-old John Howard on a popular radio quiz show compered by Jack Davey, australianpolitics.com, 9 June 2002, retrieved 8 July 2006 RAM
  12. ^ a b c d Prime Ministers of Australia: John Howard, National Museum of Australia, 1 August 2007, retrieved 14 August 2007 
  13. ^ Australia's Prime Ministers : John Howard, National Archives of Australia, archived from the original on 30 August 2007, retrieved 27 November 2007 [dead link]
  14. ^ Young Liberals Life Members & Past Presidents, Young Liberals, 2006, archived from the original on 21 December 2005, retrieved 8 July 2006 
  15. ^ a b "John Howard Interview– 1996", Four Corners, 19 February 1996, retrieved 26 December 2006 
  16. ^ Drummoyne– 1968, Parliament of New South Wales, 25 July 2007, retrieved 25 July 2007 
  17. ^ Kelly (1994), p. 101.
  18. ^ Kelly (1994), pp. 101–103.
  19. ^ Kelly (1994), p. 102.
  20. ^ a b Kelly (1994), pp. 50–53.
  21. ^ a b Bell 2004, p. 21
  22. ^ Kelly 1994, p. 78
  23. ^ Boyer Lecture 3: Reform and Deregulation26 November 2006
  24. ^ Kelly (1994), p. 49.
  25. ^ Kelly (1994), pp. 49–50.
  26. ^ F01 Interest rates and yields – money market (Excel file), Reserve Bank of Australia, archived from the original on 29 July 2007, retrieved 29 August 2007 
  27. ^ Kelly (1994), p. 232.
  28. ^ Barclay, Glen (August 1986), "Australian Political Chronicle: July–December 1985", Australian Journal of Politics and History 32 (2): 264, ISSN 0004-9522 
  29. ^ by George. "poliquant.com". poliquant.com. Retrieved 17 August 2012. [dead link]
  30. ^ Kelly (1994), p. 192.
  31. ^ Ramsay, Alan (6 March 2004), "Howard's labours are slipping away", The Sydney Morning Herald: 37, retrieved 7 August 2007 
  32. ^ "Australian Political Chronicle: January–June 1987", Australian Journal of Politics and History 33 (3), December 1987: 280–281, ISSN 0004-9522 
  33. ^ a b c Markus 2001, pp. 85–89
  34. ^ a b c Summers, Anne (18 August 2003), "The sad times do suit him; he made them", Sydney Morning Herald 
  35. ^ Barclay, Glen (August 1986), "Australian Political Chronicle: July–December 1985", Australian Journal of Politics and History 32 (2): 264, ISSN 0004-9522 
  36. ^ Barclay, Glen (December 1986), "Australian Political Chronicle: January–June 1986", Australian Journal of Politics and History 32 (3): 455, ISSN 0004-9522 
  37. ^ "Australian Political Chronicle: January–June 1987", Australian Journal of Politics and History 33 (3), December 1987: 279–285, doi:10.1111/j.1467-8497.1987.tb00153.x, ISSN 0004-9522 
  38. ^ a b Kelly, Paul (1994), The End of Certainty: Power, Politics, and Business in Australia, Allen & Unwin, pp. 427, 457, ISBN 1-86373-757-X, retrieved 5 October 2007 
  39. ^ Kelly (1994), pp. 419.
  40. ^ Van Onselen & Errington 2007, p. 157
  41. ^ Kelly (1994), pp. 427–428.
  42. ^ a b Megalogenis, George (27 February 2007), "Asian influence spices up contest", The Australian: 11, retrieved 27 July 2007 
  43. ^ a b Ward, Ian (December 1995), "Australian Political Chronicle: January–June 1995", Australian Journal of Politics and History 41 (3) 
  44. ^ "When talk of racism is just not cricket", The Sydney Morning Herald, 16 December 2005, retrieved 19 August 2007 
  45. ^ Kelly (1994), p. 470.
  46. ^ "Thoughts of a bypassed Lazarus", The Age (Melbourne), 29 February 2004, retrieved 25 July 2007 
  47. ^ "Howard: 'I was drunk at work'", The Courier-Mail, 25 July 2007, retrieved 25 July 2007 [dead link]
  48. ^ Kelly, Paul (2011). "Big Bang Liberalism". The March of Patriots: The Struggle for Modern Australia. Melbourne, Australia: Melbourne Univ. Publishing. p. 45. ISBN 0-522-85738-8. 
  49. ^ The Howard Years (episode 1) (TV Series). Australia: Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 2008. 
  50. ^ Milne, Glenn (10 June 2007), PM hires out Kirribilli House, News.com.au, retrieved 25 April 2010 
  51. ^ The Howard Years (episode 4) (TV Series). Australia: Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 2008. 
  52. ^ Kelly, Paul (1–2 May 1997), "A Year of Governing Cautiously", The Weekend Australian 
  53. ^ Prime Ministers of Australia: John Howard, National Museum of Australia]
  54. ^ Ward, Ian (December 1995), "Australian Political Chronicle: January–June 1995", Australian Journal of Politics and History 41 (3): 444–448, doi:10.1111/j.1467-8497.1995.tb01274.x, ISSN 0004-9522 
  55. ^ a b The Howard Years – Chronology[dead link], Australian Broadcasting Corporation
  56. ^ Pauline Hanson pulls the plug as One Nation president, ABC, 14 January 2002, retrieved 29 August 2007 
  57. ^ The Howard Years (episode 1) (TV Series). Australia: Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 2008. 
  58. ^ A look back at Howard's ten years, Australia: ABC, retrieved 25 April 2010 
  59. ^ Van Onselen & Errington 2007, pp. 272–273
  60. ^ Ward, Ian (1998), "Australian Political Chronicle: July–December 1997", Australian Journal of Politics and History 44 (2): 233 
  61. ^ The Howard Years (episode 1) (TV Series). Australia: Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 2008. 
  62. ^ Kelly, Paul (23 September 1998), "Howard's Big Picture and Big Gamble", The Australian 
  63. ^ "Pandora Archive". Pandora.nla.gov.au. 23 August 2006. Retrieved 13 May 2011. 
  64. ^ AAP 6 March 2006 (6 March 2006), The Epoch Times | Indonesia-Australian Relationship Best Ever, En.epochtimes.com, retrieved 25 April 2010 
  65. ^ 'Indonesia – Australian Relations: East Timor, Bali Bombing, Tsunami and Beyond' by Ambassador Imron Cotan, Kbri-canberra.org.au, retrieved 25 April 2010 
  66. ^ Opening Speech of Australian Reconciliation Convention, Australasian Legal Information Institute, 26 May 2000, archived from the original on 24 May 2006, retrieved 23 August 2006 
  67. ^ The History of Apologies Down Under [Thinking Faith – the online journal of the British Jesuits], Thinkingfaith.org, retrieved 25 April 2010 
  68. ^ ParlInfo – Title Details, Parlinfo.aph.gov.au, retrieved 25 April 2010 
  69. ^ Welch, Dylan (13 February 2008), "Kevin Rudd says sorry" (online briefing), The Sydney Moning Herald 
  70. ^ "When I'm 64: Howard", The 7:30 Report (Australian Broadcasting Corporation), 5 October 2001, retrieved 29 August 2007 
  71. ^ Henderson, Gerard (10 June 2003), "The high cost of Howard's big tease", The Age (Melbourne): 11, retrieved 12 January 2009 
  72. ^ Yaxley, Louise (3 June 2003), "PM decides to stay" (transcript), PM (Australian Broadcasting Corporation), retrieved 29 August 2007 
  73. ^ a b Wear, Rae (December 2001), "Australian Political Chronicle: January–June 2001", Australian Journal of Politics and History 47 (4): 531–536, doi:10.1111/1467-8497.00244, ISSN 0004-9522 
  74. ^ "Tampa Crisis", Infobase (Atlas) (Heinemann Interactive), retrieved 15 July 2006 
  75. ^ "Latest poll 'a nonsense': former Labor pollster", PM (Australian Broadcasting Corporation), 1 June 2004, retrieved 29 August 2007 
  76. ^ "Antony Green's Election Summary", Australia votes (Australian Broadcasting Corporation), 2004, retrieved 29 August 2007 
  77. ^ Carney, Shaun (11 September 2004), "The challenge for Australia", The Age (Melbourne), retrieved 29 August 2007 
  78. ^ Howard accepts Presidential Medal of Freedom, AM program transcript, ABC Radio, Australia: ABC, 14 January 2009, retrieved 25 April 2010 
  79. ^ Johnston, Tim (25 November 2007), "Ally of Bush Is Defeated in Australia", The New York Times: 8, retrieved 6 May 2008 
  80. ^ "Bush lauds Howard as 'man of steel'", The Sydney Morning Herald, 4 May 2003, retrieved 6 May 2008 
  81. ^ John Howard's Bali memorial speech – TVNZ Smartphone, tvnz.co.nz, 18 October 2002, retrieved 25 April 2010 
  82. ^ The Howard Years (episode 3) (TV Series). Australia: Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 2008. 
  83. ^ Malaysian PM condemns Iraq war, BBC News, 24 March 2003, retrieved 19 August 2008 
  84. ^ Riley, Mark (1 April 2003), "Support for the fight growing", Sydney Morning Herald, retrieved 22 August 2008 
  85. ^ When it was reported that that Iraq did not possess weapons of mass destruction, 70% of Australians believed Howard misled them, although most believed he did so unintentionally.
  86. ^ Riley, Mark (24 September 2003), "Poll: majority of Australians 'feel misled' by Howard", Sydney Morning Herald, retrieved 22 August 2008 
  87. ^ "I'm committed and ready, says Latham", The 7:30 Report (Australian Broadcasting Corporation), 7 October 2004, retrieved 29 August 2007 
  88. ^ "Howard: election to be about trust", Sydney Morning Herald, 29 August 2004, retrieved 4 October 2008 
  89. ^ Wade, Matt (30 August 2004), "Labor means rate rises, PM claims", The Age (Australia), retrieved 29 August 2007 
  90. ^ http://psephos.adam-carr.net/countries/a/australia/2004/2004repsnsw.txt
  91. ^ PM still favourite as he celebrates milestone, ABC News, 21 December 2004, retrieved 14 August 2007 [dead link]
  92. ^ The Howard Years (episode 4) (TV Series). Australia: Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 2008. 
  93. ^ Wanna, John (2007), "Australian Political Chronicle: July–December 2007", Australian Journal of Politics and History 54 (2): 291 
  94. ^ Wanna, John (1995), "Australian Political Chronicle: January–June 2007", Australian Journal of Politics and History 53 (4): 619 
  95. ^ Costello, Peter (20 April 2006), Speech to the Committee for Economic Development of Australia : "DEBT-FREE DAY" 
  96. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics, Abs.gov.au, retrieved 25 April 2010 
  97. ^ Australia Bureau of Statistics, Abs.gov.au, retrieved 25 April 2010 
  98. ^ John Stone, John Stone, Growth, Jobs, and Prosperity, Quadrant. January–February 2009, Quadrant.org.au, retrieved 25 April 2010 
  99. ^ Newspoll (various 2000–2007)
  100. ^ Steve Lewis (10 July 2006), Costello backers savage Howard, News Limited, archived from the original on 16 July 2006, retrieved 10 July 2006 
  101. ^ Glenn Milne (10 July 2006), No, Prime Minister, you cannot deny it, News Limited, archived from the original on 16 July 2006, retrieved 10 July 2006 
  102. ^ Howard promised me a handover: Costello / Howard rejects Costello's deal claim, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 10 July 2006, retrieved 10 July 2006 [dead link]
  103. ^ Labor sees end to Howard-Costello duet, ABC, 10 July 2006, retrieved 10 July 2006 [dead link]
  104. ^ Call for Costello to quit or challenge, ABC, 11 July 2006, retrieved 11 July 2006 [dead link]
  105. ^ PM's decision to face electorate welcomed, ABC, 31 July 2006, retrieved 31 July 2006 [dead link]
  106. ^ O'Brien, Kerry (12 September 2007), "John Howard on the latest round of leadership turmoil", The 7.30 Report (ABC), retrieved 12 September 2007 
  107. ^ "Howard failed as treasurer, says Costello", Sydney Morning Herald, 19 July 2007, retrieved 25 July 2007 
  108. ^ Kassey Dickie (2006). The Union Show (04 July) (TV-Series). C31 Melbourne. 
  109. ^ APEC 2007 Taskforce, Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet, 30 June 2006, archived from the original on 31 August 2007, retrieved 13 September 2007 
  110. ^ "Leadership talk dogs PM", ABC Online, 7 September 2007, retrieved 11 September 2007 
  111. ^ Bennelong (Key Seat), Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 25 November 2007, retrieved 25 November 2007 
  112. ^ Bennelong too close to call, says McKew, news.com.au, 25 November 2007, retrieved 25 November 2007 
  113. ^ "Two Candidate Preferred Preference Flow". Results.aec.gov.au. Retrieved 13 May 2011. 
  114. ^ Kate Legge (5 April 2008), "Dark tea-time of the soul", The Australian (News Ltd) 
  115. ^ Paul Bibby (12 December 2007), "Finally, Howard admits McKew has it", The Sydney Morning Herald, retrieved 12 December 2007 
  116. ^ "Rudd feeling 'chipper' about swearing in", ABC Online, 3 December 2007 
  117. ^ Glenn Milne (24 December 2007), "Roadrunner Rudd on track", The Australian (News Ltd) 
  118. ^ Mark Davis (24 May 2008), "What made battlers turn the tide", Sydney Morning Herald (Fairfax) [dead link]
  119. ^ Maley, Paul (19 January 2008). "Howard signs up to talk the talk". The Australian. Retrieved 25 April 2010. 
  120. ^ "Howard put up for ICC presidency". ABC News (Australia). 2 March 2010. Retrieved 2 March 2010. 
  121. ^ http://www.idu.org/officers.aspx%7C Retrieved 11 April 2010
  122. ^ "Board of Directors". Bradman Foundation. 2012. Retrieved 14 February 2012. 
  123. ^ "Howard recovering after health scare". SBS News (Australia). AAP. 7 September 2009. Retrieved 19 March 2012. 
  124. ^ Kellie Lazaro (25 October 2010). "Kennett: Howard left no legacy as PM". AM. ABC. Radio National. http://www.abc.net.au/am/content/2010/s3047030.htm. Retrieved 25 October 2010.
  125. ^ It's an Honour: AC, Itsanhonour.gov.au, 9 June 2008, retrieved 25 April 2010 
  126. ^ Appointments to the Order of Merit, 1 January 2012 – the official website of The British Monarchy
  127. ^ Its an Honour: Centenary Medal, AustralianGovernment, retrieved 3 May 2009 
  128. ^ PM awarded the Star of the Solomon Islands, Beehive, 20 June 2005, retrieved 8 July 2006 [dead link]
  129. ^ Medals of the World – Solomon Islands: Star of the Solomon Islands. Retrieved 24 September 2006
  130. ^ Howard to receive US presidential award, Melbourne: News.theage.com.au, 6 January 2009, retrieved 25 April 2010 
  131. ^ "Conferral ceremony for Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun upon the Honourable John Winston Howard OM AC, former Prime Minister of Australia". Embassy Events. Embassy of Japan in Australia. Retrieved 21 December 2013. 
  132. ^ Presidential Gold Medal[dead link]
  133. ^ Australia's John Howard Receives 2008 Irving Kristol Award[dead link] AEI press release 3 January 2008
  134. ^ Patterson, Stuart, Howard wins $54,000 for good PM-ing | The Australian, Theaustralian.news.com.au, retrieved 25 April 2010 
  135. ^ Australian Olympic Awardees: Recipients of the Olympic Order, http://corporate.olympics.com.au/, 26 June 2014, retrieved 26 June 2014 
  136. ^ Howard: Mumbai attacks a message to Obama[dead link]
  137. ^ Gilmore, Heath (15 February 2009), "An honourable mention for Dr John", Sydney Morning Herald 
  138. ^ Ireland, Judith (10 April 2012). "Howard awarded honorary doctorate". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 10 April 2012. 

Bibliography

  • Bell, Stephen (2004), Australia's Money Mandarins, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-83990-4 
  • Garran, Robert (2004), True Believer: John Howard, George Bush and the American Alliance, Sydney, Australia: Allen & Unwin, ISBN 1-74114-418-3 
  • Grattan, Michelle (2000), 'John Winston Howard', in Michelle Grattan (ed.), Australian Prime Ministers, New Holland, Frenchs Forest, New South Wales, Pages 436–463. ISBN 1-86436-756-3
  • Kelly, Paul (1992, 1994), The End of Certainty: Power, Politics, and Business in Australia, Sydney, Australia: Allen & Unwin, ISBN 1-86373-757-X 
  • Markus, Andrew (2001), Race: John Howard and the Remaking of Australia, Sydney, Australia: Allen & Unwin, ISBN 1-86448-866-2 
  • Van Onselen, Peter; Errington, Wayne (2007), John Winston Howard: The Biography, Melbourne University Press, ISBN 978-0-522-85334-6 

Further reading

Publications
Websites

External links

Parliament of Australia
Preceded by
John Cramer
Member for Bennelong
1974 – 2007
Succeeded by
Maxine McKew
Political offices
Preceded by
Bob Cotton
as Minister for Consumer Affairs
Minister for Business and Consumer Affairs
1975 – 1977
Succeeded by
Wal Fife
New office Minister for Special Trade Negotiations
1977
Succeeded by
Victor Garland
as Minister for Special Trade Representations
Preceded by
Phillip Lynch
Treasurer of Australia
1977 – 1983
Succeeded by
Paul Keating
Preceded by
Andrew Peacock
Leader of the Opposition
1985 – 1989
Succeeded by
Andrew Peacock
Preceded by
Alexander Downer
Leader of the Opposition
1995 – 1996
Succeeded by
Kim Beazley
Preceded by
Paul Keating
Prime Minister of Australia
1996 – 2007
Succeeded by
Kevin Rudd
Party political offices
Preceded by
Phillip Lynch
Deputy Leader of the Liberal Party of Australia
1982 – 1985
Succeeded by
Neil Brown
Preceded by
Andrew Peacock
Leader of the Liberal Party of Australia
1985 – 1989
Succeeded by
Andrew Peacock
Preceded by
Alexander Downer
Leader of the Liberal Party of Australia
1995 – 2007
Succeeded by
Brendan Nelson
Diplomatic posts
Preceded by
Thabo Mbeki
Chairperson of the Commonwealth of Nations
2002 – 2003
Succeeded by
Olusegun Obasanjo