John I, Duke of Brittany

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John I
Jean Ier le Roux.png
Duke of Brittany
Reign 21 October 1221 - 8 October 1286
Predecessor Peter I & Alix
Successor John II
Regent Peter I
Earl of Richmond
Reign 1268
Predecessor Peter of Savoy
Successor John II
Spouse Blanche of Navarre
Issue
Among Others
John II
Peter, Lord of Hade
Alix, Countess of Blois
House House of Dreux
Father Peter I
Mother Alix
Born c. 1217/18
Died 8 October 1286
Château de l'Isle
Burial Prières Abbey
Religion Roman Catholicism

John I the Red (in Breton Yann Iañ ar Ruz, in French Jean I le Roux) (c. 1217/18 – 8 October 1286), known as John the Red due to the colour of his beard, was Duke of Brittany from 1237 to his death and 2nd Earl of Richmond in 1268. He was the son of Duke Peter I, Duke of Brittany jure uxoris and Alix of Thouars, hereditary Duchess of Brittany.

Life[edit]

John was hereditary duke from 1221, date of his mother’s death. His father, Pierre Mauclerc, ruled as regent until he reached adulthood.

He experienced a number of conflicts with the Bishop of Nantes and the Breton clergy. In 1240, he issued an edict expelling Jews from the duchy and cancelling all debts to them.[1] He joined Louis IX of France in the Eighth Crusade (1270), and survived the plague that killed the king. The duchy of Brittany experienced a century of peace, beginning with John I and ending with Duke John III's reign in 1341.[2]

Marriage and issue[edit]

In 1236 John married Infanta Blanche, daughter of King Theobald I of Navarre.[3] They had the following surviving issue:

Ancestry[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Michael Jones, The Creation of Brittany:A Late Medieval State, (The Hambledon Press, 1988), 140.
  2. ^ Michael Jones, The Creation of Brittany:A Late Medieval State, 34.
  3. ^ Elizabeth M. Hallam and Judith Everard, Capetian France, 987-1328, (Longman, 2001), 273.

See also[edit]

John I, Duke of Brittany
Cadet branch of the Capetian Dynasty
Born: c. 1217/18 Died: 8 October 1286
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Alix and
Peter I
Duke of Brittany
1221–1286
Succeeded by
John II
Peerage of England
Preceded by
Peter of Savoy
Earl of Richmond
1268-1286
Succeeded by
John II