John Jacob Astor IV
|John Jacob Astor IV|
Astor in 1895
|Born||July 13, 1864
Rhinebeck, New York, US
|Died||April 15, 1912 (aged 47)
RMS Titanic (sunk), North Atlantic Ocean
|Trinity Church Cemetery|
|Education||St Paul's School|
|Alma mater||Harvard University|
|Net worth||US $85 million (equivalent to approximately $2,077,224,138 in 2014 dollars)|
|Spouse(s)||Ava Lowle Willing
(m. 1891—1909; divorced)
Madeleine Talmage Force
(m. 1911—1912; his death)
|Children||William Vincent Astor
Ava Alice Muriel Astor
John Jacob Astor VI
|Parents||William Backhouse Astor, Jr.
Caroline Webster Schermerhorn
John Jacob "Jack" Astor IV (July 13, 1864 – April 15, 1912), often dubbed "Jack Ass" in the press, was an American businessman, real estate builder, investor, inventor, writer, lieutenant colonel in the Spanish-American War, and a prominent member of the Astor family.
In April 1912, Astor earned a prominent place in history when he embarked on the ocean liner RMS Titanic, which struck an iceberg and sank in the early hours of April 15. Astor was among the 1,514 people on board who did not survive. He was the richest passenger aboard the Titanic, and was thought to be among the richest people in the world at that time, with a net worth of $85,000,000 when he died.
Early life, education, and family
John Jacob Astor IV was born on July 13, 1864. He was the youngest of five children and only son of businessman, collector, and race horse breeder/owner William Backhouse Astor, Jr. (1829–1892) and socialite Caroline Webster "Lina" Schermerhorn (1830–1908). His four elder sisters were Emily (1854–1881), Helen (1855–1893), Charlotte (1858–1920), and Caroline (Carrie) (1861–1948).He was a great-grandson of fur-trader John Jacob Astor (1763–1848) and Sarah Cox Todd (1761–1834), whose fortune made the Astor family one of the wealthiest families in the United States. Jack's paternal grandfather William Backhouse Astor, Sr. (1792–1875) was a prominent real estate businessman. Through his paternal grandmother Margaret Rebecca Armstrong (1800–1872), Jack was also a great-grandson of Senator John Armstrong, Jr. (1758–1843) and Alida Livingston (1761–1822) of the Livingston family. Lina's parents were New York Mayor Abraham Maus Schermerhorn (1791–1855) and Helen White. Astor attended St Paul's School in Concord, New Hampshire and later attended Harvard University. Jack was also a nephew of financer/philanthropist John Jacob Astor III (1822–1890) and grandnephew of occasional poet John Jacob Astor, Jr. (1791–1869). Helen's husband was diplomat James Roosevelt "Rosey" Roosevelt (1854–1927), half-brother of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt (1882–1945) of the Roosevelt family. Carrie, a noted philanthropist, was the wife of Marshall Orme Wilson (1860–1926), brother of banker Richard Thornton Wilson, Jr. (1866–1929) and socialite Grace Graham Wilson (1870–1953). Jack was also a first cousin of Viscount William Waldorf "Willy" Astor (1848–1919).
- William Vincent Astor (1891–1959), businessman and philanthropist
- Ava Alice Muriel Astor (1902–1956), socialite and heiress
Jack and Ava divorced in November 1909. Compounding the scandal of their divorce was Astor's announcement that he would remarry. At the age of 47, Jack married 18-year-old socialite Madeleine Talmage Force (1893–1940), the sister of real estate businesswoman and socialite Katherine Emmons Force (1891–1948). Katherine and Madeleine's parents were William Hurlbut Force and Katherine Arvilla Talmage. They were married in his mother's ballroom at Beechwood, the family's Newport, Rhode Island house. There was also much controversy over their 29-year age difference. His son Vincent despised Madeleine, yet he served as best man at Jack and Madeleine's wedding. The couple took an extended honeymoon in Europe and Egypt to wait for the gossip to calm down. Among the few Americans who did not spurn him at this time was Margaret Brown, later fictionalized as The Unsinkable Molly Brown. She accompanied the Astors to Egypt and France and, by coincidence, was called home to the U.S. at the same time the Astors also found it necessary to abbreviate their touring.
Among Astor's accomplishments was A Journey in Other Worlds, an 1894 science fiction novel about life in the year 2000 on the planets Saturn and Jupiter. He also patented several inventions, including a bicycle brake in 1898, a "vibratory disintegrator" used to produce gas from peat moss, and a pneumatic road-improver, and helped develop a turbine engine. Astor made millions in real estate. In 1897, Astor built the Astoria Hotel, "the world's most luxurious hotel", in New York City, adjoining the Waldorf Hotel owned by Astor's cousin and rival, Willy. The complex became known as the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel, coincidentally becoming the host location to the U.S. inquiries into the sinking of the RMS Titanic, in which Colonel Astor was killed.
From 1894 to 1896, he was on the staff of Governor Levi P. Morton. Shortly after the outbreak of the Spanish-American War in 1898, Astor personally financed a volunteer artillery unit known as the "Astor Battery", which saw service in the Philippines. Astor was appointed a lieutenant colonel in the U.S. Volunteers and served as a staff officer in Cuba during the Santiago Campaign. During this time he allowed his yacht, the Nourmahal, to be used by the U.S. government. During the war, Astor appeared in the films President McKinley's Inspection of Camp Wikoff in 1898 and Col. John Jacob Astor, Staff and Veterans of the Spanish-American War in 1899. As a result of his military service, Astor was entitled to the Spanish Campaign Medal.
Astor was a member of several military and hereditary societies. He was an early member of the New York Society of Colonial Wars and was assigned membership number 138. He was also a member of the Military Order of Foreign Wars, Society of the Army of Santiago and the Society of the American Wars of the United States.
His estate "Ferncliff," north of the town center of Rhinebeck, New York, with a mile and a half of Hudson river frontage in the picturesque Lower Hudson River Valley, had been purchased piecemeal by his father in the mid-19th century; Astor was born there. His father's Italianate house of 1864 was partly rebuilt in 1904 to designs by Stanford White of McKim, Mead, and White, retaining its conservative exterior, and a sports pavilion in Louis XVI style was added. The "Casino" or "Astor Courts" reportedly housed the first residential indoor swimming pool in the U.S., an indoor tennis court with vaulting of Guastavino tile, and guest bedrooms; in the lower level were a bowling alley and a shooting range. The estate, reduced to 50 acres (200,000 m2) and renamed "Astor Courts," eventually became a wedding venue. The wedding of Chelsea Clinton took place there on July 31, 2010.
While traveling, Madeleine became pregnant, and wanting the child born in the U.S., the Astors boarded the RMS Titanic on her maiden voyage to New York. They embarked in Cherbourg, France, in first class and were the wealthiest passengers aboard. Accompanying the Astors were Astor's valet, Victor Robbins; Madeleine's maid, Rosalie Bidois, and her nurse, Caroline Louise Endres. They also took their pet Airedale, Kitty. The Astors were deeply fond of their dog and had come close to losing her on a previous trip when she went missing in Egypt. Kitty did not survive the sinking. A short while after the Titanic hit the iceberg that caused her to sink, Astor informed his wife of the collision, but told her that the damage did not appear to be serious. Some time later as the ship's lifeboats for first class were being manned, Colonel Astor remained unperturbed; he and his family played with the mechanical horses in the gymnasium. At some point Astor is thought to have sliced the lining of an extra lifebelt with a pen knife to show his wife its contents, either to prove that they were not of use or to reassure her that they were.
When Second Officer Charles Lightoller later arrived on A Deck to finish loading Lifeboat 4, Astor helped his wife, with her maid and nurse, into it. He then asked if he might join his wife because she was in 'a delicate condition'; however, Lightoller told him that men were not to be allowed to board until all the women and children had been loaded. After Lifeboat 4 was lowered at 1:55 am, Astor is said to have stood alone while others tried to free the remaining collapsible boats; he was last seen alive on the starboard bridge wing, smoking a cigarette with Jacques Futrelle. A mere half hour later, the ship disappeared beneath the ocean. Madeleine, her nurse, and her maid survived. Colonel Astor and his valet, Victor Robbins, did not.
According to Titanic passenger Archibald Gracie IV, "She was lifted up through the window, and her husband helped her on the other side, and when she got in, her husband was on one side of this window and I was on the other side, at the next window. I heard Mr Astor ask the second officer whether he would not be allowed to go aboard this boat to protect his wife. He said, 'No, sir, no man is allowed on this boat or any of the boats until the ladies are off.' Mr Astor then said, 'Well, tell me what is the number of this boat so I may find her afterwards,' or words to that effect. The answer came back, "No. 4."
In the aftermath, ships were sent out to retrieve the bodies from the site of the sinking; of the 1,517 passengers and crew that perished in the sinking, only 333 bodies were ever recovered. Colonel Astor's body was recovered on April 22 by the cable ship Mackay-Bennett. Astor was identified by the initials sewn on the label of his jacket. Among the items found on him was a gold pocket watch which his son Vincent claimed and wore the rest of his life.
- NO. 124 – MALE – ESTIMATED AGE 50 – LIGHT HAIR & MOUSTACHE.
- CLOTHING – Blue serge suit; blue handkerchief with "A.V."; belt with gold buckle; brown boots with red rubber soles; brown flannel shirt; "J.J.A." on back of collar.
- EFFECTS – Gold watch; cuff links, gold with diamond; diamond ring with three stones; £225 in English notes; $2440 in notes; £5 in gold; 7s. in silver; 5 ten franc pieces; gold pencil; pocketbook.
- FIRST CLASS. NAME- J.J. ASTOR IV
Astor was buried in Trinity Church Cemetery in New York City. Four months after the Titanic sunk, Madeleine Astor gave birth to his second son, socialite John Jacob "Jakey" Astor VI (1912–1992).
Cause of death
For many years there has been conflicting and contradictory information regarding the exact manner in which Astor perished in the sinking. Many researchers have expressed the belief that Astor was crushed to death by one of the ship's falling funnels, this opinion being based on the claim that his body was recovered in a mangled state, but all who examined his body maintained that it was in perfect condition with no bruising. Survivor Philip Mock claimed to have seen Astor in the water clinging to a raft with William Thomas Stead. "Their feet became frozen," said Mock, "and they were forced to release their hold. Both were drowned."
Astor left $69 million of his $85 million estate (equivalent to approximately $1,686,217,241 in 2014 dollars) to Vincent. This value included his estate in Rhinebeck and his yacht, the Noma. To Madeleine, he left a $5 million trust fund and an annual paycheck of $500,000, as well as use of his New York mansion 65th & Fifth Avenue, all its furnishings, and his Newport mansion Beechwood and all of its furnishings, pick of whichever luxury limousine she wanted from his collection and five of his prized horses—as long as she did not remarry. His daughter Ava (who lived with her mother, also named Ava) received a $10 million trust fund. Upon turning 21, Jakey inherited the trust fund Colonel Astor set aside for him.
Astor's prominence led to the creation of many exaggerated and unsubstantiated accounts about his actions during the sinking of the Titanic. One story alleges that he opened the ship's kennel and released the dogs; in another, he placed a woman's hat on a boy to make sure the child was able to get into a lifeboat. Another legend claims that after the ship hit the iceberg, he quipped, "I asked for ice, but this is ridiculous." These stories appeared in newspapers, magazines, and even books about the sinking. In reality, none of the claims about Astor's actions were substantiated, as nobody who recognized him survived other than the women who boarded lifeboats relatively early on. Wade wrote that the ice joke is almost certainly apocryphal, as Astor was not known for making jokes, and that the story about the hat (like many other 'survivor stories' published shortly after the sinking) may have been invented by the reporter.
Astor's fame has made him a frequent character in films about the Titanic. German actor Karl Schönböck played Astor in the 1943 Nazi propaganda film Titanic. William Johnstone played Astor in the 1953 film Titanic, and in the 1997 version of Titanic he was played by Eric Braeden.
In the 1996 miniseries, he was played by Scott Hylands. Astor was also portrayed by David Janssen in the 1979 film S.O.S. Titanic. Perennially, in the town of Astoria, Oregon (so named for Astor's patrilineal great-grandfather), he is portrayed by a local amateur actor in street corner vignettes. He was played by Miles Richardson in the 2012 Titanic miniseries. In April 2012, Colonel Astor was portrayed by his great-grandson Gregory Todd Astor in "Titanic the Musical".
- Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–2014. Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved February 27, 2014.
- "An Age of Splendor, and Hotel One-Upmanship". The New York Times. Arthur Ochs Sulzberger, Jr. June 18, 2006. "His younger cousin, known as Jack, enrolled in Harvard, left without a degree, traveled and joined 'about two dozen clubs.' He tinkered with inventions, married unwisely and, inspired by Jules Verne, wrote a work of science fiction. Often ridiculed in the press, he bore the sobriquet 'Jack Ass.'"
- "Noted Men On The Lost Titanic. Col. Jacob Astor, with His Wife. Isidor Straus and Wife, and Benj. Guggenheim Aboard.". The New York Times (Arthur Ochs Sulzberger, Jr.). Retrieved 2013-12-10. "Following are sketches of a few of the well-known persons among the 1,300 passengers on the lost Titanic. The fate of most of them at this time is, of course, not known. Col. John Jacob Astor and Mrs. Astor, Isidor Straus and Mrs. Straus, J. Bruce Ismay, Managing Director of the White Star Line: Benjamin Guggenheim, and Frank D. Millet, the artist, are perhaps the most widely known of the passengers....."
- "John Jacob Astor IV". Encyclopedia Titanica. Retrieved 2010-10-27. "Colonel John Jacob Astor IV was born in Rhinebeck, New York on July 13th, 1864 the son of William Astor and great-grandson of John Jacob Astor the fur trader. Astor was educated at St. Paul's School, Concord and later went to Harvard. After a period of travelling abroad (1888–91) he returned to the United States to manage the family fortune. He had homes at 840 Fifth Avenue, New York and at Ferncliff, Rhinebeck, New York....."
- "Colonel John Jacob Astor IV". Titanic History Website.
- "Titanic Survivor Stories - Madeleine Talmage Force Astor". rmstitanic.net. Retrieved 17 July 2013.
- "Part II: Vincent, the Astor Who Gave Away the Money". NewYorkSocialDaily. Retrieved 6 August 2013.
- "COL. ASTOR WEDS MADELEINE FORCE :: New York Times". encyclopedia titanica. Retrieved 17 July 2013.
- John Wilson Foster, The Age of Titanic: Cross-Currents in Anglo-American Culture (2002).
- Turkel, Stanley (4 April 2007). "The Original Waldorf/Astoria Hotel". hotelinteractive.com.
- "Astor, John Jacob. An American capitalist, inventor, and soldier". New International Encyclopedia. 1905.
- Automobile Club of America, The Club Journal 2 (November 12, 1910) "Little Journeys to the Homes of Members: Ferncliff", pp1002ff.
- Paul Goldberger, A Monograph of the works of McKim, Mead & White, 1879–1915, 1985.
- AstorCourts.com. AstorCourts.com. Retrieved on September 10, 2011.
- "Fate of the pets who sailed on the Titanic". Lostandfond.co.uk. October 2, 2010. Retrieved September 10, 2011.
- "John Jacob Astor IV". titanic-passengers.com. Retrieved February 16, 2012.
- United States Senate Inquiry into the Titanic. Online reference
- "Son for Mrs. Astor. Named for Father. Both Mother and Baby Said to be Very Well, the Child Strong and Well Formed.". The New York Times (Arthur Ochs Sulzberger, Jr.). August 15, 1912. Retrieved June 22, 2008. "Baby is the Sixth John Jacob Astor. Mrs. Madeleine Force Astor, survivor of he Titanic....."
- "The Two Deaths of John Jacob Astor -George Behe's " Titanic " Tidbits".
- "Stead and Astor cling to Raft" (Worcester Telegram, 20 April 1912)
- "Astor Bequests Have All Been Paid". The New York Times. Arthur Ochs Sulzberger, Jr. Retrieved 20 April 2012.
- "Astor Estate Goes To Son". The Evening News. 7 May 1912.
- Wade, Wyn Craig (1979, 1986 (revised)). Titanic: End of a Dream. New York City: Penguin Books. pp. 70–73. ISBN 978-0140166910.
- Hallenbeck, Brent (March 20, 2012). "Born to Play the Role". The Burlington Free Press (Jim Fogler).
- Works by John Jacob Astor IV at Project Gutenberg
- Texts on Wikisource:
- "Astor, John Jacob, capitalist". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. 1900. An article on his uncle in which he is mentioned.
- "Astor, John Jacob. An American capitalist, inventor, and soldier". New International Encyclopedia. 1905.
- "Astor, John Jacob, American capitalist and inventor". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920.
- "Astor, John Jacob, an American capitalist". Collier's New Encyclopedia. 1921.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to John Jacob Astor IV.|
- Funeral of Col. Astor at news.hrvh.org