John Kasich

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John Kasich
Governor John Kasich.jpg
69th Governor of Ohio
Incumbent
Assumed office
January 10, 2011
Lieutenant Mary Taylor
Preceded by Ted Strickland
Chairman of the House Committee on the Budget
In office
January 3, 1995 – January 3, 2001
Preceded by Martin Sabo
Succeeded by Jim Nussle
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Ohio's 12th district
In office
January 3, 1983 – January 3, 2001
Preceded by Bob Shamansky
Succeeded by Pat Tiberi
Member of the Ohio Senate
from the 15th district
In office
January 3, 1979 – January 13, 1982
Preceded by Robert O'Shaughnessy
Succeeded by Richard Pfeiffer
Personal details
Born John Richard Kasich
(1952-05-13) May 13, 1952 (age 62)
McKees Rocks, Pennsylvania, U.S.
Political party Republican
Spouse(s) Mary Lee Griffith (1975–1980)[1]
Karen Waldbillig (1997–present)[1]
Residence Columbus, Ohio Governors Mansion 2011-Present
Alma mater The Ohio State University
Profession Politician
Investment Banker
Religion Christianity

John Richard Kasich (/ˈksɨk/; born May 13, 1952)[2] is the 69th Governor of Ohio, in office since 2011.[3] A member of the Republican Party, he previously served as a member of the United States House of Representatives, representing Ohio's 12th congressional district from 1983 to 2001.[4] He was a commentator on Fox News Channel, hosting Heartland with John Kasich (2001-2007); he also worked as an investment banker, as managing director of Lehman Brothers's Columbus, Ohio office (until the firm collapsed in 2008).[5][6]

In the 2010 Ohio gubernatorial election, Kasich defeated Democratic incumbent Ted Strickland, receiving 49% of the vote to his opponent's 47%.[7]

Early life, education, and family[edit]

Kasich was born in McKees Rocks, Pennsylvania, an industrial town near Pittsburgh.[4] He was the son of Anne and John Kasich, who worked as a mail carrier.[8] Kasich is of Croatian ancestry.[9][10][11] After attending public schools in McKees Rocks, Kasich enrolled at The Ohio State University, where he joined the Alpha Sigma Phi fraternity.[12] He earned a Bachelor of Arts degree in political science from Ohio State in 1974.[13] Kasich originally worked as a researcher for the Ohio Legislative Service Commission.[14] From 1975 to 1978, he served as an administrative assistant to then-state Senator Buz Lukens.[15]

Kasich was raised as a Roman Catholic, but converted to evangelical Protestantism after his parents were both killed in an automobile crash in 1987.[16][17] However, he does not identify himself with the Christian right.[16]

Kasich was married to Mary Lee Griffith from 1975 to 1980, had no children with her, and Griffith has campaigned for him post-divorce.[18] He is currently married to his second wife, Karen, and they have twin daughters, Emma and Reese.[18]

Kasich has authored three books. Courage is Contagious was published in 1998 and made the New York Times bestseller list. His second book, Stand for Something: The Battle for America's Soul was published in 2006. Kasich's most recent book, Every Other Monday, was also a New York Times bestseller.[19]

Early political career[edit]

In 1978, Kasich was elected to the Ohio Senate, representing the 15th district, after defeating Democratic incumbent Robert O'Shaughnessy with 56% of the vote.[20] At age 26, Kasich was the youngest person ever elected to the Ohio Senate.[21] One of his first acts as a state senator was to refuse a pay raise.[22][23]

U.S. House of Representatives (1983-2001)[edit]

In 1982, Kasich ran for Congress in Ohio's 12th District, based in Columbus, Ohio. He won the Republican primary with 83% of the vote,[24] and defeated incumbent Democrat U.S. Congressman Bob Shamansky in the general election by a margin of 50%–47%.[25] Kasich was re-elected eight times after 1982,[26] winning at least 64% of the vote each time.[27]

John Kasich Official Portrait in the 100th Congress, 1987.

In 1994, Kasich was one of the Republican leaders to support a last-minute deal with President Bill Clinton to pass the Federal Assault Weapons Ban. After a series of meetings with Clinton's Chief of Staff, Leon Panetta, who was also a long-time friend of Kasich, the assault weapons ban was passed when 42 Republicans crossed party lines and voted with the Democrats to ban assault weapons.[28] Kasich's support of the assault-weapons ban angered the National Rifle Association, which gave Kasich an "F" rating during the 1990s as a result.[29]

During his Congressional career, Kasich was considered a fiscal conservative, taking aim at programs supported by Republicans and Democrats. Kasich worked with Rep. Ron Dellums to cut spending on the B-2 Bomber, and with Ralph Nader in seeking to reduce corporate tax loopholes.[16][30]

During the 1996 presidential campaign, Republican nominee Bob Dole was reported to have considered Kasich as a vice presidential running mate but instead selected Jack Kemp, a former congressman and HUD Secretary.[31] During his 1996 re-election campaign Kasich's Democratic opponent in his House race, Cynthia Ruccia, made comments apparently questioning Kasich's sexuality in an attempt to damage him with conservative voters. Ruccia raised the question of the propriety of bachelor Kasich sharing a Washington townhouse with his male chief-of-staff for several years while the staffer drew a large government salary. Kasich ultimately went on to win the 1996 election.[32]

In 1994, Kasich was called in by Republicans who supported Clinton's Omnibus Crime Bill of 1994 to assist in helping to reduce the overall cost. His support of the bill helped it pass the House, but provisions that outlawed some firearms did not win him fans among gun rights supporters. Many of his constituents were upset that he promised to oppose gun control during his previous election, then voted in favor of it.[33]

Committee assignments[edit]

Official congressional portrait of Kasich for his service as Budget Committee Chairman

In 1993, he became the Ranking Republican on the House Budget Committee where he authored an alternative to Clinton's deficit reduction plan that he presented as relying on spending reductions rather than tax increases. Later that year, the Penny-Kasich Plan, which proposed $103 billion in cuts to federal spending over 5 years, including a politically risky reduction of Medicare payments for recipients who earn $75,000 or more in adjusted gross income, failed by only six votes.[34]

In 1995, when Republicans gained the majority in the United States Congress, Kasich was selected to become Chairman of the House Budget Committee. As Chairman, Kasich worked towards balancing the Federal Budget, and was the chief architect of the Balanced Budget Act of 1997. As Chairman of the Budget Committee, Kasich claimed credit for the only U.S. Budget Surplus since 1969.[35]

In 1995, when Kasich assumed the position of Budget Chairman, the U.S. Federal Budget had a deficit of roughly -$163 billion, and upon the conclusion of his tenure as Budget Chairman, the U.S. Federal Budget had a surplus of over $236 billion.[35]

2000 presidential election[edit]

Kasich did not seek re-election in 2000, but instead decided in February 1999 to form an exploratory committee to run for President.[36][37] After very poor fundraising, Kasich dropped out in July 1999, even before the Iowa Straw Poll, and endorsed Texas Governor George W. Bush.[38][39]

Private sector career (2001-2009)[edit]

After leaving Congress, Kasich went to work for Fox News, hosting Heartland with John Kasich on the Fox News Channel and guest-hosting The O'Reilly Factor, filling in for Bill O'Reilly as needed. Kasich also frequently appeared as a guest host and analyst on Hannity & Colmes (the title of which was later changed to Hannity).

Business career[edit]

Kasich served on the board of directors for several corporations, including Invacare Corporation and Chicago-based Norvax Inc. In 2001, Kasich joined Lehman Brothers' investment banking division as a managing director.[40] He remained at Lehman Brothers until its bankruptcy and collapse in 2008. For his work in 2007–2008, Lehman Brothers paid Kasich $182,692 for his 2008 salary, a $432,000 performance bonus for 2007, and $2,250 in other benefits.[41]

Political activities[edit]

Republicans tried to recruit Kasich for Governor of Ohio in 2006, but he declined to enter the race.[42]

Kasich "always had an independent streak", said his friend, Curt Steiner, former chief of staff to former Ohio Governor and U.S. Senator George Voinovich. "He's a solid Republican, but he's always had his own views. [He's] a biological Democrat" [... his parents were Democrats]. "He came from an average background. He's in touch with people. He's not a Beltway thinker."[43]

In early 2007, Kasich was reportedly considering making a serious run for Governor of Ohio in 2010, seeking the Republican nomination to unseat incumbent Ted Strickland.[44] In March 2008, Kasich said that Ohio's state income tax should be "phased out." [45]

In 2008, Kasich was named the Honorary Chairman of Recharge Ohio, an organization with the stated purpose of electing leaders who would "get our state back on track."[46] Kasich said that he hoped that through Recharge Ohio, he could "provide the framework necessary to allow Ohio to become a leader in economic and educational success."[47]

2010 gubernatorial election[edit]

On May 1, 2009, Kasich filed papers to run for Governor of Ohio against incumbent Democratic Governor Ted Strickland.[48][49] He formally announced his candidacy on June 1, 2009.[50] On January 15, 2010, Kasich announced Ohio State Auditor Mary Taylor as his running mate.

During a speech before Ashtabula County Republicans in March 2009, Kasich talked about the need to "break the back of organized labor in the schools," according to the Ashtabula Star Beacon.[51] Ohio's teachers' unions supported Democrat Ted Strickland, and after Kasich's gubernatorial victory, he said, “I am waiting for the teachers’ unions to take out full-page ads in all the major newspapers, apologizing for what they had to say about me during this campaign."[52]

Elsewhere, he said he was willing to work with "unions that make things." [53]

On May 4, 2010, he won the Republican nomination for governor, having run unopposed. On November 2, 2010, Kasich defeated incumbent Democrat Ted Strickland in a closely contested race to win the governorship.[54] He was sworn in at midnight on January 10, 2011, in a private ceremony at the Ohio Statehouse in Columbus. It was then followed by a ceremonial inauguration at the Ohio Theatre at noon on the same day.[55]

John Kasich's former employer, News Corp., was accused in 2010 of making improper campaign solicitations for Kasich's campaign. The company hired attorneys to defend itself in an Ohio Elections Commission investigation, who argued that the allegations were not only baseless but also designed to have a "chilling effect" on future press coverage.[56] The Ohio Elections Commission voted 5-0 against finding any violation by FoxNews.[57]

Governor of Ohio (2011-present)[edit]

Upon taking office, Kasich received criticism from Phillip Morris of the Plain Dealer for appointing an all-white, 22-member Cabinet (containing only 5 women). Kasich responded to the perceived lack of ethnic/gender diversity in his cabinet by saying, "I don't look at things from the standpoint of any of these sort of metrics that people tend to focus on, race or age, or any of those things. It's not the way I look at things... I want the best possible team I can get."[58]

Kasich was an opponent of the Evidence Based Model Program of his predecessor, Governor Ted Strickland.[59] During his tenure, he has pushed to tie teacher pay to performance and for state aid to follow students if they attend charter or private schools.[60]

Throughout his first gubernatorial campaign, Kasich opposed the Ohio high-speed rail project and promised to disband it. Once governor, Kasich fought to use the money on freight rail projects instead. However, in a letter from Secretary of Transportation Ray Lahood (who served with Kasich in Congress), it was stated that the money was specifically allocated 'only' for a high-speed rail system, nothing else (which was a condition of its approval by Congress). On December 3, 2010, in a meeting with President Barack Obama, Kasich once again lobbied to use the grant money for transportation projects that did not include 'high-speed' rail.[61] Ultimately, Ohio lost out on the $385 million, all together; it was instead diverted to other states (e.g., California, Florida) that were cooperative about using the grant money for its Congressionally-intended purpose.[62] According to Kasich, the state's transportation budget in 2013 was the largest in its history.[63]

While Kasich's predecessor Ted Strickland signed an executive order allowing collective bargaining opportunities for in-house ("domestic") child care workers, Kasich stated he would not continue those subsidies.[64]

During a speech in January 2011, Kasich referred to a police officer as "an idiot" for pulling him over and issuing a traffic violation 3 years earlier for passing too close to an emergency vehicle.[65][66] Kasich initially did not apologize, but eventually did so after he received some criticism from the Fraternal Order of Police among others.[67][68]

On July 1, 2011, Kasich signed a state budget which repealed the estate tax in Ohio effective Jan. 1, 2013.[69]

On Tuesday, November 8, 2011, Ohio voters strongly (61 percent to 39 percent) rejected the restrictive new collective bargaining law that Kasich had championed.[70]

After Kasich's first year in office, 45,000 new jobs were created in the state of Ohio and the unemployment rate dropped from 9% to 7.9%. During his first year the $8 billion budget deficit was also eliminated through the creation of a balanced budget.[71] Ohio's unemployment rate for February 2014 was 6.5% [72]

As of March 2013, Kasich oversaw eight executions in Ohio, while commuting four death sentences.[73] According to Kasich, as of 2014 Ohio's prison system had one of the lowest rates of recidivism in the nation.[63]

In June 2013, Kasich signed a budget that cut taxes on business owners by allowing them to pay taxes on only half of their first $250,000 in income. It also reduced income taxes for all Ohioans by 10 percent by 2015. These cuts were paid for in part by a quarter-percentage-point increase in the state sales tax and a small increase in the commercial activity tax for some businesses. The budget also increased spending for many Ohio schools.[74]

Kasich has taken advantage of Obamacare funding to expand Medicaid in Ohio.[75] He has also declared a "war on human trafficking" and has implemented programs to prevent the practice.

Electoral history[edit]

Election results[76][77]
Year Office Election Subject Party Votes % Opponent Party Votes % Opponent Party Votes % Opponent Party Votes %
1982 U.S. House of Representatives General John Kasich Republican 88,335 50.47% Bob Shamansky Democratic 82,753 47.28% Russell A. Lewis Libertarian 3,939 2.25%
1984 U.S. House of Representatives General John Kasich Republican 148,899 69.54% Richard S. Sloan Democratic 65,215 30.46%
1986 U.S. House of Representatives General John Kasich Republican 117,905 73.40% Timothy C. Jochim Democratic 42,727 26.60%
1988 U.S. House of Representatives General John Kasich Republican 204,892 80.14% Mark P. Brown Democratic 50,782 19.86%
1990 U.S. House of Representatives General John Kasich Republican 130,495 71.99% Mike Gelpi Democratic 50,784 28.01%
1992 U.S. House of Representatives General John Kasich Republican 170,297 71.24% Bob Fitrakis Democratic 68,761 28.76%
1994 U.S. House of Representatives General John Kasich Republican 114,608 66.50% Cynthia L. Ruccia Democratic 57,294 33.24% N/A Write-in 443 0.26%
1996 U.S. House of Representatives General John Kasich Republican 151,667 63.88% Cynthia L. Ruccia Democratic 78,762 33.17% Barbara Ann Edelman Natural Law 7,005 2.95%
1998 U.S. House of Representatives General John Kasich Republican 124,197 67.17% Edward S. Brown Democratic 60,694 32.83%
2010 Governor of Ohio General John Kasich Republican 1,889,186 49.04% Ted Strickland Democratic 1,812,059 47.04% Ken Matesz Libertarian 92,116 2.39% Dennis Spisak Green 58,475 1.52% *

*Write-in candidate David Sargent received 633 votes (0.02%)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Stephanie Schorow (30 September 2010). "Is John Kasich Married?". politicsdaily.com. AOL News/HuffPost Politics. Retrieved 12 February 2012. 
  2. ^ "Biography | John R. Kasich Congressional Collection". Westervillelibrary.org. 1952-05-15. Retrieved 2013-07-19. 
  3. ^ "Governor John R. Kasich Biography". Governor of Ohio. 
  4. ^ a b "KASICH, John Richard, Biographical Information". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. 
  5. ^ Davis, Teddy (May 12, 2010). "Lehman Brothers Collapse Haunts John Kasich in Ohio Governor's Race". ABC News. Retrieved September 5, 2012. 
  6. ^ Hershey, William (April 2, 2010). "Kasich made $1.1 M in 2008; no "golden parachute" from Lehman Bros, records show". Dayton Daily News. Retrieved September 5, 2012. 
  7. ^ "Governor and Lieutenant Governor: November 2, 2010". Ohio Secretary of State. [dead link]
  8. ^ "John Kasich's Biography". John Kasich for Governor of Ohio. 
  9. ^ "vjesnik". www.vjesnik.hr (in Croatian). [dead link]
  10. ^ "Večernji list". www.vecernji.hr (in Croatian). 
  11. ^ Courage Is Contagious: Ordinary People Doing Extraordinary Things to Change ... - John Kasich - Google Books. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2013-07-19. 
  12. ^ "Brother Kasich Elected Ohio Governor". Alpha Sigma Phi Fraternity, Inc. 
  13. ^ "Governor John R. Kasich (OH)". Project Vote Smart. 
  14. ^ Bischoff, Laura (2010-07-31). "Minister, former psychologist Strickland faces millionaire Kasich". Dayton Daily News. 
  15. ^ "John Kasich's Bio". Fox News Channel. December 1, 2011. 
  16. ^ a b c Apple, Jr., R.W. (1998-04-26). "A Republican With Rough Edges". The New York Times. 
  17. ^ "Rep. Kasich: A Portrait of Faith, Friendship". CBN TV. 
  18. ^ a b Stephanie Schorow (30 September 2010). "Is John Kasich Married?". politicsdaily.com. AOL News/HuffPost Politics. Retrieved 12 February 2012. 
  19. ^ New York Times Best Sellers July 11, 2010
  20. ^ "Statehouse oath a step back in time for Kasich". News Net 5. 2011-01-09. 
  21. ^ Wilkinson, Howard (1999-02-16). ""Little guy" starts White House run". Cincinnati Enquirer. 
  22. ^ Shutt, Dave (1978-12-21). "Most Ohio Legislators To Take $5,000 Raise". Toledo Blade. 
  23. ^ "19 Won't Take Full Pay Hike". Youngstown Vindicator. 1978-12-22. 
  24. ^ "OH District 12 - R Primary Race - Jun 08, 1982". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2013-07-19. 
  25. ^ "OH District 12 Race - Nov 02, 1982". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2013-07-19. 
  26. ^ Straub, Bill (1998-07-04). "Kasich is a maverick with youth on his side". The Cincinnati Post (E. W. Scripps Company). Archived from the original on 2004-09-18. 
  27. ^ "OH District 12 Race - Nov 05, 1996". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2013-07-19. 
  28. ^ The Victoria Advocate - Google News Archive Search[dead link]
  29. ^ Rowland, Darrel; Jim Siegel (October 28, 2010). "Strickland told truth in anti-Kasich ad, elections panel finds". Columbus Dispatch. Retrieved September 5, 2012. 
  30. ^ Pianin, Erich (May 25, 2006). "Kasich looks at nation, GOP and finds both in trouble". Evansville Courier & Press. 
  31. ^ "Bill Schneider, "The Last Cookie On The Plate", CNN.com, 04/16/96". Retrieved 2013-07-19. 
  32. ^ Karen Tumulty,"The Baiting Game", Time Magazine, October 4, 1996
  33. ^ "It oughta be a crime, Omnibus Crime Bill of 1994", National Review, 09/12/1994
  34. ^ [Richard Lacayo, Time Magazine, "Remember the Deficit?" dead link]
  35. ^ a b U.S. Budget Historical Tables[dead link]
  36. ^ "Veteran Ohio lawmaker plans to seek GOP presidential nod". Deseret News. 1999-02-15. Retrieved 2013-07-19. 
  37. ^ "CNN.com, Kasich forms exploratory committee to run for president, 02/15/99". Cnn.com. Retrieved 2013-07-19. 
  38. ^ "Pittsburgh Post-Gazette - Google News Archive Search". Retrieved 2013-07-19. 
  39. ^ Wilkinson, Howard (July 14, 1999). "Kasich will bow to Bush". Cincinnati Enquirer. 
  40. ^ "Lehman Hires Kasich". New York Times. January 11, 2001. Retrieved September 5, 2012. 
  41. ^ "Kasich discloses pay, seeks to quiet critics". Columbus Dispatch. [dead link]
  42. ^ Joe Hallett and Jonathan Riskind, Columbus Dispatch, GOP voices urge Kasich to enter race for governor, 07/15/05[dead link]
  43. ^ "Looking for another boomer president". Enquirer.com. 1998-10-11. Retrieved 2013-07-19. 
  44. ^ Joe Hallett, Ohio GOP happy as Kasich dips toe in water, Columbus Dispatch, 2/20/2007[dead link]
  45. ^ Thursday March 27, 2008 12:51 PM (2008-03-27). "Joe Hallett, Kasich gets set to run in 2010, 3/27/08". Columbusdispatch.com. Retrieved 2013-07-19. 
  46. ^ "Recharge Ohio". Recharge Ohio. Retrieved 2013-07-19. 
  47. ^ "Recharge Ohio newsletter". Rechargeohio.net. Retrieved 2013-07-19. 
  48. ^ Kraushaar, Josh (2009-05-01). "Kasich to run for Ohio governorship". Politico.com. Retrieved 2013-07-19. 
  49. ^ Kasich names treasurer for 2010 campaign against Strickland[dead link]
  50. ^ Ex-US Rep formally announces run for Ohio governor[dead link]
  51. ^ Points of division: Jobs dominate, but 'hot button' issues remain important in governor's race | Columbus Dispatch Politics[dead link]
  52. ^ "Kasich touts reform, but few details makes districts anxious in Columbus". Springfieldnewssun.com. Retrieved 2013-07-19. 
  53. ^ Unions that 'make things' will get chance to help | Columbus Dispatch Politics[dead link]
  54. ^ "Governor's Mansion goes red as John Kasich wins". Findarticles.com. Retrieved 2013-07-19. 
  55. ^ "Kasich To Be Sworn In As Ohio's Next Governor | WBNS-10TV Columbus, Ohio". 10tv.com. Retrieved 2013-07-19. 
  56. ^ "Fox News Lawyers Up, Responds To Allegations Of Campaign Finance Law Violations", Sam Stein. Huffington Post. December 3, 2010
  57. ^ Laura Bischoff, No violation by FoxNews, Ohio Elections Commission says, December 16, 2010, Daytona Daily News.
  58. ^ John Kuntz, Plain Dealer file. "The race of Gov. John Kasich's all-white Cabinet only matters if he fails to create jobs: Phillip Morris". cleveland.com. Retrieved 2013-07-19. 
  59. ^ Gongwer News Service - Ohio (subscription required)
  60. ^ Provance, Jim (28 January 2013). "Kasich set to unveil school funding plan". The Toledo Blade. 
  61. ^ "Kasich pitches his $400M rail plan to Obama". Daytondailynews.com. Retrieved 2013-07-19. 
  62. ^ Feds to Ohio: Your high-speed rail project is officially dead (and New York thanks you)
  63. ^ a b Rowland, Darrel (10 September 2014). "Kasich already looking beyond November election". The Columbus Dispatch. 
  64. ^ Gongwer News Service (subscription required)
  65. ^ "Kasich, Ohio's governor, thinks cops that do their jobs are idiots". Youtube.com. 2011-01-28. Retrieved 2013-07-19. 
  66. ^ "Extended Kasich Traffic Stop". Youtube.com. 2011-09-13. Retrieved 2013-07-19. 
  67. ^ "Kasich Apologizes to Traffic Cop for Calling Him an 'Idiot'". FoxNews.com. 17 February 2011. Retrieved 20 October 2011. 
  68. ^ Weber, Christopher (17 February 2011). "Ohio Gov. John Kasich Apologizes to Police Officer He Called 'Idiot'". Retrieved 20 October 2011. 
  69. ^ Ashlea Ebeling (30 June 2011). "Ohio Repeals Its Estate Tax". Forbes. Retrieved 21 August 2013. 
  70. ^ Northeast Ohio. "Ohio voters overwhelmingly reject Issue 2, dealing a blow to Gov. John Kasich". cleveland.com. Retrieved 2013-07-19. 
  71. ^ McKee, Tom (2010-03-14). "Ohio Governor: 45,000 new jobs created in 2011: Tom McKee". Wcpo.com. Retrieved 2013-07-19. 
  72. ^ http://abcnews.go.com/Business/wireStory/unemployment-rates-fall-29-us-states-month-23097898
  73. ^ "Clemency | Death Penalty Information Center". Deathpenaltyinfo.org. Retrieved 2013-07-19. 
  74. ^ Chrissie Thompson file. "Kasich sets goal of top tax bracket under 5%". Retrieved 2013-07-29. 
  75. ^ Benen, Steve (22 October 2013). "Ohio’s Kasich expands healthcare access through Obamacare". www.msnbc.com. NBC UNIVERSAL. Retrieved 26 October 2013. 
  76. ^ "Election Results". Ohio Secretary of State. Retrieved 2014-03-01. 
  77. ^ "Election Statistics". United States House of Representatives: History, Art & Archives. Retrieved 2014-03-01. 

External links[edit]

U.S. Representative (1983–2001)