John Lindsay

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John Lindsay
John Lindsay NYWTS 1.jpg
Lindsay carrying in his budget in April 1966.
103rd Mayor of New York City[1]
In office
January 1, 1966 – December 31, 1973
Preceded by Robert F. Wagner, Jr.
Succeeded by Abraham D. Beame
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from New York's 17th district
In office
January 3, 1959 – December 31, 1965
Preceded by Frederic René Coudert, Jr.
Succeeded by Theodore Kupferman
Personal details
Born John Vliet Lindsay
(1921-11-24)November 24, 1921
New York City
Died December 19, 2000(2000-12-19) (aged 79)
Hilton Head Island, South Carolina
Political party Republican, Liberal, Democratic
Spouse(s) Mary Harrison Lindsay (1949–2000; his death)
Profession Attorney
Religion Episcopalian

John Vliet Lindsay (November 24, 1921 – December 19, 2000) was an American politician, lawyer and broadcaster who was a U.S. congressman, mayor of New York City, candidate for U.S. president and regular guest host of Good Morning America.

During his political career, he served as a member of the United States House of Representatives from January 1959 to December 1965 and as mayor of New York City from January 1966 to December 1973. He switched from the Republican to the Democratic Party in 1971, and launched a brief but unsuccessful bid for the 1972 Democratic presidential nomination as well as the 1980 Democratic nomination for Senator from New York. He died from Parkinson's disease and pneumonia in Hilton Head Island, South Carolina on December 19, 2000.

Early life[edit]

Lindsay was born in New York City on West End Avenue, to George Nelson Lindsay and the former Florence Eleanor Vliet.[2] He grew up in an upper-middle-class family of English and Dutch extraction.[3] Lindsay's paternal grandfather migrated to the United States in the 1880s from the Isle of Wight,[2] and his mother was from an upper-middle-class family that had been in New York since the 1660s.[3] John's father was a successful lawyer and investment banker,[2] and was able to send his son to the Buckley School, St. Paul's School and Yale,[2] where he was admitted to the class of 1944 and joined Scroll and Key.[4]

Military service and legal career[edit]

With the outbreak of World War II, Lindsay completed his studies early and in 1943 joined the United States Navy as a gunnery officer. He obtained the rank of lieutenant, earning five battle stars through action in the invasion of Sicily and a series of landings in the Pacific theater.[5][6] After the war, he spent a few months as a ski bum[3] and a couple of months training as a bank clerk[3] before returning to Yale, where he received his law degree in 1948, ahead of schedule.[3] In 1949, he began his legal career at the law firm of Webster, Sheffield, Fleischman, Hitchcock & Chrystie.[7]

Marriage and U.S. Congressman[edit]

Back in New York, Lindsay met his future wife, Mary Anne Harrison, at the wedding of Nancy Bush (daughter of Connecticut's Senator Prescott Bush and sister of future President George H.W. Bush),[3] where he was an usher and Harrison a bridesmaid.[3] A resident of Greenwich, Connecticut[4] and a graduate of Vassar College,[4] Harrison was a distant relative of William Henry Harrison and Benjamin Harrison.[3] They married in 1949.[4] That same year Lindsay was admitted to the bar, and rose to become a partner in his law firm four years later.[6]

He started gravitating toward politics, serving as one of the founders of the Youth for Eisenhower club in 1951 and as president of the New York Young Republican club in 1952.[8] In 1958, with the backing of Herbert Brownell, Bruce Barton, John Aspinwall Roosevelt, and Mrs Wendell Wilkie,[3] Lindsay won the Republican primary and went on to be elected to Congress as the representative of the "Silk Stocking" district, Manhattan's Upper East Side.[8]

While in Congress, Lindsay established a liberal voting record increasingly at odds with his party.[9] He was an early supporter of federal aid to education and Medicare;[3] and advocated the establishment of a federal Department of Urban Affairs and a National Foundation for the Arts and Humanities.[3] He was called a maverick,[2] casting the lone dissenting vote for a Republican- sponsored bill extending the power of the Postmaster General to impound obscene mail[3] and one of only two dissenting votes for a bill allowing federal interception of mail from Communist countries.[3] Also known for his wit, when asked by his party leaders why he opposed legislation to combat communism and pornography, he replied they were the major industries of his district and if they were suppressed then "the 17th district would be a depressed area".[6] While serving in the United State House of Representatives, John Lindsay was a strong supporter of civil rights. He was a leading member of a group of liberal and moderate Republicans in the House who voted for the Civil Rights Act of 1964.

Mayoralty[edit]

In 1965, Lindsay was elected Mayor of New York City as a Republican with the support of the Liberal Party of New York in a three-way race. He defeated Democratic mayoral candidate Abraham D. Beame, then City Comptroller, as well as National Review magazine founder William F. Buckley, Jr., who ran on the Conservative line. The unofficial motto of the campaign, taken from a Murray Kempton column, was "He is fresh and everyone else is tired".[3][10]

Congressman Lindsay speaking at Board of Estimate meeting at City Hall in April 1963

Lindsay inherited a city with serious fiscal and economic problems left by outgoing Democratic Mayor Robert F. Wagner, Jr., and turned it over to his successor Abraham Beame in ever worse condition. The old manufacturing jobs that supported generations of uneducated immigrants were disappearing, millions of middle class residents were fleeing to the suburbs, and public sector workers had won the right to unionize.

Labor issues[edit]

On his first day as mayor, Jan. 1, 1966, the Transport Workers Union of America (TWU) led by Mike Quill shut down the city with a complete halt of subway and bus service. The leader of the TWU had predicted a nine-day strike at most, but Lindsay's refusal to negotiate delayed a settlement and the strike lasted twelve days. Quill's mocking press conferences gave the city the impression that Lindsay was not tough enough to deal with the city's sources of power.

As New Yorkers endured the transit strike, Lindsay remarked, "I still think it's a fun city," and walked four miles (6 km) from his hotel room to City Hall in a gesture to show it.[11] Dick Schaap, then a columnist for the New York Herald Tribune, coined and popularized the sarcastic term in an article titled Fun City.[11][12] In the article, Schaap sardonically pointed out that it wasn't.[11][12] The term continued to carry with it a derisive tone as the city became more dangerous and corporate headquarters began moving to suburban locations.[13]

The transit strike was the first of many labor struggles. In 1968 in an attempt to decentralize the city's school system, Lindsay granted three local school boards in the city complete control over their schools, in an effort to allow communities to have more of a say in their schools. The city's teachers union, the United Federation of Teachers (UFT), however, saw the breakup as a way of union busting, as a decentralized school system would force the union to negotiate with 33 separate school boards rather than with one centralized body. As a result, in May 1968 several teachers working in schools located in the neighborhood of Ocean Hill-Brownsville, one of the neighborhoods where the decentralization was being tested, were fired from their jobs by the community-run school board. Furious, the UFT demanded the reinstatement of the dismissed teachers, citing that the teachers had been fired without due process. When their demands were ignored, the UFT called the first of three strikes, leading ultimately to a protracted city-wide teachers' strike that stretched over a seven-month period between May and November.[14] The battle became a symbol of the chaos of New York City and the city's inability to deliver a functioning school system. The strike was tinged with racial and anti-Semitic overtones, pitting black and Puerto Rican parents against Jewish teachers and supervisors.[15] Many thought the mayor had made a bad situation worse by taking sides against the teachers.[15] The episode left a legacy of tensions between blacks and Jews that went on for years,[2] and Lindsay called it his greatest regret.[2]

That same year, 1968, also saw a three-day Broadway strike and a nine-day sanitation strike.[16] Quality of life in New York reached a nadir during the sanitation strike as mounds of garbage caught fire and strong winds whirled the filth through the streets.[17] In June 1968, the New York City Police Department deployed snipers to protect Lindsay during a public ceremony, shortly after they detained a knife-wielding man who had demanded to meet the mayor.[18] With the schools shut down, police engaged in a slowdown, firefighters threatening job actions, the city awash in garbage, and racial and religious tensions breaking to the surface, Lindsay later called the last six months of 1968 "the worst of my public life."[2]

The summer of 1971 ushered in another devastating strike, as over 8,000 workers belonging to AFSCME District Council 37 walked off their jobs for two days. The strikers included workers on the city's drawbridges and sewer plants. Drawbridges over the Harlem River were locked in the "up" position, barring transit by automobile, and hundreds of thousands of gallons of raw sewage flowed into area waterways.

In 1966 the settlement terms of the transit strike, combined with increased welfare costs and general economic decline, forced Lindsay to lobby the New York State legislature for a new municipal income tax and higher water rates for city residents, plus a new commuter tax for people who worked in the city but resided elsewhere.

Issues of racial and civil unrest[edit]

Lindsay served on the National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders, known as the Kerner Commission. This body was established in 1967 by President Johnson after riots in urban centers of the US, including Newark and Detroit. Lindsay maximized publicity and coverage of his activities on the commission, and while other commissioners made inconspicuous visits to riot-damaged sites, Lindsay would alert the press before his fact-finding missions. Nonetheless, he was especially influential in producing the Kerner Report; its dramatic language of the nation "moving toward two societies, one black, one white—separate and unequal" was his rhetoric.[19]

Following the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. on April 4, 1968, riots broke out across the country. (see King assassination riots) However, in New York city, Lindsay traveled directly into Harlem, telling black residents that he regretted King's death and was working against poverty. He is credited with averting riots in New York with this direct response, even as other major cities burned.[20][21] David Garth, who accompanied Lindsay that night, recalled: "There was a wall of people coming across 125th Street, going from west to east ... I thought we were dead. John raised his hands, said he was sorry. It was very quiet. My feeling was, his appearance there was very reassuring to people because it wasn't the first time they had seen him. He had gone there on a regular basis. That gave him credibility when it hit the fan."[22]

This view of Lindsay as a calming influence is questioned, however; Vincent J. Cannato "argues that although New York did not erupt the way other places did, it suffered more unrest than myth allows. He questions Lindsay's refusal to acknowledge sporadic riots with the 'r' word and his tolerance of contained disturbances to forestall a larger conflagration. He deplores the mayor's appeasement of radical elements with 'donations' and his use of militant Muslim leaders and even a mobster, Albert Gallo, to pacify the poor and keep neighborhoods under control."[23]

Blizzard[edit]

Lindsay speaking at City Hall in January 1966

On February 10, 1969, New York City was pummeled with 15 inches (380 mm) of snow. On the first day alone, 14 people died and 68 were injured.[24] Within a day, the mayor was criticized for giving favored treatment to Manhattan at the expense of the other boroughs.[25] Charges were made that a city worker elicited a bribe to clean streets in Queens.[26] Over a week later, streets in eastern Queens still had remained unplowed by the city, enraging the borough's residents, many who felt that the city's other boroughs always took a back seat to Manhattan.[27] Lindsay traveled to Queens, but his visit was not well received. His car could not make its way through Rego Park, and even in a four-wheel-drive truck, he had trouble getting around.[28] In Kew Gardens Hills, the mayor was booed; one woman screamed, "You should be ashamed of yourself."[28] In Fresh Meadows, a woman told the mayor: "Get away, you bum."[28] During the mayor’s walk through Fresh Meadows, a woman called him “a wonderful man”, prompting the mayor to respond: "And you’re a wonderful woman, not like those fat Jewish broads up there," pointing to women in a nearby building who had criticized him.[28] The blizzard, dubbed the "Lindsay Snowstorm",[29] prompted a political crisis that became "legendary in the annals of municipal politics"[28] as the scenes conveyed a message that the mayor of New York was indifferent to the middle class and poor citizens of the city.[2]

Re-election[edit]

In 1969, a backlash against Lindsay caused him to lose the Republican mayoral primary to state Senator John J. Marchi, who was enthusiastically supported by William F. Buckley and the party conservatives. In the Democratic primary, the most conservative candidate, City Controller Mario Procaccino, defeated several more liberal contenders and won the nomination with only a plurality of the votes. "The more the Mario", he quipped.[30]

Despite not having the Republican nomination, Lindsay was still on the ballot as the candidate of the New York Liberal Party. In his campaign he said "mistakes were made" and called being mayor of New York "the second toughest job in America."[31][32] Two television advertisements described his position: In one he looked directly into the camera and said, "I guessed wrong on the weather before the city's biggest snowfall last winter. And that was a mistake. But I put 6,000 more cops on the streets. And that was no mistake. The school strike went on too long and we all made some mistakes. But I brought 225,000 more jobs to this town. And that was no mistake... And we did not have a Detroit, a Watts or Newark. And those were no mistakes. The things that go wrong are what make this the second toughest job in America. But the things that go right are those things that make me want it." The second opened with a drive through the Holland Tunnel from lower Manhattan toward New Jersey and suggested that, "Every New Yorker should take this trip at least once before election day..." followed by video of Newark, New Jersey which had been devastated by race riots.[33][34]

While losing white ethnic, working-class voters, Lindsay was able to win with support from three distinct groups.[35] First were the city's minorities, mostly African-Americans and Puerto Ricans, who were concentrated in Harlem, the South Bronx and various Brooklyn neighborhoods, including Bedford-Stuyvesant and Brownsville.[35][36] Second were the white and economically secure residents of certain areas of Manhattan.[35][36] Third were the whites in the boroughs outside Manhattan who had a similar educational background and "cosmopolitan" attitude, namely residents of solidly middle-class neighborhoods, including Forest Hills and Kew Gardens in Queens and Brooklyn Heights in Brooklyn.[35] This third category included many traditionally Democratic Jewish Americans, who had been put off by Procaccino's conservatism. This created a plurality coalition (42%) in Lindsay's second three-way race. His margin of victory rose from just over 100,000 more votes than his Democratic opponent in 1965 to over 180,000 votes over Procaccino in 1969, despite appearing on just one ballot line (see New York City Mayoral Elections)[35] [36]

Hard-hat riots[edit]

Lindsay speaking at a senior citizens rally October 1965

On May 8, 1970, near the intersection of Wall Street and Broad Street and at New York City Hall, a riot started when about 200 construction workers mobilized by the New York State AFL-CIO attacked about 1,000 high school and college students and others protesting the Kent State shootings, the American invasion of Cambodia, and the Vietnam War. Attorneys, bankers, and investment analysts from nearby Wall Street investment firms tried to protect many of the students but were themselves attacked, and onlookers reported that the police stood by and did nothing. Although more than seventy people were injured, including four policemen, only six people were arrested.[37][38][39] The following day, Lindsay severely criticized the police for their lack of action.[40] Police Department organization leaders later accused Lindsay of "undermining the confidence of the public in its Police Department" by his statements[41] and blamed the inaction on inadequate preparations and "inconsistent directives" in the past from the Mayor's office.[42] Several thousand construction workers, longshoremen and white-collar workers protested against the mayor on May 11 and again on May 16. Protesters called Lindsay "the red mayor", a "traitor", "Commie rat", and "bum". The Mayor described the mood of the city as "taut".[43][44]

Party switch and campaign for the Democratic presidential nomination[edit]

In 1971, Lindsay and his wife cut ties with the Republican Party by registering with the Democratic Party. Lindsay said, "In a sense, this step recognizes the failure of 20 years in progressive Republican politics. In another sense, it represents the renewed decision to fight for new national leadership."[45] Lindsay then launched a brief and unsuccessful bid for the 1972 Democratic presidential nomination. He attracted positive media attention and was a successful fundraiser. Lindsay did well in the early Arizona caucus, coming in second place[46] behind Edmund Muskie and ahead of eventual nominee George McGovern. Then in the March 14 Florida primary he placed a weak 5th place, behind George Wallace, Muskie, Hubert Humphrey, and Scoop Jackson (though he did edge out McGovern).[47] Among his difficulties was New York City's worsening problems, which Lindsay was accused of neglecting; a band of protesters from Forest Hills, Queens who were opposed to his support for a low income housing project in their neighborhood, followed Lindsay around his aborted campaign itinerary to jeer and heckle him.[48][49] His poor showing in Florida effectively doomed his candidacy. Meade Esposito called for Lindsay to end his campaign with the much-publicized comment "I think the handwriting is on the wall; Little Sheba better come home."[50] After a poor showing in the April 5 Wisconsin primary, Lindsay formally dropped out of the race.

Assessment[edit]

Lindsay at the first public hearing on proposed executive capital budget in February 1966

In a 1972 Gallup poll, 60% of New Yorkers felt Lindsay's administration was working poorly, nine percent rated it "good," and not one person thought its performance excellent.[51] By 1978, The New York Times called Lindsay "an exile in his own city".[52]

Lindsay's record remained controversial after he left politics. Historian Fred Siegel, calling Lindsay the worst New York City mayor of the 20th century, said "Lindsay wasn't incompetent or foolish or corrupt, but he was actively destructive".[53] Journalist Stuart Weisman observed "Lindsay's congressional career had taught him little of the need for subtle bureaucratic maneuvering, for understanding an opponent's self-interest, or for the great patience required in a sprawling government."[54]

Lindsay's budget aide Peter C. Goldmark, Jr. told historian Vincent Cannato that the administration "failed to come to grips with what a neighborhood is. We never realized that crime is something that happens to, and in, a community." Assistant Nancy Seifer said "There was a whole world out there that nobody in City Hall knew anything about. . . If you didn't live on Central Park West, you were some kind of lesser being."[55] While many experts traced the city's mid-70's fiscal crisis to the Lindsay years, Lindsay disagreed, insisting that it may have come sooner if he had not imposed new taxes.[2]

An alternate assessment was made by journalist Robert McFadden who said that "By 1973, his last year in office, Mr. Lindsay had become a more seasoned, pragmatic mayor."[2] McFadden also credited him for reducing racial tensions, leading to the prevention of riots that plagued Detroit, Newark, Los Angeles, and other cities.[2] Succeeded by Abraham Beame as Mayor, John Lindsay left the office of Mayor of New York on December 31, 1973. It was said that when he left, he broke down and cried over the fact he did not do more as mayor.

Legacy[edit]

Mario Cuomo, Carl McCall, and Carter F. Bales were among the many people who started their careers in public service in the Lindsay administration.[56] Rev. Al Sharpton has said that he still remembers Lindsay having walked the streets of Bedford-Stuyvesant and Harlem when these neighborhoods were doing poorly economically.[56]

Later life[edit]

After leaving office, Lindsay returned to the law, but remained in the public eye as a commentator and regular guest host for ABC's Good Morning America. In 1975, Lindsay made a surprise appearance on The Tony Awards telecast in which he, along with a troupe of celebrity male suitors in tuxedos, sang "Mame" to Angela Lansbury. He presented the award for Best Director Of A Play to John Dexter for the play Equus. Lindsay also tried his hand at acting, appearing in Otto Preminger's Rosebud;[57] the following year his novel, The Edge, was published (Lindsay had earlier authored two non-fiction memoirs): The New York Times, in its contemporary review of the novel, said it was "as dead-serious as a $100-a-plate dinner of gray meat and frozen candidates' smiles."[58] Attempting a political comeback in 1980, Lindsay made a long-shot bid for the Democratic nomination for U.S. Senator from New York, and finished third. He was also active in New York City charities, serving on the board of the Association for a Better New York, and as chairman of the Lincoln Center Theater. On his death, The New York Times said he was credited with a significant role in the theatre's rejuvenation.[59]

Medical bills from his Parkinson's Disease, heart attacks and stroke depleted Lindsay's finances and he found himself without health insurance. In 1996 Mayor Rudolph W. Giuliani appointed the former Mayor to two largely ceremonial posts to make him eligible for municipal health insurance coverage.[60] He and his wife Mary moved to a retirement community in Hilton Head Island, South Carolina in November 1999, where he died the next year at the age of seventy-nine of complications from pneumonia and Parkinson's disease.[38] His wife Mary died in 2004.

In 2000, Yale Law School created a fellowship program named in Lindsay's honor. In 1998, a park in Brooklyn, Lindsay Triangle, was named in his honor,[61] and in 2001, the East River Park was renamed in his memory.[62] In December 2013, South Loop Drive in Manhattan's Central Park was renamed after Lindsay, to commemorate his support for a car-free Central Park.[63]

He is featured on a poster picture with Governor Rockefeller at the groundbreaking of the former World Trade Center in the city history section of the Museum of the City of New York at Fifth Avenue and 103rd Street. A Mitchell-Lama Development in the Williamsburg section of Brooklyn has been erroneously thought to be named after Mayor Lindsay (Lindsay Park). This development was actually named after Congressman George W. Lindsay (1865–1938) (no relation.)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The Green Book: Mayors of the City of New York" on the official NYC website
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Robert D. McFadden (December 21, 2000). "John V. Lindsay, Mayor and Maverick, Dies at 79". New York Times. Retrieved May 19, 2009. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Cannato, Vincent (June 20, 2001). The Ungovernable City. Basic Books;. p. 720. ISBN 978-0465008438. 
  4. ^ a b c d "Mary A. Harrison, Lawyers Fiance. Vassar Graduate Will Be Bride of John V. Lindsay, Former Lieutenant in the Navy". New York Times. October 11, 1948. p. 29. Retrieved May 23, 2009. 
  5. ^ "Lindsay Lacked Party's Backing; Surprise G. O. P. Victory in 17th Congressional District Based on Liberal Plea". New York TImes. August 13, 1958. p. 18. Retrieved September 19, 2008. 
  6. ^ a b c "And Still a Winner. John Vliet Lindsay". New York Times. November 5, 1969. p. 32. Retrieved September 19, 2008. 
  7. ^ Summer in the City. John Lindsay, New York, and the American Dream edited by Joseph P. Viteritti
  8. ^ a b "LINDSAY VICTORY PUTS HIM IN FORE; He Is Seen as G.O.P. Hope in Election to Congress From 17th District". New York Times. November 5, 1958. p. 31. Retrieved September 19, 2008. 
  9. ^ Warren Weaver (May 30, 1965). "Lindsay's Voting Veers From G.O.P.; House Record Also Shows a Shift From Conservatives". New York Times. p. 30. Retrieved May 19, 2009. 
  10. ^ PURNICK, JOYCE (December 21, 2000). "Metro Matters; Remembering A Mayor, Faults and All". New York Times. Retrieved May 23, 2009. 
  11. ^ a b c The Fun City, New York Herald Tribune, January 7, 1966, , pg. 13:
  12. ^ a b DANIEL B. SCHNEIDER ,F.Y.I. , The New York Times, January 3, 1999
  13. ^ Exodus from Fun City , Time Magazine,Feb. 24, 1967
  14. ^ Damon Stetson A Most Unusual Strike; Bread-and-Butter Issues Transcended By Educational and Racial Concerns, The New York Times, September 14, 1968
  15. ^ a b Maurice Carroll Lindsay in Retrospect, The New York Times, December 31, 1973, Page 7
  16. ^ STETSON, DAMON (February 11, 1968). "GARBAGE STRIKE IS ENDED ON ROCKEFELLER'S TERMS;; MEN BACK ON JOB". New York Times. p. 1. Retrieved May 19, 2009. 
  17. ^ PERLMUTTER, EMANUEL (February 5, 1968). "SHOTS ARE FIRED IN REFUSE STRIKE; FILTH LITTERS CITY; Shotgun Blasts Shatter 2 Panes at Home of Foreman Who Continues to Work MAYOR TOURS STREETS Mounting Garbage Is 'Very Serious,' Lindsay Says -Pact Talks Due Today Garbage Piles Up in Streets as Strike Grows 'Very Serious'". New York Times. p. 1. Retrieved May 19, 2009. 
  18. ^ "Antisniper Police Protect City Hall; Lindsay Guard Tightened—Man With Knife Seized", The New York Times. June 12, 1968. Page 1. Retrieved March 16, 2011.
  19. ^ Hrach, Thomas J. (2008). The News Media and Disorders: The Kerner Commission's Examination of Race. ProQuest. Retrieved 2013-07-17. 
  20. ^ Risen, Clay (2009). "April 4: U and Fourteenth". A nation on fire: America in the wake of the King assassination. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-470-17710-5. 
  21. ^ Online excerpt from Clay Risen 2009
  22. ^ Purnick, Joyce (December 21, 2000). "Remembering A Mayor, Faults and All". The New York Times. Retrieved 2013-07-17. 
  23. ^ Purnick, Joyce (July 15, 2001). "The Last Mayor of Fun City". The New York Times. 
  24. ^ Fox, Sylvan (February 11, 1969). "A Paralyzed City Digs Out of Snow; 14 Dead, 68 Hurt". The New York Times.
  25. ^ Phalon, Richard (February 12, 1969). "Political Foes and Voters Score Lindsay on Cleanup", The New York Times. p. 1.
  26. ^ Brady, Thomas F. (February 16, 1969) "Bribery Charged in Snow Removal; City Driver Held", The New York Times.
  27. ^ Stern, Michael (February 20, 1969). "Now Is the Winter of Discontent in Queens; Snow Mess Makes Baysiders Feel City Couldn't Care Less About Them", The New York Times.
  28. ^ a b c d e Chan, Sewell (February 10, 2009). "Remembering a Snowstorm That Paralyzed the City". The New York Times. Retrieved March 18, 2009. 
  29. ^ Moritz, Owen (October 22, 1998). "Winter of Discontent Lindsay's Snowstorm, 1969". Daily News. Retrieved June 9, 2009. 
  30. ^ Pileggi, Nicholas (April 14, 1969). "The More the Mario". New York. 
  31. ^ Dougherty, Philip (November 11, 1969). "Campaign". New York Times. p. 73. Retrieved September 19, 2008. 
  32. ^ Lindsay was not the first to refer to the office in this way; see the list of references in Popik, Barry. "'Second toughest job in America' (NYC mayor)" The Big Apple (December 31, 2007)
  33. ^ "1969 Campaign Commercials from WNET-TV13". Thirteen.org. 2011. Retrieved March 27, 2012. 
  34. ^ "What an Anthony Weiner Campaign Ad Could Look Like [Update]". Politicker.com. June 7, 2011. Retrieved March 26, 2012. 
  35. ^ a b c d e LIZZI, MARIA C. (September 18, 2008). "'My Heart Is as Black as Yours': White Backlash, Racial Identity, and Italian American Stereotypes in New York City's 1969 Mayoral Campaign". Journal of American Ethnic History 27 (3). 
  36. ^ a b c PETER KIHSS Poor and Rich,Not Middle-Class, The Key to Lindsay Re-Election November 6, 1969
  37. ^ Foner, U.S. Labor and the Vietnam War, 1989.
  38. ^ a b Robert D. McFadden (October 4, 1996). "Peter Brennan, 78, Union Head and Nixon's Labor Chief". New York Times. Retrieved March 17, 2010. 
  39. ^ Fink, Biographical Dictionary of American Labor, 1984.
  40. ^ MAURICE CARROLL Police Assailed by Mayor On Laxity at Peace Rally The New York Times, May 10, 1970, Page 1
  41. ^ DAVID BURNHAM, 5 Police Groups Rebut Critical Mayor, The New York Times, May 12, 1970, Page 18
  42. ^ MICHAEL T. KAUFMAN P.B.A BLAMES CITY IN REPLY TO MAYOR ON LAXITY CHARGE; City Hall Directive Called 'Inconsistent' as Guide in Attack by Workers May 11, 1970, Page 1
  43. ^ Homer Bigart (May 12, 1970). "Thousands Assail Lindsay In 2d Protest by Workers; Thousands Assail Lindsay at City Hall". New York Times. Retrieved March 17, 2010. 
  44. ^ Homer Bigart (May 16, 1970). "Thousands in City March To Assail Lindsay on War". New York Times. Retrieved March 17, 2010. 
  45. ^ "1971 Year in Review". Upi.com. 1971-12-28. Retrieved 2013-07-17. 
  46. ^ Muskie Wins Arizona Vote As Lindsay Places Second, New York Times, January 31, 1972
  47. ^ WALDRON, MARTIN (March 15, 1972). "NIXON MARGIN BIG; Governor Captures 75 of 81 Delegates in Dramatic Victory Wallace Gets 42%,". The New York Times. p. 1. Retrieved March 17, 2009. 
  48. ^ LINDSAY 72' BASE CLOSED TO PRESS; Mayor's Supporters Work Behind Locked Doors, The New York Times, December 28, 1971
  49. ^ LINDSAY ATTACKS NIXON OVER CRIME; Asserts He Is 'Soft' on Law Enforcement– Mayor Is Heckled in Miami Beach, The New York Times, February 16, 1972
  50. ^ Esposito Advises Mayor to Quit Race, New York Times, March 28, 1972
  51. ^ Jeff Greenfield (July 29, 1973). "3 Hail and farewell; Reading John Lindsay's face Lindsay". New York Times. Retrieved March 17, 2010. 
  52. ^ Stein, Howard (January 8, 1978). "An Exile In His Own City; Lindsay". New York Times. pp. The New York Times Magazine, Page SM3. Retrieved May 19, 2009. 
  53. ^ John Tierney (January 15, 2000). "The Big City; The Greatest? Give Mayor A Mirror". New York Times. Retrieved June 8, 2009. 
  54. ^ Weisman, Steven R (April 1972). "Why Lindsay Failed as Mayor". The Washington Monthly. p. 50. Retrieved October 1, 2013. 
  55. ^ Cannato, 391
  56. ^ a b "How Would Dinkins Have Done, Had He Come After Giuliani?". New York. Jan 17–24, 2011. 
  57. ^ http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0512245/bio
  58. ^ Andy Newman; Sam Roberts (17 October 2013). "New York Today: The Ex-Mayors". The New York Times. Retrieved 17 October 2013. 
  59. ^ McFadden, Robert D. (December 21, 2000). "John V. Lindsay, Mayor and Maverick, Dies at 79". The New York Times. Retrieved May 6, 2010. 
  60. ^ Ailing Lindsay Is Given Posts To Get City Health Insurance, The New York Times, May 3, 1996
  61. ^ Lindsay Triangle, Williamsburg, Forgotten-NY, January 2, 2014
  62. ^ "Mayor Giuliani Signs Bill Renaming Manhattan's East River Park John V. Lindsay/East River Park". Nyc.gov. Retrieved 2013-07-17. 
  63. ^ For Lindsay, a Rare Monument to a New York Mayor, The New York Times, December 16, 2013

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

United States House of Representatives
Preceded by
Frederic Coudert, Jr.
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from New York's 17th congressional district

1959–1965
Succeeded by
Theodore Kupferman
Political offices
Preceded by
Robert F. Wagner, Jr.
Mayor of New York City
1966–1973
Succeeded by
Abraham D. Beame