John Louis Lay
|John Louis Lay|
January 14, 1833|
Buffalo, New York
|Died||April 17, 1899
New York City
|Allegiance||United States of America|
|Service/branch||United States Navy|
|Years of service||1862–1865|
|Rank||1st Assistant Engineer|
|Battles/wars||American Civil War|
Lay was born in Buffalo, New York. He was appointed 2nd assistant engineer in the Union Navy in July 8, 1862, and was promoted to 1st assistant engineer on October 15, 1863. He designed the spar torpedo which was used by Lieutenant William B. Cushing to destroy the Confederate ironclad ram CSS Albemarle at Plymouth, North Carolina, on October 27, 1864. After the fall of Richmond in 1865, Lay was sent in advance of Admiral David D. Porter's fleet to remove obstructions from the James River.
Lay resigned from the navy on May 22, 1865, and was then was employed by the Peruvians to fortify the harbor of Callao with fixed mines and suspended torpedoes, in order to prevent the Spanish fleet from entering. Lay returned to the United States in 1867, where he began work on the design and building of a locomotive (self-propelled) torpedo.
Lay's first design, the Lay Torpedo or Lay Dirigible (1872) was a surface running cylindrical vessel with conical ends, powered by a reciprocating engine fuelled by compressed carbon dioxide gas. Two cables were paid out from the torpedo to the controlling ship or shore station which allowed the operator to steer it by means of electrical signals. In 1880, he produced an improved version — the Lay-Haight Torpedo. This used a 3-cylinder Brotherhood engine fuelled by carbon dioxide. The Lay torpedo was one of several designs tested at the Naval Torpedo Station at Newport, Rhode Island.
Lay torpedoes were also acquired by Peru for use in the War of the Pacific, but proved unsuccessful. On 28 August 1879 at Antofagasta the ironclad Huáscar, while engaging shore batteries and the ships Abtao, Magellan and Limarí launched a Lay torpedo only to have it reverse course. The ship was saved when an officer jumped overboard to divert it.
- Rossiter, Johnson, ed. (1906). Twentieth Century Biographical Dictionary of Notable Americans VI. Boston: American Biographical Society. p. 359. Retrieved 31 August 2013.
- Callahan, Edward William (1901). Officers of the US Navy and Marine Corps: 1775-1900. New York: L. R. Hamersly. Retrieved 31 August 2013.
- Jolie, E.W. (1978). A Brief History of U.S. Navy Torpedo Development. Newport, Rhode Island: Weapons Systems Department, Naval Underwater Systems Center. Retrieved 31 August 2013.
- Avaroa, Eduardo (2013). "El Huáscar Muralla Móvil Del Perú". Universidad Nacional Jorge Basadre Grohmann. Retrieved 31 August 2013. (Spanish)