John M. Berrien

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John Macpherson Berrien
John Macpherson Berrien.jpg
United States Senator
from Georgia
In office
March 4, 1841 – May 28, 1852
(temporarily resigned his seat from May 1845 to November 1845)
Preceded by Wilson Lumpkin
Succeeded by Robert M. Charlton
10th United States Attorney General
In office
March 9, 1829 – June 22, 1831
President Andrew Jackson
Preceded by William Wirt
Succeeded by Roger B. Taney
Personal details
Born (1781-08-23)August 23, 1781
Rocky Hill, New Jersey
Died January 1, 1856(1856-01-01) (aged 74)
Savannah, Georgia
Political party Whig
Spouse(s) Eliza Richardson Anciaux (b. September 19, 1783 at Newport, RI; d. August 27, 1828) Eliza Cecil Hunter

John Macpherson Berrien (August 23, 1781 – January 1, 1856) of Georgia was a United States Senator and Andrew Jackson's Attorney General.

Biography[edit]

Born at Rocky Hill, New Jersey, to a family of Huguenot ancestry, Berrien moved with his parents to Savannah, Georgia, in 1782; was graduated from Princeton College in 1796; studied law in Savannah; was admitted to the bar at the age of 18, and began practice in Louisville, Georgia, in 1799. After he returned to Savannah he was elected solicitor of the eastern judicial circuit of Georgia in 1809; judge of the same circuit from 1810 until January 30, 1821, when he resigned. He served as captain of the Georgia Hussars, a Savannah volunteer company, in the War of 1812.

Berrien was a member of the Georgia Senate from 1822 to 1823. He was elected as a Jacksonian Democrat to the United States Senate and served from March 4, 1825. In 1824, in The Antelope case he argued against the freedom of slaves captured at sea noting slavery "lay at the foundation of the Consitution" and that slaves "constitute the very foundation of your union."[1] On March 9, 1829, he resigned from the Senate to accept the position of Attorney General in the Cabinet of President Andrew Jackson. He held that post from March 9, 1829, until June 22, 1831, when he resigned. After leaving the Cabinet he resumed the practice of law until he was again elected, as a Whig, to the U.S. Senate and served from March 4, 1841, until May 1845, when he again resigned to accept an appointment to the supreme court of Georgia; again elected in 1845 to the United States Senate to fill the vacancy caused by his second resignation; reelected in 1846 and served from November 13, 1845, until May 28, 1852, when he resigned for the third time.

Berrien's views on sectional issues hardened during his tenure in the Senate and he became aligned with the short-lived Southern Rights Party formed to oppose the Compromise of 1850 and the Wilmot Proviso.

During the 1820s, Berrien was a member of the prestigious society, Columbian Institute for the Promotion of Arts and Sciences, who counted among their members former presidents Andrew Jackson and John Quincy Adams and many prominent men of the day, including well-known representatives of the military, government service, medical and other professions.[2]

He served as the chairman of the U.S. Senate Committee on the Judiciary in the 20th, 26th and 27th Congresses. He was president of the American Party convention at Milledgeville in 1855; and died in Savannah on January 1, 1856. He is interred in Laurel Grove Cemetery.

Legacy[edit]

Berrien County, Georgia, and Berrien County, Michigan (one of Michigan's Cabinet Counties, organized during his term as attorney general), are named in his honor.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Fateful Lightning: A New History of the Civil War and Reconstruction; by Allen C. Guelzo, May 18, 2012, kindle location 935
  2. ^ Rathbun, Richard. The Columbian institute for the promotion of arts and sciences: A Washington Society of 1816-1838.. Bulletin of the United States National Museum, October 18, 1917. Retrieved 2010-06-20. 

Biography[edit]

United States Senate
Preceded by
John Elliott
U.S. Senator (Class 3) from Georgia
March 4, 1825 – March 9, 1829
Served alongside: Thomas W. Cobb, Oliver H. Prince, George Troup
Succeeded by
John Forsyth
Preceded by
Wilson Lumpkin
U.S. Senator (Class 2) from Georgia
March 4, 1841 – May, 1845
Served alongside: Alfred Cuthbert, Walter T. Colquitt
Succeeded by
John M. Berrien
Preceded by
John M. Berrien
U.S. Senator (Class 2) from Georgia
November 13, 1845 – May 28, 1852
Served alongside: Walter T. Colquitt, Herschel V. Johnson, William C. Dawson
Succeeded by
Robert M. Charlton
Legal offices
Preceded by
William Wirt
U.S. Attorney General
Served under: Andrew Jackson

March 9, 1829 – June 22, 1831
Succeeded by
Roger B. Taney