John Marshall (British captain)
Captain John Marshall (Marshallese: Jo̧o̧n M̧ajeļ) was born in Ramsgate, Kent, England on 15 February 1748. Having been bound apprentice at the age of ten he spent his life at sea. In 1788 he captained the Scarborough, a ship of the First Fleet taking convicts from England to Botany Bay. He then sailed from Australia to China, charting previously unknown islands (mainly some of Gilbert Islands and Marshall Islands), as well as a new trade route to Canton (now Guangzhou). The islands which he had originally called "Lord Mulgrove's range" were later named Marshall Islands. John Marshall also captained the Scarborough on her second voyage transporting convicts to Australia, but the convicts coming aboard were in poor health and many did not survive the voyage; this, combined with an attempted seizure of the ship by the convicts, deterred him from any further voyages of transportation. He saw action during the American war of Independence, and also the Napoleonic Wars. As captain of the ship Diana he was severely wounded while repulsing an attack by a French privateer. He died in 1819 at the age of 71.
Reference:"A Journal of the different voyages of Mr John Marshall written by himself"
- Samuel Eliot Morison (22 May 1944). "The Gilberts & Marshalls: A distinguished historian recalls the past of two recently captured pacific groups". Life magazine. Retrieved 14 October 2009.
- Barrie Macdonald (1982). Cinderellas of the Empire: towards a history of Kiribati and Tuvalu. Australian National University Press. ISBN 982-02-0335-X. Retrieved 14 October 2009.