John Neville, 1st Marquess of Montagu

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John Neville, 1st Marquess of Montague
Quartered arms of Sir John Nevill, 1st Marquess of Montagu, KG.png
Quartered arms of Sir John Nevill,
1st Marquess of Montagu, KG
Spouse(s) Isabel Ingoldesthorpe

Issue

George Neville, Duke of Bedford
Anne Neville
Elizabeth Neville
Margaret Neville
Lucy Neville
Isabel Neville
Noble family House of Neville
Father Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury
Mother Alice Montagu, Countess of Salisbury
Born c.1431
Died 14 April 1471

John Neville, 1st Marquess of Montagu KG (c.1431 – 14 April 1471) was, until his final years, a Yorkist leader in the Wars of the Roses, brother of Warwick the Kingmaker and perhaps best known for eliminating Lancastrian resistance in the north of England in the first three years of the reign of Edward IV of England.

Career[edit]

Montagu was the third son of Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury and Alice Montagu, Countess of Salisbury, and a younger brother of Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick, "the Kingmaker".

He was knighted by Henry VI at Greenwich on 5 January 1453, alongside Edmund and Jasper Tudor, his brother Thomas, William Herbert, Roger Lewknor, and William Catesby.[1] He was from the branch of the Neville family based at Middleham Castle in Yorkshire, rather than that of Westmorland. It has been claimed that he, as a 'landless younger son' caused their long-running feud with the Lancastrian Percy family of Northumberland.[2] He was certainly involved in the confrontation between the two families' and their armed retinues which took place between Heworth and Stamford Bridge on 24 August 1454, following which 'much slaughter of their followers was alleged' by both sides.[3]

He was created Lord Montague in 1460, alongside Lord Scales, following York's return to England. He fought with his father and brother Thomas at the Battle of Blore Heath in 1459, and was captured and imprisoned in Chester Castle by the Lancastrians, for which he was attainted.[4] After the Yorkist victory at Northampton he was released, but was captured again at the Second Battle of St Albans in 1461.

Following his second release from imprisonment, he led the Yorkist forces in the north of England, defeating the Lancastrians at Hedgeley Moor and again at Hexham (both 1464).

In reward for driving out the Lancastrians, the new Yorkist King Edward IV invested him in 1462 as a Knight of the Garter and the following year appointed him warden of the east march. In 1464 he was also created Earl of Northumberland, a title which had long been held by the disgraced Percy family, and awarded the Percy estates confiscated after the Battle of Towton. However, when Henry Percy was rehabilitated in 1470, Montagu was forced to give up the earldom and many important offices in favour of his former foe. This was possibly due to Edward fearing troops from Northumberland would not be loyal.

He was in compensation created Marquess of Montagu, but without suitable estates or income to support such a dignity. Now set against Edward IV, he changed his allegiance and joined his brother Richard, Earl of Warwick, in the short-lived readeption of the Lancastrian King Henry VI. Montagu returned to high office in the north, but was killed with his brother Richard fighting the Yorkist forces at the Battle of Barnet in 1471.

Marriage and issue[edit]

Neville married Isabel Ingoldesthorpe (c.1441 – 20 May 1476), daughter and co-heiress of Sir Edmund Ingoldesthorpe (d. 2 September 1456) of Burrough Green and Sawston, Cambridgeshire, by whom he had a son and five daughters:[5]

Neville's widow married, on 25 April 1472, as his second wife, Sir William Norreys of Yattendon.[12]

Ancestry[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Griffiths, R.A., The Reign of Henry VI, Berkeley 1981, p. 699
  2. ^ Wolffe, B.P., Henry VI, London 1981, p. 268
  3. ^ Ross, C., Richard III, London 1981, p. 274
  4. ^ Ross, C., Richard III, London 1981, p. 320
  5. ^ Richardson II 2011, pp. 452-3.
  6. ^ a b c d e Richardson II 2011, pp. 453-4.
  7. ^ Cokayne 1953, p. 458.
  8. ^ The Picards or Pychards of Stradewy (now Tretower) Castle, and Scethrog, Brecknockshire, (London: Golding and Lawrence, 1878), p. 62 Retrieved 16 September 2013.
  9. ^ 'Parishes: Martley with Hillhampton', A History of the County of Worcester: volume 4 (1924), pp. 289-297 Retrieved 16 September 2013.
  10. ^ Martley: The Mortimers Retrieved 16 September 2013.
  11. ^ Gunn 1988, p. 86.
  12. ^ Richardson II 2011, p. 453.

References[edit]

  • Cokayne, G.E. (1953). The Complete Peerage, edited by Geoffrey H. White. XII, Part I. London: St Catherine Press. 
  • Gunn, S.J. (1988). Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk c.1484-1545. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-15781-6. 
  • Richardson, Douglas (2011). Everingham, Kimball G., ed. Magna Carta Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families II (2nd ed.). Salt Lake City. ISBN 1449966381. 

External links[edit]