John P. Lucas
|John Porter Lucas|
|Nickname(s)||Old Luke, Johnny, Jack, Uncle Luke, Foxy Grandpa|
January 14, 1890|
Kearneysville, West Virginia
|Died||December 24, 1949
Naval Station Great Lakes, Illinois
|Place of burial||Arlington National Cemetery|
|Service/branch||United States Army|
|Years of service||1911-1949 (38 years)|
|Commands held||Machine Gun Troop, 13th Cavalry
108th Field Signal Bn, 33rd ID
1st Bn, 82d Field Artillery Regt. (1929-31)
2nd Bn, 4th Field Artillery Regt. (1936-37)
1st Field Artillery Regt. (1940)
Artillery Bde, 2nd Infantry Div (1940-41)
3rd Infantry Division (July 41-March 42)
U.S. III Corps (Apr 42-May 43)
U.S. II Corps (Sep 43)
U.S. VI Corps (Sep 43-Feb 44)
Fourteenth United States Army (Jun–Jul 44)
Fifteenth United States Army (Aug-Nov 44)
Fourth United States Army (1944-46)
|Awards||Army Distinguished Service Medal (2)
Navy Distinguished Service Medal
|Relations||Sydney Virginia Wynkoop Lucas (Wife)
Colonel John Porter Lucas, Jr. (Son)
John Porter Lucas (January 14, 1890—December 24, 1949) was an American Major General and one of the commanders of VI Corps (September 1943-February 1944) during the Italian Campaign of the Mediterranean Theater of World War II.
Lucas, a native of Kearneysville, Jefferson County, West Virginia, was a graduate of West Point, class of 1911. Commissioned as a cavalry officer on 13 June 1911, he transferred to the Field Artillery in 1920. Lucas spent the first few years of his service in the Philippines, returning to the US in August 1914.
2nd Lt. Lucas was assigned to Troop A of the 13th Cavalry Regiment at Columbus, New Mexico in October 1914, but that unit was temporarily based at Douglas, Arizona, and in January 1915 he became commander of the regiment's Machine Gun Troop. On 9 March 1916 Lucas distinguished himself in action against Pancho Villa's raiders during the Battle of Columbus, fighting his way alone and bare-footed through attacking Villistas from his quarters to the camp's guard tent. There he organized resistance with a single machine gun until the remainder of his unit and a supporting troop arrived, then maneuvered his men to repel the attackers. He served during the Mexican Punitive Expedition, as an Aide de Camp to MG George Bell, Jr. at Fort Bliss, Texas.
World War I
Lucas joined the 33rd Infantry Division in August 1917 at Camp Logan, Texas, where he continued to serve MG George Bell, Jr., commander of the 33rd, as Aide de Camp. CPT Lucas then led the division's Infantry School of Arms while the division trained for war. Promoted to Major on 15 January 1918, he was given command of the 108th Field Signal Battalion (the Signal Battalion for the 33rd Infantry Division) and sailed to France with this unit. He simultaneously served as the Division Signal Officer. While serving as commander of the 108th, he was seriously wounded in action near Amiens, France on 23 June 1918. MAJ Lucas was the battalion's first casualty, being struck by a fragment from a German high-explosive shell. Evacuated to a hospital in England, he was later sent back to the United States on convalescent leave, where he recovered from his wounds in the Washington, D.C., area. His wounds were severe enough to prevent him from rejoining the 33rd Infantry Division. He was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel on 31 October 1918. Following the war, he would revert to his permanent rank of Captain.
From 1919-1920, Lucas was assigned as a military science instructor for the University of Michigan R.O.T.C. program in Ann Arbor, Michigan. In 1920, he rejoined the Field Artillery. He was promoted to Major in 1920, and in that year also entered the Field Artillery School at Fort Sill, Oklahoma (1920–1921). He graduated from the Field Artillery Advanced Course in 1921 and became an instructor at the Field Artillery School (1921–1923). He then entered the one-year program at the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, graduating in 1924 and finishing 78th out of 247 in his class. He next became the Professor of Military Science and Tactics for the R.O.T.C. program at Colorado Agricultural College (now Colorado State University), Fort Collins, Colorado. He served in this position for approximately 5 years (1924–1929), earning an MS degree in 1927. He was selected for command of 1st Battalion, 82d Field Artillery Regiment at Fort Bliss, Texas, from 1929-1930/31. He then enrolled in the Army War College, Carlisle, Pennsylvania, in June 1931, and graduated in June 1932. From 1932 to 1936, Lucas worked in the Personnel Division, G1, of the War Department General Staff. From July to October, 1940, he served as commander, 1st Field Artillery Regiment, Fort Sill, Oklahoma. He then served as commander of the Artillery Brigade of the 2nd Infantry Division at Fort Sam Houston, Texas, until July 1941, when he was notified that he would be given command of the 3rd Infantry Division.
World War II
In September 1941, Lucas was assigned as the commander, 3rd Infantry Division at Fort Lewis, Washington, where he conducted amphibious operations training in Puget Sound. He was next assigned as the Commander, III Corps, Fort McPherson, Georgia (April 1942-May 1943). In the Spring of 1943, Lucas was sent overseas as a deputy to Eisenhower, and briefly took command of II Corps (9–19 September 1943). On 20 September 1943, Lucas was given command of VI Corps, taking over from Major General Ernest J. Dawley. On January 22, 1944, from the deck of the cruiser USS Biscayne, Lucas was relieved of command after Operation Shingle, the amphibious landing at Anzio. Lucas was highly critical of the plans for the Anzio battle, believing his force was not strong enough to accomplish its mission. His confidence was not reinforced when the mission was scaled back by last-minute orders and advice from his commander, Lieutenant General Mark W. Clark, who told him not to "stick his neck out". After nine days of preparation to reinforce his position and four weeks of extremely tough fighting, Lucas was relieved by Clark and replaced with Major General Lucian K. Truscott as the commander of VI Corps at Anzio. Lucas spent three weeks as Clark's deputy at Fifth Army headquarters before returning to the United States.
Post-War Service and Death
In March 1944 Lucas was assigned as deputy commander and later as commander of the U.S. Fourth Army, headquartered at Fort Sam Houston, Texas. After the war, he was made Chief of the US Military Advisory Group to the Nationalist Chinese Government led by Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek (1946–1948). In 1948, he was assigned as Deputy Commander of the reactivated Fifth Army in Chicago, Illinois. While still on active duty as Deputy Commander of the Fifth Army, he died suddenly at Naval Station Great Lakes Naval Hospital, near Chicago on 24 December 1949. He is buried in Arlington National Cemetery with his wife Sydney Virginia Lucas (1892–1959). An obituary written by long-time associate and friend Major General Laurence B. Keiser appeared in the October, 1950 issue of "The Assembly," the magazine of the Association of West Point Graduates.
A camp in Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan, was named after MG Lucas in honor of his service. The polo field at Fort Sill, Oklahoma, was renamed Lucas field in his honor. Lucas was widely known as a Polo player in his youth. Lucas Street at Fort Sill is also named in his honor. On 28 June 1962, Lucas Place at Fort Eustis was named in his honor.
Awards and decorations
|Distinguished Service Medal with Oak leaf Cluster|
|Navy Distinguished Service Medal|
|Mexican Service Medal|
|World War I Victory Medal with one service clasp|
|World War II Victory Medal|
|European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign Medal with one silver and three campaign stars|
|American Defense Service Medal|
|American Campaign Medal|
|Grand Officer of the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus|
|Grand Cordon of the Order of the Cloud and Banner|
Dates of Rank
2nd Lieutenant (Regular Army) (RA) - June 13, 1911
1st Lieutenant (RA) - July 1, 1916
Captain (RA) - May 15, 1917
Major (Temporary) - January 15, 1918
Lieutenant Colonel (Temporary) - October 30, 1918
Captain (RA) - January 20, 1920
Major (RA) - July 1, 1920
Lieutenant Colonel (RA) - August 1, 1935
Colonel (RA) - May 2, 1940
Brigadier General (Army of the United States) (AUS) - October 1, 1940
Major General (AUS) - August 5, 1941
Major General (RA) - January 24, 1948
John Porter Lucas was a Freemason, having been entered (20 February 1919), passed (6 March 1919), and raised (10 March 1919) in the Elk Branch Lodge No. 93, Shenandoah Junction, WV. He is also believed to have been a member of the York Rite, attaining the degree of Knight Templar. According to his obituary in the October, 1950 issue of the Assembly, he had served as a Past Master of a Lodge of Freemasons in Fort Collins, CO.
- Berlin, Robert H. "U.S. Army World War II Corps Commanders: A Composite Biography". - Combat Studies Institute. - U.S. Army Staff and Command College. - 1989. LCC D769.1.B48 1989.
- Newspaper article from the Spirit of Jefferson Farmer's Advisor, dated 25 January 1951. The complete article can be found at http://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=1011&dat=19510125&id=o08MAAAAIBAJ&sjid=wmMDAAAAIBAJ&pg=1721,1572274
- Denslow, William R. 10,000 Famous Freemasons, Vol. II, K-Z.
- Vaughan-Thomas, Wynford. Anzio. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. 1961. OCLC 276480
- "Sbarco di Anzio, Lo" - at IMDb
- Blumenson, Martin (1963). Anzio, The Gamble that Failed. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-20093-9.
- Sassman, Roger W. (10 April 1999). Operation SHINGLE and Major General John P. Lucas (PDF). Army War College, U.S. Army. Report A357363. Retrieved 2006-12-19.
- Thompson, Julian (1991). "John Lucas and Anzio, 1944". In Bond, Brian. Fallen Stars. Eleven Studies of Twentieth Century Military Disaster. London: Brassey's. ISBN 0-08-040717-X.
- Anzio Beachhead (22 January-25 May 1944). American Forces in Action Series (United States Army Center of Military History). 1990 . CMH Pub 100-10.