John Rodgers (1772–1838)
July 11, 1772|
Havre de Grace, Maryland
|Died||August 1, 1838
|Service/branch||United States Navy|
|Years of service||1798–1837|
|Commands held||USS John Adams
United States Mediterranean Squadron
Little Belt Affair
War of 1812
|Relations||John Rodgers (son)
William Ledyard Rodgers (grandson)
John Rodgers (great-grandson)
George Washington Rodgers (grandson)
Christopher Raymond Perry Rodgers (grandson)
John Rodgers (July 11, 1772 - August 1, 1838) was a senior naval officer in the United States Navy who served under six Presidents for nearly four decades during its formative years in the 1790s through the late 1830s, committing the greater bulk of his adult life to his country. His service took him through many operations in the Quasi-War with France, The First Barbary War and the Second Barbary War in North Africa and the War of 1812 with Britain. As a senior officer in the young American navy he played a major role in the development of the standards, customs and traditions that emerged during this time. Rodgers was, among other incidents, noted for commanding the largest American squadron in his day to sail the Mediterranean Sea. After serving with distinction as a Lieutenant he was soon promoted directly to the rank of captain (the rank of Master Commandant did not exist at that time). During his naval career he commanded a number of navy ships, including the USS John Adams, the flagship of the fleet that defeated the Barbary states of North Africa. During the War of 1812 Rodgers fired the first shot of the war aboard his next flagship, the USS President, and also played a leading role in the recapture of Washington after the capitol was burned by the British, while also having to endure his own hometown and house burned and his family displaced. Later in his career he headed the Navy Board of Commissioners and served briefly as Secretary of the Navy. Following in his footsteps, Rodgers' son and several grandsons and great-grandsons also became Commodores and Admirals in the United States Navy.
Many of Rodgers' family emigrated to America from the British Isles in the years prior to the American Revolution. Rodgers' father, Colonel John Rodgers, was born in Scotland in 1726 and was a proponent of the patriot cause. He emigrated to America and married Elizabeth Reynolds from Delaware in 1760. Born in 1742, she was also of Scottish ancestry. They had eight children, four sons and four daughters, of which John Rodgers was among the oldest [Note 1] Rodgers was born in 1772 on a farm in a village near the Susquehanna Ferry where he was raised for the first thirteen years of his childhood. This village was named 'Havre de Grace' by Lafayette after a famous port of the same name in France while Rodgers was still a youth. The young Rodgers was an unusually strong and vital boy who spent much of his time fishing in the waters of the Susquehanna River and Chesapeake Bay near his home. He attended school in this local and was given to reading many books about seafaring life which fostered his love for ships and the sea. He had often seen schooner-rigged ships berthed at Havre de Grace but longed to see the large square-rigged vessels he had always read about. With a strong desire to see such ships he decided to go to Baltimore and, not revealing this desire to anyone, made his way to this city on his own accord on foot. Upon realizing that his son John was missing, Rodgers father, Colonel Rodgers, set out on horseback and came upon his son just as he was entering the city, insisting that his son return home to the family. But Rodgers, now in his mid-teens and with Baltimore now in sight, ardently refused. Realizing his son had his heart set on seeing the large seagoing ships berthed at Baltimore and wanting to go to sea, his father compromised with the determined youth and arranged his son's apprenticeship with Captain Benjamin Folger, a master ship builder of Baltimore, a veteran of the American revolution having served aboard merchant ships, and as commander of the Felicity, the ship used in the capture of the notorious privateer 'Jack-o-the-Lantern'. By the time the young Rodgers had joined him he was captain of his own ship the Maryland. The young Rodgers was put up on board a ship where he would remain on for the five years of his apprenticeship. Upon bidding his son farewell Colonel Rodgers requested that he never indulge in strong drink, and to this request the younger Rodgers promised, and kept his word. In adult life Rodgers did not indulge in spirituous drink.
Rodgers was married in 1806 to Minerva Denison  and had three sons, Robert, Frederick and John and two daughters. [Note 2] His son, John Rodgers Jr., was born in Maryland in 1812, and entered the U.S. Navy as a Midshipman serving aboard the Constellation and the Concord in the Mediterranean and later became a rear Admiral during the Civil War. Rodgers also had several grandsons and great-grandsons who all became officers in the U.S. Navy.
At the age of seventeen Captain Folger made Rodgers First Mate of the merchant ship Harmony. By the time Rodgers completed his five years of apprenticeship in 1793 Folger highly recommended him for command on a merchant ship regularly employed in the European trade called the Jane, owned by the prominent Baltimore merchants Samuel and John Smith. Rodgers served as the captain of this ship between four and five years, sailing out of Baltimore for various ports in Europe. His first voyage took him to the Spanish port at Cadiz in the early months of 1793, returning home with a load of salt. Rodgers' next voyage brought him to Hamburg, Germany but due to severe winter conditions on the North Sea he was forced to put up in England for the winter and didn't reach his destination until the spring of next year. In September 1795 he departed for Baltimore from Liverpool arriving home after a long passage that consumed three months. There were many events during this time of Rodgers' life that have been lost to history, however many of them can be ascertained from the logbooks of the Jane covering the period of July–August 1796 during her homeward bound voyage from Liverpool, a time when France and England were still at war. [Note 3] It was aboard the Jane where Rodgers mastered the art of ship's command, the exploits of which came natural to him.
While in command of the Jane, Rodgers' strong and determined character was once made plainly evident during one of his voyages navigating the North Sea. Adverse winter winds had carried the vessel off course, the ship's provisions were almost exhausted and three of his crewmen had frozen to death in one night, while most of the others had lapsed into hopeless despair. When Rodgers ordered some of the crew to go aloft to secure the ice encrusted rigging they refused. Outraged at their desolation Rodgers stripped off his jacket and shirt and before going aloft told the insubordinate crew to watch what a man could do. While climbing the frozen rigging bare-chested the crew, awe struck, immediately rose to his aid and in little time they had secured the faltering rigging. Under the grim circumstances of their situation Rodgers put the matter behind him and days later they returned safely to port.
Rodgers's service in the United States Navy extended through the Quasi War with France, the First Barbary War and the Second Barbary War in North Africa and through the War of 1812. In 1815 he was appointed to the Board of Naval Commissioners, serving through the Second Barbary War until he retired in 1837.
On March 8, 1798 President John Adams appointed junior officers for the first three ships constructed for the young American Navy [Note 4] where John Rodgers was appointed 2nd Lieutenant of the frigate USS Constellation, under the command of Thomas Truxtun. All of these officers were expeditiously confirmed by the Senate the next day. He helped capture the French frigate Insurgent [Note 5] during Constellation's engagement with her on February 9, 1799, and was given command of her as prize master, along with Midshipman Porter and eleven seamen, to which the task of guarding more than 160 prisoners was also given. That evening gale force winds set in separating the two ships, which left Rodgers, Porter and the few seamen aboard the Insurgent to guard the prisoners without the support of the crew from the Constellation nearby. Just before surrendering their ship the crew had thrown overboard the gratings to the hold along with handcuffs and other items used to secure prisoners. Greatly outnumbered, Rodgers, seized all weapons and ordered the prisoners to the lower hold, giving orders to open fire with blunderbusses should the prisoners try to breach the passage way to their hold. After guarding the prisoners and navigating the captured vessel for two days and three nights through stormy winter weather Rodgers arrived at Bassettere, Saint Kitts, on February 13. At this time Britain and France were still at war so the inhabitants of the British colony were delighted to see the French vessel arriving in American hands. For their effort the British commander-in-chief of St. Kitts sent Truxtun a letter of congratulations and offered him every service within his command. The two ships were then refitted and supplied while the Insurgent received a new crew. On March 5, 1799 Rodgers was promoted to Captain and received written orders to take command of the captured ship.
In June 1799 Rodgers relinquished command of the Insurgent, then at Norfolk, Virginia, receiving a letter from Secretary of the Navy Stoddert ordering him to Baltimore to supervise the outfitting of the USS Maryland, a Sloop-of-war [Note 6] bearing 20 guns, and then to take command of that ship. Three months later he took command of the Maryland. In March 1801, he delivered the ratified Convention of 1800 (Treaty of Mortefontaine), which ended the Quasi-War, to France.
First Barbary War
Placed in command of the John Adams on May 3 of the following year, Rodgers was ordered to sail for Tripoli to patrol its surrounding waters for three weeks, joining the Constitution the President along with a number of other vessels. Upon his arrival he immediately approached the fortifications and batteries of Tripoli and engaged the gunboats and batteries defending the city. During this time he also pursued and boarded several neutral ships attempting to bring grain and other supplies to Tripoli, the inhabitants of which were now facing starvation and other indemnities because of the blockade. After twelve days he encountered the Tripolian vessel Meshouda, bearing 20 guns, which he engaged and captured. The Tripolian vessel was previously blockaded at Gibraltar and had been carrying a load of military supplies to Tripoli. His brilliant record fighting the corsairs won him appointment as Commodore of the Mediterranean Squadron in May 1805. Since Commodore Barron's health at this time had deteriorated it was practically impossible for him to maintain command of the squadron. Rodgers accordingly relinquished command of the squadron upon receiving a letter dispatched to him by the Essex on May 22. Consisting of the ships, Constitution, President, Constellation, Enterprise, Essex, Siren, Argus, Hornet, Vixen, Nautilus and Franklin, together with a number of gunboats (including No. 5, and bomb vessel, Rodgers was now in command of the largest American squadron ever to assemble in the Mediterranean. The blockading force was so overwhelming that, after much deliberation and appeal from the Dey, a peace treaty was finally negotiated by the end of July.
When news of the treaty reached Washington in the fall of 1805, President Jefferson ordered all of the ships home with the exception of a frigate and two smaller supporting vessels. Before returning home, Rodgers sailed to Malta and Syracuse to close down military hospitals and settle accounts. He then stopped at Algiers and paid a visit to the Dey, who by now was well aware of the treaty with Tripoli, and subsequently extended every courtesy to Rodgers and even consented to him donning his sword. Rodgers in a letter to the Secretary of the Navy later wrote.. "I am the first Christian that has ever been permitted to visit the Dey of Algiers with sidearms..." 
A year later, he returned to the United States to take command of the New York Flotilla. After the Embargo Act was passed at the close of 1807, Rodgers commanded operations along the Atlantic coast enforcing its provisions.
At the outbreak of the War of 1812 the American navy was not fully prepared to deal with Britain's large and formidable navy with its hundreds of ships and seasoned commanders and crews, many of whom were already experienced and battle hardened from the Napoleonic wars with France. In 1811, he was in command as Commodore of the President off Annapolis when he heard that an American seaman had been "impressed" by a British frigate off Sandy Hook, New Jersey. Commodore Rodgers was ordered to sea to "protect American commerce", but he may have had verbal instructions to retaliate for the impressment of British subjects out of American vessels, which was causing much ill-feeling and was a main cause of the War of 1812.
Early in 1811, Secretary of the Navy, Hamilton, had ordered the USS President and the USS Argus on patrol duty along the Atlantic coast from the Carolinas to New York. Commodore John Rodgers was in command of President. On May 16, 1811, he sighted and followed the British sloop Little Belt off the coast of North Carolina, commanded by Arthur Bingham, thinking it to be HMS Gurreiere. After some hailing and counterhailing, of which very different versions are given on either side,  a gun was fired, each side accusing the other of the first shot. Rodgers continued to engage the much smaller vessel and after several more broadsides from President, bearing 44 guns, the Little Belt, with only 20, was cut to pieces. The Little Belt lost 13 men killed, including a Midshipman and a lieutenant, and 19 wounded, while the President incurred only one wounded. The incident came to be known as the Little Belt Affair. It was one among many mishaps between America and Britain that led to the War of 1812.
War of 1812
When the United States declared war against Britain on June 18, 1812, the American navy was not fully prepared to engage its massive and formidable Royal Navy with its seasoned commanders and crews. Many of the American ships were lacking crews and in need of repairs while others were still away at sea. The only ships available for service at this time were berthed at New York, under the command of Commodore John Rodgers. These were Rodgers' own flagship, the President, along with the United States, commanded by Commodore Decatur, the Congress, commanded by Captain Smith, [Note 7] the Hornet, commanded by Captain Lawrence and the Argus commanded by Lieutenant Sinclair. However, the British vessels in American waters at this time were relatively few in number and not themselves very representative of the overall might of the Royal Navy.
As soon as Rodgers received news of the declaration of war, fearing that the order to confine naval ships to port would be reconsidered by Congress, he departed New York harbor with his squadron within the hour. In anticipation of the war, Rodgers had already had his squadron fitted and ready to embark on the high seas. Their first objective was a British fleet reported to have recently departed from the West Indies and immediately set a course south-east in search of these ships. The President passed Sandy Hook on June 21. In the early morning of the 23rd a ship was spotted on the horizon to the north-east which turned out to be the frigate, HMS Belvidera, commanded by Captain Richard Byron, whereupon Rodgers immediately gave chase, with the Congress following close behind. The Belvidera had already been informed of the inevitability of war by a passing New York pilot boat and herself immediately turned about, crowded on all sails and began flight to the north-east with a fresh wind behind all ships coming from the west. [Note 8]
The USS President was an unusually fast frigate and by noon had gained on the Belvidera, now only some two and a half miles distant, approximately 75 miles south-west of Nantucket island. While the President was closing its distance with Belvidera Captain Byron began clearing the decks and preparing for action and made ready his stern guns. By 4:30 the wind had relaxed some but the Belvidera was now close enough to be engaged. Seizing this first and tenuous possibility, the President's forecastle bow chasers fired the first shot of the war, by Rodgers himself, with two more almost immediately following.   All three shots struck Belvidera at her stern, striking the rudder assembly and captain's quarters, killing or wounding nine men. [Note 9] With only a few more shots needed to disable the British vessel the President fired again, but the tide of battle turned when its gun burst, killing 16 men, wounding others, including Rodgers who was violently thrown back with his leg broken from the impact. [Note 10] There was a pause of panic about the entire ship, as now every gun was suspected. Byron seized the opportunity and fired his stern chasers, killing yet another six men. The Belvidera continued a brisk fire, causing damage to the rigging and foresails. The President continued chase but without adequate foresails to stabilize her bearing was now yawing and began to lose ground, allowing the Belvidera to escape and return to Halifax, taking with her the news of the declaration of war.
Rodger's squadron patrolled the waters off the American upper east coast until the end of August in 1812, and commanded the President for most of the war, capturing 23 prizes. On land, Rodgers rendered valuable service defending Baltimore during the British attack on Fort McHenry and when Washington was invaded.
Rodgers home town at Havre de Grace was directly affected by the war. In 1813 during his third cruise of the war his home was plundered and then burned by British marines led by Admiral Cockburn  [Note 11] with its valuables stolen or destroyed in the fire. Rodgers' mother, wife and two sisters were forced to flee to a friend's house not far from the village. In little time the British made their way to this house also with orders to destroy it as was so with all such dwellings in the area. Rodgers' sister, Mrs. Goldsborough, pleaded with the officer in charge of the detail, begging him to forego the destruction of their haven for the sake of their aging mother. The officer maintained that he was under strict orders and would have to obtain the consent of his commanding officer, whereupon Mrs. Goldsborough returned with the officer to again plead her case. The commanding officer agreed to spare the house, but by the time they had returned it had already been set ablaze, however the fire had not yet taken hold and upon hearing the news that the house was to be spared the British marines through frantic efforts were able to put out the flames in time and saved the house from complete ruin.
In April 1814 Rodgers returned to Havre de Grace where he received orders to take command of USS Guerriere at Philaelphia, so named after the captured prize of Isaac Hull, and bearing 53 guns. Early in May of that year he had replaced the senior officer of the Navy, Commodore Alexander Murray, as commander of the Delaware squadron. Rodgers then ordered Lieutenant Charles Morgan to take charge of the squadron to reorganize it, giving him specific instructions regarding the outfitting of the ships with armament and the drilling of its use which was to be performed daily. Finally on June 20, 1814, the Guerriere was launched with a crew of 200 men, while more than fifty thousand spectators gathered on the shores of the Delaware and in small boats to witness the occasion. During that summer Rodgers spent most of his time at Philadelphia's naval yard outfitting this ship. The Delaware squadron also comprised some 20 gunboats, sloops and galleys and was one among several fleets assigned to patrol the chief ports along the upper Atlantic coastline.
Burning of Washington
Commodore John Rodgers played a major role in the recapture of Washington after it had been burned in 1814 by the invading British. As a Navy veteran he was generally unaccustomed to the ways of deployment in land battle, yet he restored order after the invasion of Washington, coordinated efforts between the infantry and Secretary of the Navy William Jones, Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry and Commodore David Porter forcing the early retreat of the British.
In the spring of 1814 the American naval forces in the Chesapeake Bay consisted mainly of a fleet of gunboats under the command of Commodore Joshua Barney, a veteran of the American Revolution. On August 20, a fleet commanded by British Rear-Admiral Cockburn sailed up the Patuxent River searching for Barney's flotilla while British troops marched in the same direction along its shore. On August 19 Naval Secretary Jones responded by ordering Commodores Rodgers in Philadelphia and Porter in New York to proceed towards Washington with several detachments of sailors and Marines. The orders were dispatched by mail but did not reach Philadelphia until ten o'clock the morning of the 22nd. As Rodgers was at Reedy Island on the Delaware River inspecting the flotilla he did not receive the Secretary's orders until he returned at eleven o'clock that evening—thirteen hours later. Upon receiving the dispatch Rodgers immediately made preparations to march towards Baltimore. The navy secretary, not knowing that his initial orders had reached Rodgers later than he had figured, expected Rodgers to be at his designated station by the evening of the 23rd, and had sent him follow up orders that morning directing Rodgers to Bladensburg, Maryland five miles north-east of Washington. Consequently Rodgers didn't receive his orders until it was too late to execute them.
By August 24, Admiral Cockburn's forces had already moved up the Patuxent, forcing Barney to burn and abandoned his flotilla, and then with the area secured advanced on Washington. That afternoon Cockburn's forces defeated the American troops under General Winder and Commodore Barney at Bladensburg and by 8 o'clock that evening entered Washington. Within twenty four hours under the direct supervision of Admiral Cockburn, the capitol and other buildings were in flames. With the American forces defeated and in retreat President James Madison and Secretary Jones had fled the capitol and made their way up the Potomac river and remained in hiding in the countryside. Rodgers then proceeded to Baltimore arriving on the 25th. The citizens there were now in a panic fearing their city would suffer the same fate that had just befallen Washington. In the panic the Americans burned the Columbia and the Argus which were nearby ready for service. Upon Rodgers' arrival he immediately took up preparing defensive measures about the area, the actions of which restored order and calm among the citizenry, and with their courage somewhat restored, Rodgers combined his command with that of Porter's and secured a small flotilla on the Patapsco River, which flowed south-east into the bay at Baltimore. With a force of some one thousand sailors and marines Rodgers set up defenses about Washington, and divided this force into two regiments, placing one under the command of Porter, with the other under the command of Oliver Hazard Perry who had already been stationed there in Baltimore.
In the meantime President Madison and the Secretary returned to Washington, but by August 27, the British under the command of Captain James Gordon advanced on the capitol a second time, making their approach by way of the Potomac River with two frigates and a number of smaller vessels, reaching Fort Washington, twelve miles down river from the capitol. The fort was immediately abandoned when fired upon while the American forces retreated to Alexandria, five miles up river, just seven miles outside of Washington. In a state  By August 29, Gordon advanced on and captured this town and port, seizing all supplies which were then loaded on to the invading vessels. Upon receiving orders to join Admiral Cockburn he sailed down river but was delayed due to adverse winds near Fort Washington. Fearing the British had further designs on the capitol Secretary Jones began preparing defensive forces. On August 29, he gave Rodgers orders to proceed to Bladensburg from Baltimore with 650 seaman and Marines. The day before Rodgers ordered Porter to Washington, arriving August 30, with 100 seaman for the purposes of guarding the capitol. The next day Rodgers and Porter together arrived at Bladensburg where Rodgers met up with Secretary Jones. As the American forces were now regrouped and in strong defensive positions, it prompted the British to make their retreat. At this point the three Commodores began harassing the retreating British forces where Rodgers began attacking the British fleet with fireships. Rodgers had previously improved and improvised his fireships at the Washington naval yard beforehand. On September 3, he proceeded down the Potomac in a Gig closely followed by his fireships and barges, the latter being manned with 60 marines armed with muskets and swords. When they reached Alexandria Rodgers entered the abandoned town and ordered the American flag hoisted.
The burning of Washington shocked the nation and was denounced by most of the continent of Europe. According to The Annual Register, it had "...brought a heavy censure on the British character...", with some members of Parliament joining in the criticism. However most of Britain felt it was justified for American incursions into Canada and because it was the United States who had declared and initiated the war.
In 1815 after the War of 1812 had ended Congress established the Board of Navy Commissioners. Rodgers was a prolific political writer whose writings appealed to President Madison, leading him, with the recommendation of the Senate, to appointing Rodgers to the Board of Navy Commissioners, along with Isaac Hull and David Porter. Rodgers headed the Board from 1815–1824 and again in 1827 until he retired in May 1837. Rodgers also served briefly as Secretary of the Navy in 1823. From November 1824 through May 1827, he commanded the Mediterranean Squadron.
During the 1820s, Rodgers was a member of the prestigious society, Columbian Institute for the Promotion of Arts and Sciences, who counted among their members former presidents Andrew Jackson and John Quincy Adams and many prominent men of the day, including well-known representatives of the military, government service, medical and other professions. 
Several years before Rodgers retired from the Board of Naval Commissioners his health began to decline, it is believed from a case of cholera. On advice that his condition would benefit from a leave of absence he was persuaded to take a trip across the Atlantic to England. Rodgers subsequently resigned his commission with the blessing of President Jackson and the Secretary of the Navy. On May 10 he sailed for London, embarking from New York on a packet ship, the Montreal and spent several weeks in that city. He also visited the towns of Plymouth and Portsmouth and was escorted and given much attention by the Admiralty of the Royal Navy and other notable people. He was the guest of two close friends, Admiral Sir James and Lady Hillyarm who were present at the Mediterranean Station while Rodgers was serving there dealing with the piracy of the Barbary states.
Late in August 1837 Rodgers returned to the United States with little improvement in his health. He remained at his home at Lafayaette Square in Washington for several weeks, but with his health now steadily declining again he was placed in the care of the naval asylum at Philadelphia under the care of a naval doctor and friend, a Dr. Thomas Harris. His wife took up residence in a boarding house nearby. Soon his already frail condition began to rapidly worsen and when it was certain his death was imminent his wife was sent for, but Rodgers had already lapsed into unconsciousness by the time she arrived at his bedside. Rodger's last words were spoken to his butler and close friend asking, "...do you know the Lord's Prayer?" His butler replied "yes, master."—Rodgers replied, "Then repeat it for me". Rodgers died in the arms of his butler on August 1, 1838 at the age of 66.
Rodgers' funeral took place at the home of Commodore Biddle. In attendance was Brigadier General Prevost who had called upon the uniformed men in the city to honor Rodgers with a parade through Washington.
Rodgers was buried in the family burial site in the Congressional Cemetery at Washington, his grave marked by a pyramidal shaped sandstone monument which today also bears the names of his wife, Minerva Denison, his son Frederick, and two daughters who were also laid to rest here in later years.
Influence and legacy
Commodore Rodgers established a naval "dynasty" that produced several other notable officers. His son John Rodgers (1812–1882) served in the American Civil War, and his great-grandson John Rodgers (1881–1926) served in World War I.
Louisa, daughter of Commodore Rodgers, was married to Union General Montgomery C. Meigs; their son John Rodgers Meigs was killed in the Civil War in 1864. (General Meigs was a great grandson of Continental Army Colonel Return J. Meigs, Sr.).
- List of United States Navy people
- List of sailing frigates of the United States Navy
- Raid on Havre de Grace
- Chronology of the War of 1812
- Bibliography of early American naval history
- Abbot, WILLIS J. (1890). THE NAVAL HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES.
Peter Fenelon Collier, New York. p. 438. Url
- Allen, Gardner Weld (1905). Our Navy and the Barbary Corsairs.
Houghton Mifflin & Co., Boston, New York and Chicago. p. 354. OCLC 2618279. Url
- Allen, Gardner Weld (1909). Our naval war with France.
Houghton Mifflin, Boston, New york. p. 323. OCLC 197401914. Url
- Cooper, James Fenimore (1846). Lives of distinguished American naval officers.
Carey and Hart, Philadelphia. p. 436. OCLC 620356. Url
- —— (1856). History of the Navy of the United States of America.
Stringer & Townsend, New York. p. 508. OCLC 197401914. Url
- Griffis, William Elliot (1887). Matthew Calbraith Perry: a typical American naval officer.
Cupples and Hurd, Boston. p. 459. Url
- Hagan, Kenneth J. (1992). This People's Navy: The Making of American Sea Power.
The Free Press, New York. p. 468. ISBN 0-02-913471-4. Url
- Hickey, Donald R. (1989). The War of 1812, A Forgotten Conflict.
University of Illinois Press, Chicago and Urbana. ISBN 0-252-01613-0. url-1, url-2
- Johnston, William Dawson (1904). History of the Library of Congress: Volume I, 1800-1864
Bulletin of the United States National Museum, October 18, 1917.
Library of Congress, Government Printing Office. Url
- Leiner, Frederic C. (2007). The End of Barbary Terror, America's 1815 War against the Pirates of North Africa. Oxford University Press, 2007. ISBN 978-0-19-532540-9.
- Paullin, Charles Oscar (1910). Commodore John Rodgers: Captain ...
The Arthur H. Clark Company, Cleveland, Ohio. p. 434. Url
- Skaggs, David Curtis (2006). Oliver Hazard Perry: honor, courage, and patriotism in the early U.S. Navy.
Naval Institute Press. p. 302. ISBN 1-59114-792-1. Url
- Toll, Ian W. (2008). Six frigates: the epic history of the founding of the U.S. Navy.
W. W. Norton & Company, New York. p. 592. ISBN 978-0-393-05847-5. Url
- Waldo, Samuel Putnam (1821). The life and character of Stephen Decatur.
P. B. Goodsell, Hartford, Conn., 1821. Url
- Schroeder, John H. (2006). Commodore John Rodgers: Paragon of the Early American Navy.
University Press of Florida,. p. 255. ISBN 0813029635. Url
- Paullin, 1910 p.9
- Hagan, 1992 pp.60-61
- McKee, Christopher (1991), A Gentlemanly and Honorable Profession: The Creation of the U.S. Naval Officer Corps, 1794-1815, Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, MD. pp 297
- Paullin, 1910 p.325
- Paullin, 1910 pp.74, 382, 402-403
- Paullin, 1910 p.19
- Paullin, 1910 pp.18-21
- Paullin, 1910 p.398
- Paullin, 1910 p.279
- Paullin, 1910 pp.20-21
- Paullin, 1910 pp.25-26
- Paullin, 1910 p.27
- Paullin, 1910 p.334
- Paullin, 1910 p.49
- Paullin, 1910 p.46
- Allen, 1909 p.102
- Paullin, 1910 p.47
- Paullin, 1910 p.53
- Hickey, 1989, p.7
- Allen, 1905, p.98
- Paullin, 1910 p.106
- Allen, 1905, pp.223-226
- Paullin, 1910 pp.164-165
- Roosevelt, 1883 p.72
- Toll, 2006 pp.321-323
- Roosevelt, 1883 p.7
- Paullin, 1910 pp.226-228
- Abbot, W. John, 1886 p.291
- Roosevelt, 1883 pp.72-73
- Roosevelt, 1883 pp.72-76
- Cooper, 1856 p.245-246
- Roosevelt, 1883 p.74
- Cooper, 1856 p.245
- Paullin, 1910 p.252
- Griffis, 1887 p.40
- Roosevelt, 1883 pp.320-321
- Hickey, 1989, p.153
- Paullin, 1910 pp.279-280
- Paullin, 1910 pp.280-281
- Paullin, 1910 pp.283-288
- Roosevelt, 1883 pp.317-321
- Hickey, 1989, p.199
- Roosevelt, 1883 p.319
- Hickey, 1989 p.202
- Waldo, 1821 p.266
- Waldo, 1821 p.396
- de Meissner, Sophie Radford (1920). Old Naval Days. New York, New York: Henry Holt and Company. pp. 37–51, 81.
- Johnston, 1904
- Paullin, 1910 pp.394-396
- Homans, Benjamin (1838),
Army and Navy Chronicle, Volume 6, p.89
- Rodgers biographer Paullin does not cite the chronological order of the births of these eight children.
- His daughters are not mentioned by name in Paullin's biography of Rodgers.
- C.O.Paullin gives an excellent representative account of the log entries from the Jane during this period in his biography of Rodgers.
- USS Constellation, USS United States, USS Constitution 
- Some sources use the French spelling i.e. L'Insurgente 
- a Sloop of War varies considerably from a Sloop
- Not to be confused with Captain John Smith the explorer, born in 1580. Currently (Oct.2011) there is no page/link for the Smith who served in the War of 1812, hence this note.
- Bearing to North-East is the approximate heading, Roosevelt cites it at North-East by East.
- J.F.Cooper's account varies, claiming the shots struck the muzzle of a gun, the stern, killing two, wounding five.
- The young and future Commodore Matthew C. Perry was also aboard and wounded by the burst.
- Cockburn (pronounced as 'Co-burn'), was under the command of Admiral Warren 
- London, Joshua E. (2005). Victory in Tripoli: How America's How America's War with the Barbary Pirates Established the U.S. Navy and Shaped a Nation. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-44415-4.
- Schroeder, John H. (2006). Commodore John Rodgers:Paragon of the Early American Navy. Gainesville: University Press of Florida. ISBN 0-8130-2963-5.
- Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships Biography
- The Rodgers Family Papers, containing military records and materials pertaining to his naval service, are available for research use at the Historical Society of Pennsylvania.
- The John Rodgers papers, at the William L. Clements Library contain professional letters and documents from throughout Rodger's naval career.