Rogers was a member of the committee of safety in 1774 and 1775, and a member of the Maryland provincial conventions in 1774, 1775, and 1776, in addition to being a member of the Continental Congress. He was the "second major of battalion" for Prince Georges County. In 1776 he was a judge of the court of admiralty. He was one of three Maryland delegates to the Congress who voted in July 1776, to declare America's independence from Great Britain and to approve the Declaration of Independence. Because of his subsequent illness, Rogers' signature does not appear on the actual Declaration document. He is the only delegate who voted for the Declaration, but did not sign it.
In 1777 Rogers was a member of the executive council on the organization of the state government and was elected as a United States Presidential elector from Maryland in 1788. From 1778 until his death he was Chancellor of Maryland. He died in Annapolis in September, 1789.