John S. Marmaduke
|John Sappington Marmaduke|
March 14, 1833|
Arrow Rock, Missouri
|Died||December 28, 1887
Jefferson City, Missouri
|Place of burial||Jefferson City, Missouri|
|Allegiance|| United States of America
Confederate States of America
|Service/branch|| United States Army
Confederate States Army
|Years of service||1857–61 (USA), 1861–65 (CSA)|
|Rank|| Second lieutenant (USA)
Major General (CSA)
|Commands held||3rd Confederate Infantry Regiment|
American Civil War
- Battle of Boonville
- Battle of Shiloh
- Battle of Prairie Grove
- Battle of Springfield II
- Battle of Hartville
- Battle of Cape Girardeau
- Battle of Reed's Bridge
- Red River Campaign
- Battle of Poison Spring
- Price's Raid
- Battle of Mine Creek
|Other work||Governor of Missouri, 1885 – 1887|
John Sappington Marmaduke (March 14, 1833 – December 28, 1887) was a regular army officer from the divided border-state of Missouri, who became a Confederate Major general during the American Civil War.
Serving in Arkansas, he aroused controversy by killing his own commander in a duel, and was then accused of murdering African-American soldiers in the Red River Campaign. During Sterling Price’s raid into Missouri, Marmaduke was captured at the Battle of Mine Creek (October 1864) and remained in captivity until the war’s end. He became Governor of Missouri in 1884, successfully campaigning for railroad reform, before dying in office.
Early life and career
The second son among ten children, Marmaduke was born on his father's plantation near Arrow Rock in Saline County, Missouri. His father, Meredith Miles Marmaduke (1791–1864), was the eighth Governor of Missouri. His great-grandfather, John Breathitt, had served as the Governor of Kentucky from 1832–1834, dying in office.
Marmaduke attended Chapel Hill Academy in Lafayette County, Missouri and the Masonic College in Lexington, Missouri, before attending Yale University for two years and then Harvard University for another year. Congressman John S. Phelps appointed Marmaduke to the United States Military Academy, where he graduated in 1857, placed 30th out of 38 students. He briefly served as a second lieutenant in the First United States Mounted Rifleman, before being transferred to the Second United States Cavalry under Col. Albert Sidney Johnston. Marmaduke served in the Utah War and was posted to Camp Floyd in 1858–1860.
Marmaduke was on duty in the New Mexico Territory in the spring of 1861 when he received news that Missouri had seceded from the Union. He hastened home and met with his father (an avid Unionist). Even though the news was false, Marmaduke finally decided to resign from the United States Army, effective April 1861. Pro-secession Missouri Governor Claiborne F. Jackson, Marmaduke's uncle, soon appointed him as the colonel of the First Regiment of Rifles, a unit from Saline County, in the Missouri State Guard. Governor Jackson departed Jefferson City in June, along with State Guard commander Major General Sterling Price, to recruit more troops. Marmaduke and his regiment met them at Boonville. Within a short time, Price and Jackson left, leaving Marmaduke in charge of a small force of militiamen. Marmaduke realized his troops were in no way prepared for combat, but Governor Jackson ordered him to make a stand. Union General Nathaniel Lyon's 1,700 well-trained and equipped soldiers easily routed Marmaduke's untrained and poorly armed force at the Battle of Boonville on June 17, a skirmish mockingly dubbed by Unionists "the Boonville Races," since Marmaduke's recruits broke and ran after just 20 minutes of battle.
Disgusted by the situation, Marmaduke resigned his commission in the Missouri State Guard and traveled to Richmond, Virginia, where he was commissioned a first lieutenant in the regular Confederate States Army. The Confederate War Department ordered him to report for duty in Arkansas, where he soon was elected the lieutenant colonel of the 1st Arkansas Battalion. He served on the staff of Lt. Gen. William J. Hardee, a former West Point instructor of infantry tactics. Marmaduke's former Mormon War commander, Albert Sidney Johnston, asked him to join his staff in early 1862.
Marmaduke was wounded in action at the Battle of Shiloh as Colonel of the 3rd Confederate Infantry, incapacitating him for several months. In November 1862, the War Department confirmed Marmaduke's promotion to brigadier general. His first battle as a brigade commander was at the Battle of Prairie Grove. In April 1863, Marmaduke departed Arkansas with 5,000 men and ten artillery pieces and entered now Union held Missouri. However, he was repulsed at the Battle of Cape Girardeau and forced to return to Helena, Arkansas.
Controversy soon followed Marmaduke. In September 1863, he accused his immediate superior officer, Maj. Gen. Lucius M. "Marsh" Walker, of cowardice in action for not being present with his men on the battlefield. Walker, slighted by the insult, challenged Marmaduke to a duel, which resulted in Walker's death on September 6.
Marmaduke later commanded a cavalry division in the Trans-Mississippi Department, serving in the Red River Campaign. During this period, Marmaduke once again was involved in controversy. Commanding a mixed force of Confederate troops, including Native-American soldiers of the 1st and 2nd Choctaw Regiments, Marmaduke defeated a Federal foraging detachment at the Battle of Poison Springs, Arkansas on April 18, 1864. Marmaduke's men were accused of murdering African-American soldiers of the First Kansas Colored Volunteer Infantry (later designated the 79th U.S. Colored Infantry). Marmaduke and other white officers claimed that the accusations of illegal killings were overblown, and blamed any murders that may have happened on the Choctaw troops who, in the words of one Confederate, did "kill and scalp some" of the black troops. Marmaduke was hailed in the Confederate press for what was publicized as a significant southern victory.
Marmaduke commanded a division in Major General Sterling Price's Raid September–October 1864 into Missouri, where Marmaduke was captured at the Battle of Mine Creek (by Private James Dunlavy of the 3rd Iowa Cavalry). While still a prisoner of war at Johnson's Island in Ohio, Marmaduke was promoted to major general in March 1865. He was released after the war ended.
Marmaduke returned home to Missouri and settled in St. Louis. He worked briefly for an insurance company, whose ethics he found contrary to his own. He then edited an agricultural journal, and publicly accused the railroads of discriminatory pricing against local farmers. The governor soon appointed Marmaduke to the state's first Rail Commission.
Marmaduke decided to enter politics, but lost the 1880 Democratic nomination for governor to former Union general Thomas T. Crittenden, who had strong support and financial backing from the railroads. Undeterred, Marmaduke campaigned four years later for Governor of Missouri at a time when public opinion had changed, and railroad reform and regulation became more in vogue. Marmaduke conducted a campaign which apologetically emphasized his Confederate service, emphasized alleged abuses of Missourians by Union troops during the Civil War, celebrated the activities of pro-Confederate "partisan guerrillas" such as William Clark Quantrill, claimed that the Republican Party in Missouri a tool of "Carpetbaggers" to oppress "native" Missourians, and made overt appeals to white racism. Ironically, considering Marmaduke's "Confederate-focused" campaigning, he was elected on a platform (officially) focused on cooperation between former Unionists and Confederates, promising an agenda which would produce a "New Missouri".
He settled potentially crippling railroad strikes in 1885 and 1886. The following year, Marmaduke pushed laws through the state legislature that finally began regulating the state's railway industry. Marmaduke also dramatically boosted the state's funding of public schools, with nearly a full third of the annual budget allocated to education. He never married, and his two nieces served as hostesses at the Governor's Mansion.
His younger brother, Henry Hungerford Marmaduke, served in the Confederate Navy, was captured and was imprisoned on Johnson's Island. He later served the federal government in negotiations with South American nations. He is buried in Arlington National Cemetery. Two other Marmaduke brothers died in the Civil War.
- Shoemaker's pg. 189–190
- Parrish's pg. 16–17
- Welsh's pg. 154
- Johnston's pg. 583–584
- Neal's pg. 142–143
- Black's pg. 159
- Conard's pg. 199–200
- Reavis's pg. 510–511
- McClure pg. 175–176
- Houston's pg. 10
- Black, William P., Banasik, Michael E., Victoria and Albert Museum, Duty, Honor, and Country: The Civil War Experiences of Captain William P. Black, Thirty-Seventh Illinois Infantry, Press of the Camp Pope Bookshop, 2006. ISBN 1-929919-10-7.
- Conrad, Howard Louis, Encyclopedia of the History of Missouri: A Compendium of History and Biography for Ready Reference, Published by The Southern History Company, Haldeman, Conard & Co., Proprietors, 1901.
- Hinze, David; Farnham, Karen, The Battle of Carthage, Border War in Southwest Missouri, July 5, 1861. Gretna, Louisiana: Pelican Publishing, 2004. ISBN 1-58980-223-3.
- Houston, Curtis A., The Houston Family and Relatives, C.A. Houston, 1984.
- Johnston, William Preston, Johnston, Albert Sidney, The life of Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston: embracing his services in the armies of the United States, the republic of Texas, and the Confederate States, D. Appleton, 1878.
- McClure, Clarence Henry, History of Missouri: A Text Book of State History for Use in Elementary Schools, A.S. Barnes Company, 1920.
- Neal, Diane, Kremm, Thomas, The Lion of the South: General Thomas C. Hindman, Mercer University Press, 1997. ISBN 0-86554-556-1.
- Parrish, William Earl, McCandless, Perry, Foley, William E., A History of Missouri, University of Missouri Press, 1971. ISBN 0-8262-1559-9.
- Ponder, Jerry, Major General John S. Marmaduke, C.S.A., Doniphan, Missouri: Ponder Books, 1999. ISBN 0-9623922-8-6.
- Reavis, L. U., Saint Louis: the Future Great City of the World, Gray, Baker & Co., 1875.
- Shoemaker, Floyd C., A History of Missouri and Missourians: A Text Book for "class A" Elementary Grade, Freshman High School, and Junior High School, Ridgway, 1922.
- Warner, Ezra J., Generals in Gray: Lives of the Confederate Commanders, Louisiana State University Press, 1959. ISBN 0-8071-0823-5.
- Welsh, Jack D., Medical Histories of Confederate Generals, Kent State University Press, 1999. ISBN 0-87338-649-3.
- Brig. Gen. John S. Marmaduke[dead link]
- John Sappington Marmaduke[dead link]
- Arlington Cemetery bio of Marmaduke's brother
- Sappington-Marmaduke Family Papers Missouri History Museum Archives
Thomas Theodore Crittenden
|Governor of Missouri
Albert P. Morehouse