John S. Service
|John Stewart Service|
Service in Yan'an, China, 1944
August 3, 1909|
|Died||February 3, 1999
|Known for||China Hands|
John Stewart Service (3 August 1909 - 3 February 1999) was an American diplomat who served in the Foreign Service in China prior to and during World War II. Considered one of the State Department's "China Hands," he was an important member of the Dixie Mission to Yan'an. Service correctly predicted that the Communists would defeat the Nationalists in a civil war, but he and other diplomats were blamed for the "loss" of China in the domestic political turmoil following the 1949 Communist triumph in China. In the immediate postwar years, Service was accused in the Amerasia Affair in 1945, of which a grand jury cleared him of wrongdoing. In 1950 U.S. Senator Joseph McCarthy launched an attack against Service, which led to investigations of the reports Service wrote while stationed in China. Secretary of State Dean Acheson fired Service, but in 1957 the U.S. Supreme Court ordered his reinstatement in a unanimous decision, finding that Acheson's action had been illegal because several investigations had found no evidence Service had been in any way disloyal.
John Service was born in the city of Chengdu in the Sichuan province of China, on August 3, 1909. The son of missionaries working for the Y.M.C.A., Service spent his childhood in the Chinese province. By the age of eleven, Service had mastered the local Chinese dialect, and then attended the Shanghai American School for high school. The Service family moved to California, where John graduated from Berkeley High School in Berkeley, California at the age of fifteen. Those who knew him say he always went by "Jack" and he never used his middle name.
In the fall of 1927, Service entered Oberlin College. He majored in both art history and economics, and still found time to be captain of the school's cross-country and track and field teams. After graduation, Service took and passed the Foreign Service Exam in 1933. In 1977, Oberlin awarded him an honorary degree.
Career in China
Service was first assigned to a clerkship position in the American consulate in the capital of the Yunnan province, Kunming. Two years later, Service was promoted to Foreign Service Officer and sent to Beijing for language study. In 1938, he was assigned to the Shanghai Consulate General under Clarence E. Gauss. When Gauss was promoted to ambassador, he made Service Third Secretary of the American Embassy at Chungking. As time progressed, Service was eventually promoted to Second Secretary.
During the early war years, Service wrote increasingly critically harsh reports on the Kuomintang and Chiang Kai-shek. Service criticized the Nationalist government as "fascist," "undemocratic," and "feudal,". This caught the attention of John P. Davies, a Foreign Service Officer working as a diplomatic attaché to General Joseph Stilwell. In the summer of 1943, Davies managed to have Service, among two others, assigned to him to assist him in his duties. When the U.S. Army Observation Group, also known as the Dixie Mission, was formed to travel to the Communist territory, Davies selected John Service to be the first State Department official to visit the region.
The Dixie Mission and Yan'an
John Service arrived in Yan'an, the capital of the Communist Party of China, on July 22, 1944. There Service met and interviewed many of the top leaders of the CPC, such as Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai. Service wrote many reports over the next four months that praised the CPC, and described its leaders as "progressive" and "democratic." Once, Service wrote that "The Communists are in China to stay and China's destiny is not Chiang's but theirs." He continued to criticize the Nationalists or KMT under Chiang Kai-shek as corrupt and incompetent in writing. Service and the other American political officers eventually advocated a policy of support for the CPC as well as the Nationalists. They believed a civil war was inevitable and that the CPC would triumph. If the U.S. supported the CPC in a coalition with the nationalists, they felt, the U.S. could steer the communists out of the Soviet orbit, where they might be pushed if antagonized by the United States.
The new U.S. Ambassador to China, Patrick Hurley, also tried to bring unity between the communists and the nationalists, but he failed to understand the political dynamic that caused the rift between the two parties, who would later become the two Chinas. Hurley initially acceped a five-point plan that would have brought the communists into a power-sharing arrangement with the nationalists. Chiang rejected this plan and countered with a three-point plan that would leave the communists with no real power in a government run by Chiang and his supporters. Hurley came to support Chiang's view exclusively. For whatever reason, he sabotaged reasonable efforts to bring the two parties together. He rejected the recommendations of Service and the other Foreign Service officers to accept the growing power of the communists and to accommodate this power. Hurley's exclusive support for the Nationalists, his paranoia and hostility to the professional diplomats in China, and his general incompetence were largely responsible for the diplomatic failures in China during this period. But Hurley decided to have Service and the rest of the political officers recalled from China. Hurley later blamed them for U.S. diplomatic failures in China. He also tried to destroy Service professionally later on, and though he always wrote critically of Service, Hurley always refused to publicly testify against him.
Post China career
John Service returned to Washington in 1945, and was soon arrested as a suspect in the Amerasia Case. He was accused of passing confidential U.S. materials from his time in China to the editors of the Amerasia magazine. However, a grand jury declined to indict Service, finding that the materials were not sensitive and were of a kind commonly released to journalists. Five years later, he was dismissed from the State Department after Joseph McCarthy accused him of being a Communist. The former Foreign Service officer challenged the dismissal in court. Ultimately, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in his favor, and he was reinstated at the State Department. In between his initial legal success in the Amerasia matter in 1945 and his dismissal in 1950, Service had three overseas assignments. He was briefly posted to Douglas MacArthur's staff in Tokyo. He served in New Zealand from October 1946 through early 1949. Finally, he was assigned to India, but he never made it to the post with his family. In March 1950, he was ordered from his ship docked in Yokohama to return to Washington, where he would answer charges leveled against him.
In D.C., FBI surveillance recorded that Service met with Amerasia editor Philip Jaffe on April 19, 1945 at D.C.'s Statler Hotel: "Service, according to the microphone surveillance, apparently gave Jaffe a document which dealt with matters the Chinese had furnished to the United States government in confidence." In China, Service had established a reputation for meeting with Communists, reporters, and anyone who might provide information for his duty. Former ambassador to China, Clarence Gauss testified later during the McCarthy era:
In Chungking, Mr. Service was a political officer of the Embassy...His job was to get every bit of information that he possibly could...he would see the foreign press people. He saw the Chinese press people. He saw anybody in any of the embassies or legations that were over there that were supposed to know anything...He went to the Kuomintang headquarters...he went to the Communist headquarters. He associated with everybody and anybody in Chungking that could give him information, and he pieced together this puzzle that we had constantly before us as to what was going on in China and he did a magnificent job at it.
Service had numerous meetings with Jaffe, ignorant of the ongoing investigation of the editor. Adrian Fisher, the senior legal officer at the State Department at the time, later commented, "It was like a scene out of Heaven's My Destination. Jack Service went into a bawdy house thinking it was still a girls' boarding school."
Eventually FBI investigators broke into the offices of Amerasia, and found hundreds of government documents, many labeled "secret," "top secret," or "confidential," Service was arrested as a suspect. None of the documents Service gave Jaffe were classified; the documents the government found with various labels of classification were given to Jaffe by others. Nevertheless, FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover wrote that he thought he had an "airtight case" against Service. However, when the Justice Department submitted its evidence to a Federal Grand Jury, they elected to indict Jaffe, but refused to indict Service by a vote of 20 - 0.
Service was subject to loyalty and security hearings every year from 1946 to 1951, with the exception of 1948. In each hearing, he was cleared of disloyalty or other wrongdoing.
Five years after Amerasia, on March 14, Senator Joseph McCarthy accused Service of being a Communist sympathizer in the State Department. Service was cleared of the charges by the Senate Foreign Relations Subcommittee on the Investigation of Loyalty of State Department Employees, also known as the Tydings Committee. However, a final review board found "reasonable doubt" as to Service's loyalty, and Secretary of State Dean Acheson ordered his dismissal. In the "red scare" turmoil of the early 1950s, John P. Davies, and other diplomats became scapegoats for the fall of China to the Communists, and were forced out of the State Department.
Beginning in 1952, Service appealed his dismissal from the State Department. He found it very hard to find work, but he was eventually hired by Sarco International, a steam trap company. As with all the positions Service held over the years, he was highly successful at Sarco. In 1955, Clement Wells, the owner who had hired Service, appointed him president of the company. Meanwhile, Service's case eventually came to the Supreme Court, which ruled in his favor unanimously. The Court held that Service's dismissal violated U.S. State Department procedures because the State Department's Loyalty Security Board found no evidence of Service being disloyal or a security risk.
In The Amerasia Spy Case: Prelude to McCarthyism, authors Harvey Klehr and Ronald Radosh state “[a]ny lingering doubts about Service’s true position are erased by the evidence of the FBI surveillance. If he had been a secret Communist, much less a spy, some better evidence would likely have surfaced in the transcripts”.
Return to the State Department
Service returned to active duty in the State Department in 1957. First, he was assigned to State's transportation division. In 1959, he was given a security clearance after a new, lengthy internal hearing. Undersecretary of state for administration Loy Henderson approved the clearance but noted that Service's "action in the Amerasia case was reprehensible and has brought serious discredit upon the Foreign Service..." Henderson's qualified approval allowed Service to continue his career but prevented him from ever being promoted again. To avoid a Senate fight over a Service confirmation, the State Department decided to assign Service to head the consulate in Liverpool--"but without the associated title or pay grade". Though Service continued to get excellent performance reviews in every position he held, the State Department refused to promote him. He reluctantly retired in 1962 and pursued a Master of Arts degree in political science at the University of California, Berkeley. After earning his degree, Service worked as library curator for the school's Center for Chinese Studies into the 1970s, and then served as editor for the center's publications.
In 1971, preceding President Nixon's visit to China, Service was one of a handful of Americans invited back to the country, as relations with the U.S. were normalized. He met with Zhou Enlai again during his visit, and he and his wife Caroline appeared on the cover of Parade Magazine.
On February 3, 1999, John Stewart Service died in Oakland, California.
The two main themes of Service's reporting were that (1) the nationalists were incompetent and likely to lose in a power struggle with the CPC, and that (2) the CPC seemed to be worthy successors with whom the U.S. should try to establish relations. Most commentators, even those critical of Mao, agree with Service's appraisal of the nationalists. Prior to the outbreak of the Chinese Civil War in 1946, Service had predicted that the CPC would prevail, thanks to their ability to stamp out corruption, gain popular support, and to organize grass root organizations. The scenarios that Service envisioned in his reports from Dixie Mission about CPC's future management of China were rose-colored, or incomplete. Mao's implementation of his economic plans was harsh, in that upwards of 65 million Chinese perished in his attempt to create a communist state. Service hoped that the CPC would adopt free market and democratic reforms if they were pushed in the right direction, with U.S. support. Later, Service wrote that he believed an American relationship with the CPC might have prevented the Korean War and Vietnam War, or lessened their gravity. It is difficult to say whether the United States would have been able to foster reform or restraint had the U.S. engaged the Communists in 1944-45, as was recommended by Service. It is also not entirely clear whether U.S. recognition of Communist China in 1949 would have changed Mao's conduct toward his own people or toward the United States. But since the recommendations of Service and others were rejected, it is unfair to blame them for the 'loss of China', CPC's takeover of China, or the events that occurred in the following decades.
- Tuchman, Barbara (1971). Stilwell and the American Experience in China, 1911-45. Grove Press. p. 526. ISBN 0-8021-3852-7.
- Biography of Service by Oberlin College via John Service Papers.
- Senate Internal Security Committee, The Amerasia Papers: A Clue to the Catastrophe of China, January 26, 1970, pp. 577, 592, 1015
- Ibid., pp. 406, 410, 577, 579, 589, 1014
- Amerasia Papers, pp. 113, 112
- Carter, Mission to Yenan, 131.
- Report of the United States Senate Subcommittee on the Investigation of Loyalty of State Department Employees, 1950, appendix, p. 2051
- Esherick, Joseph W., ed., Introduction, Lost Chance in China: The World War II Despatches of John S. Service, (New York: Random House, 1974), p.xvi - xvii.
- Kahn, The China Hands, p. 166.
- Harvey Klehr and Ronald Radosh, The Amerasia Spy Case: Prelude to McCarthyism (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1996) ISBN 0-8078-2245-0, p. 131
- FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover to Peyton Ford, Assistant to the Attorney General, re Philip Jacob Jaffe, was., et al., Espionage, May 4, 1950 (FBI file: Amerasia, Section 54)
- Esherick, ed., Lost Chance in China, p., xix.
- Carter, Mission to Yenan, 215.
- SERVICE v. DULLES, 354 U.S. 363 (1957) - SCOTUS Opinion of case.
- Klehr, Harvey and Radosh, Ronald (1996). The Amerasia Spy Case: Prelude to McCarthyism. The University of North Carolina Press. p. 216. ISBN 0-8078-2245-0.
- Joiner, p.323
- Kifner, John (February 4, 1999). "John Service, a Purged 'China Hand,' Dies at 89". New York Times. Retrieved 2008-08-13. "John S. Service, the first of the old China hands purged from the State Department in the McCarthy era, died yesterday in Oakland, Calif. He was 89."
- John Service, Report No. 1, 7/28/1944., to Commanding General Fwd. Ech., USAF – CBI, APO 879. “First Formal Impressions of Northern Shensi Communist Base.” State Department, NARA, RG 59. Page One, Two, Three, and Four.
- Service, John S. (1971). The Amerasia Papers: Some Problems in the History of US-China Relations. Center for Chinese Studies, University of California. pp. 191–192.
- Joiner, Lynne (2009). Honorable Survivor: Mao's China, McCarthy's America, and the Persecution of John S. Service. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-1-59114-423-6.
- Service, John S. (1974). Lost Chance in China: The World War II: Despatches of John S. Service. Random House. ISBN 0-394-48436-3.
- Radosh, Ronald, and Klehr, Harvey (1996). The Amerasia Spy Case: Prelude to McCarthyism. University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0-8078-2245-0.
- Service, John S. (1971). The Amerasia Papers: Some Problems in the History of US-China Relations. Center for Chinese Studies, University of California.
- Kahn, E. J. (1975). The China Hands : America’s Foreign Service Officers and What Befell Them. Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-004301-2.
- Buckley, William F. (1954). McCarthy and His Enemies: The Record and Its Meaning. Regnery Publishing. ISBN 0-89526-472-2.
- Evans, M. Stanton (2007). Blacklisted by History: The Untold Story of Senator Joe McCarthy and His Fight Against America's Enemies. Crown Publishing Group. ISBN 978-1-4000-8105-9.
- Evans, M. Stanton; Romerstein, Herbert (2013). Stalin's Secret Agents: The Subversion of Roosevelt's Government. Threshold Editions. ISBN 978-1439147702.
- Interview with John S. Service , 1977 (The Association for Diplomatic Studies and Training Foreign Affairs Oral History Project)
- FBI recording summary, May 31, 1950: Philip Jacob Jaffe, June 10, 1945-April 19, 1946 (with cover memorandum, Ladd to Hoover, June 30, 1952)
- An obituary for John Service
- Photo of Service in his later years
- Oberlin College biography of John Service and spouse.
- A short biography of Service.
- Interview of John Service by CNN.
- Extended Interview hosted at George Washington University.
- Guide to the John S. Service papers at The Bancroft Library
- John Stewart Service and Charles Edward Rhetts Papers. Truman Presidential Museum and Library
- Oral History transcript, Caroline Service, 1976