John Smith (Labour Party leader)
||This article's lead section may not adequately summarize key points of its contents. (March 2010)|
|The Right Honourable
|Leader of the Opposition
Leader of the Labour Party
18 July 1992 – 12 May 1994
|Prime Minister||John Major|
|Preceded by||Neil Kinnock|
|Succeeded by||Margaret Beckett|
|Shadow Chancellor of the Exchequer|
13 July 1987 – 24 July 1992
|Preceded by||Roy Hattersley|
|Succeeded by||Gordon Brown|
|Secretary of State for Trade|
11 November 1978 – 4 May 1979
|Prime Minister||James Callaghan|
|Preceded by||Edmund Dell|
|Succeeded by||John Nott|
|Member of Parliament
for Monklands East
9 June 1983 – 12 May 1994
|Preceded by||Constituency created|
|Succeeded by||Helen Liddell|
|Member of Parliament
for North Lanarkshire
18 June 1970 – 9 June 1983
|Preceded by||Margaret Herbison|
|Succeeded by||Constituency abolished|
13 September 1938|
|Died||12 May 1994
|Spouse(s)||Elizabeth Bennett (1967–1994)|
|Alma mater||University of Glasgow|
|Religion||Church of Scotland|
John Smith (13 September 1938 - 12 May 1994) was a British Labour Party politician who served as Leader of the Labour Party from July 1992 until his sudden death from a heart attack in May 1994. He first entered parliament in 1970 and was the Secretary of State for Trade from 1978–1979 and then the Shadow Chancellor of the Exchequer under Neil Kinnock from 1987-1992.
Early life 
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (December 2011)|
Smith was born in Dalmally, the son of a headmaster, and grew up in Ardrishaig in Argyll and Bute. He attended Dunoon Grammar School (Dunoon, Cowal), lodging in the town with a landlady and going home during the holidays, before enrolling at the University of Glasgow, where he studied History from 1956 to 1959, and then Law, from 1959 to 1962. He joined the Labour Party in 1956.
He became involved in debating with the Glasgow University Dialectic Society and the Glasgow University Union. In 1962, he won The Observer Mace debating competition, speaking with Gordon Hunter. In 1995, after his death, the competition was renamed the John Smith Memorial Mace in his honour.
Member of Parliament 
Smith first stood as a Labour parliamentary candidate at a by-election in 1961 in the East Fife constituency, and contested that seat again in the 1964 general election. At the 1970 general election, he was elected as Member of Parliament (MP) for North Lanarkshire succeeding Peggy Herbison. Smith defied the Labour whips in 1971, joining the Labour MPs who, led by Roy Jenkins, voted in favour of entry to the European Economic Community. These included Roy Hattersley, Shirley Williams, Bill Rodgers and David Owen all of whom he was later to sit with in the Callaghan cabinet.
In government 
In October 1974, Harold Wilson offered Smith the post of Solicitor General for Scotland. Smith turned it down, not wishing his political career to become sidelined as a law officer. He was instead made an Under-Secretary of State at the Department of Energy. In December 1975, he was made a Minister of State. When James Callaghan became Prime Minister, Smith became a Minister of State at the Privy Council Office, serving with Labour's Deputy leader, Michael Foot, the Lord President of the Council and Leader of the House of Commons. In this position Smith piloted the highly controversial devolution proposals for Scotland and Wales through the House of Commons. Smith's adroit handling of these proposals impressed Callaghan, and in November 1978, when Edmund Dell retired, Callaghan appointed Smith Secretary of State for Trade. In this post, Smith was the youngest member of the cabinet, and served there until the 1979 general election.
Shadow Cabinet 
In the early 1980s, Smith was Shadow Energy Secretary. He became a QC in 1983, the same year that the constituency became Monklands East. Smith acted as Roy Hattersley's campaign manager for the party leadership election in October 1983 and after serving a year as Shadow Employment Secretary, was Shadow Secretary of State for Trade and Industry between late 1984 and 1987.
Shadow Chancellor of the Exchequer 
Smith was appointed Shadow Chancellor by Neil Kinnock in July 1987 after Party's general election defeat. However, he suffered a heart attack whilst Shadow Chancellor of the Exchequer on 9 October 1988 and was forced to spend three months away from Westminster to recover. On that occasion, he had complained of chest pains the night before, and had to be persuaded to cancel a flight to London so he could go to hospital for a check-up. He was examined at the Edinburgh Royal Infirmary by an ECG. The doctor who examined him said "Whatever it is, we don't think it is your heart". Then Smith suddenly collapsed and was briefly unconscious before coming around. He spent three days in intensive care before leaving hospital on 20 October 1988, to make a full recovery.
Smith made modifications to his lifestyle by going on a 1,000-calorie diet, cutting down on rich foods and fine wines, giving up smoking and taking up Munro bagging and by the time of his death, he had succeeded in climbing 108 of the 277 Scottish Munros (mountains over 3,000 feet above sea level at the summit). His weight dropped from 15 stone 5 pounds (98 kg) at the time of the first heart attack, to 12 stone 10 pounds (81 kg) when he returned to Parliament on 23 January 1989.
Despite a quiet, modest manner, and his politically moderate stance, he was a witty, often scathing speaker. Smith was named as Parliamentarian of the year twice; the first time in November 1986 for his performances during the Westland controversy, during which Leon Brittan resigned and the second was in November 1989 for taking Nigel Lawson to task over the state of the economy and over his difficult relationship with Sir Alan Walters, the Prime Minister's Economic Adviser. Smith made two notably witty attacks on Lawson that year. On 7 June 1989, he sang the theme tune for the soap Neighbours at the dispatch box, lampooning the differences between Lawson and Sir Alan Walters, who was critical of Lawson's policies (Thatcher still refused to sack him). Then on 24 October, he made another scathing attack on the differences. Two days later, Lawson resigned, followed shortly afterwards by Sir Alan.
Leader of the Opposition 
Although Labour had now been out of power for 13 years, their performance at that general election had been much better than their performance at the previous three. They had cut the Conservative majority from 102 seats to a mere 21, and for most of the three years leading up to the election, opinion polls had indicated that Labour were more likely to win the election than the Conservatives were. However, the resignation of long-serving but at that point unpopular Conservative prime minister Margaret Thatcher, and the well-received election of John Major as her successor, had seen the comfortable Labour lead in the opinion polls wiped out and in the 17 months leading up to the election, its outcome had become much less predictable. Much of the blame had been placed on Labour's "shadow budget" drawn up by Smith, which included raising the top rate of income tax from 40p in the pound to 50p, and the Conservative election campaign was centred on warning voters that they would face higher taxes under a Labour government.
In September 1992, he made his maiden speech as party leader, about the Government's ERM debacle eight days earlier, saying that John Major was "The devalued Prime Minister of a devalued Government". At the party conference, he referred to Major and Norman Lamont as being the Laurel and Hardy of British politics. This echoed his attacks on Major's government which he had made before the 1992 election while still shadow chancellor, most memorably when he attacked as "irresponsible" Conservative plans for cutting income tax to 20%,  and joked at a Labour Party rally in Sheffield that the Conservatives would have a box-office disaster with "Honey, I Shrunk the Economy" - in reference to the recent Disney motion picture Honey, I Shrunk the Kids - mocking the recession which was plaguing the British economy at the time.
In a June 1993 debate, Smith again savaged the Conservative Government, saying that under John Major's premiership, "The man with the non-midas touch is in charge. It is no wonder that we live in a country where the Grand National does not start and hotels fall into the sea" (in reference to the Holbeck Hall Hotel, which had recently collapsed over a cliff). During the same debate, Smith referred to a recent Government defeat in the Newbury by-election, a poor showing in the local elections, and a subsequent Cabinet reshuffle by saying that, "If we were to offer that tale of events to the BBC Light Entertainment Department as a script for a programme, I think that the producers of Yes Minister would have turned it down as hopelessly over the top. It might have even been too much for Some Mothers Do 'Ave 'Em". In the same speech, Smith also attacked the Conservatives' broken election promises (in particular Lamont's recent Budget decision to impose VAT on domestic energy bills) - claiming he possessed the last copy of a 1992 policy document "to escape the Central Office shredder". He also performed very well in the motion of confidence debate in the Conservative government in July 1993.
Despite his dispatch box successes (Smith was always more effective in the House of Commons than on platforms or at Prime Minister's Questions, though he began to improve at the latter during the final months of his life), Tony Blair and Gordon Brown were, under Smith's leadership, restless and anxious in private that the party had adopted a "One more heave" approach and had become overly cautious in tackling the legacy of "tax and spend".
Despite this, during his time as leader of the Labour Party, Smith abolished the trade union block vote at Labour party conferences and replaced it with "one member one vote" at the 1993 party conference and committed a future Labour government to establishing a Scottish Parliament, a policy which was followed through by his successors (most notably his close friend Donald Dewar) after his death. Also, during his time as leader, the Labour party gained a significant lead in the polls over the Conservatives and on 5 May 1994, the Conservatives received a severe defeat in the council elections in Britain, their worst in over 30 years, despite the strong economic recovery and fall in unemployment that had followed the declaration of the recession's end in April 1993. Labour's opinion poll lead was shown to be as high as 23% in early May 1994.
On the evening of 11 May 1994, with around 500 people present, Smith made a speech at a fundraising dinner at Park Lane Hotel, London, saying "The opportunity to serve our country - that is all we ask". The following morning, at 8:05am, whilst in his Barbican flat, Smith suffered a massive heart attack. His wife phoned an ambulance and he was rushed to Saint Bartholomew's Hospital where he died at 9:15am on 12 May 1994, having never regained consciousness. Only two weeks before his death, on 28 April, Smith had visited the same accident and emergency department to campaign against its proposed closure. The doctor who had served as his tour guide, Professor Mike Besser, tried unsuccessfully to save Smith's life.
In response to his death, John Major paid tribute in the House of Commons to Smith, culminating in the now well-known line, that he and Smith "would share a drink: sometimes tea, sometimes not tea". It was reported that there was weeping in the chamber.
On the day of his death, the BBC 9 O'Clock News was extended to an hour as opposed to the usual half hour. This replaced the medical drama which was due to follow at 9:30, coincidentally entitled Cardiac Arrest. That evening Question Time was held, and the panellists paid tribute to Smith, instead of debating. They included George Robertson and Menzies Campbell.
On 20 May 1994, after a funeral in Cluny Parish Church, Edinburgh attended by 900 people and after which 3,000 people lined the streets, Smith was buried in a private family funeral on the island of Iona, at the sacred burial ground of Reilig Odhráin, which contains the graves of several Scottish kings as well as monarchs of Ireland, Norway and France. His grave is marked with an epitaph quoting Alexander Pope: "An honest man's the noblest work of God". His close friend Donald Dewar was the only political figure at the funeral - who acted as one of Smith's pall bearers. On 14 July 1994, his memorial service was attended in Westminster Abbey by over 2,000 people. The Archbishop of Canterbury gave an address.
Smith's biographer, Mark Stuart, claimed that Smith could have won Labour a parliamentary victory in 1997 on a scale similar to that achieved by Tony Blair because of the combination of the Black Wednesday debacle and ongoing Conservative divisions over Europe between 1992 and 1997. However, Stuart argues that the lack of a "Blair effect" would have meant that the Conservative Party would have held slightly over 200 seats in the House of Commons, leaving the Conservatives in a position similar to that of Labour in 1983, than to the actual Conservative result in 1997.
Personal life 
Smith was married to Elizabeth Bennett from 5 July 1967 until his death. Elizabeth Smith was created Baroness Smith of Gilmorehill in 1995. They had three daughters, one of whom, Sarah Smith, used to be Washington correspondent for Channel 4 news and is now a news anchor for the station. Their other daughters are Jane, a costume designer and Catherine, a lawyer.
Further reading 
- McSmith, Andy (1994). John Smith: A Life 1938-1994. Mandarin Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7493-9675-6.
- Brown, Gordon; James Naughtie, (1994). John Smith, Life and Soul of the Party. Mainstream Publishing. ISBN 978-1-85158-692-9.
- Christopher Bryant, ed. (1994). John Smith, An Appreciation. Hodder & Stoughton. ISBN 978-0-340-62801-0.
- Rosen, Greg (2006). Old Labour to New. Politico's Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84275-045-2.
- Stuart, Mark (2005). John Smith - A Life. Politico's Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84275-126-8.
- Brian Brivati, ed. (2000). Guiding Light: The Collected Speeches of John Smith. Politico's Publishing. ISBN 978-1-902301-62-4.
- "The rise and fall of New Labour". BBC News. 3 August 2010.
- Wheeler, Brian (21 July 2009). "Election countdown - 1990s style". BBC News. Retrieved 26 August 2011.
- Barnard, Stephanie (27 July 2009). "Kinnock came and didn't conquer". BBC News. Retrieved 26 August 2011.
- "1993: Recession over - it's official". BBC News. 26 April 1993.
- YouTube - Labour leader John Smith Dies, May 1994
- House of Commons, Thursday 12 May 1994
- Campbell, Sarah (8 February 2007). "How do I become a stenographer". The Times (London). Retrieved 7 May 2010.
- Walk Of The Month: The island of Iona The Independent 4 June 2006
- Stuart, M. in Brack, D. and I. Dale (editors) (2003)Prime Minister Portillo and other things that never happened, Politico's Publishing
- Guardian obituary http://www.guardian.co.uk/politics/1994/may/13/obituaries.past
|Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: John Smith|
- Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by John Smith
|Parliament of the United Kingdom|
|Member of Parliament for North Lanarkshire
|New constituency||Member of Parliament for Monklands East
|Secretary of State for Trade
|Shadow Chancellor of the Exchequer
|Leader of the Opposition
|Party political offices|
|Leader of the Labour Party