John Sparrow David Thompson
|The Right Honourable
Sir John Thompson
GCMG PC QC
|4th Prime Minister of Canada|
5 December 1892 – 12 December 1894
|Governor General||Lord Stanley of Preston
Earl of Aberdeen
|Preceded by||John Abbott|
|Succeeded by||Mackenzie Bowell|
|5th Premier of Nova Scotia|
May 25, 1882 – July 18, 1882
|Lieutenant Governor||Adams George Archibald|
|Preceded by||Simon Hugh Holmes|
|Succeeded by||William Thomas Pipes|
November 10, 1845|
Halifax, Nova Scotia
|Died||December 12, 1894
|Resting place||Holy Cross Cemetery, Halifax, Nova Scotia|
(1870-1894, his death)
Sir John Sparrow David Thompson, KCMG, PC, QC (November 10, 1845 – December 12, 1894) was a Canadian lawyer, judge, politician, and university professor, who served as the fourth Prime Minister of Canada from December 5, 1892 until his sudden death in office on December 12, 1894, as well as the fifth Premier of Nova Scotia in 1882. He was the first Roman Catholic to hold the office of Prime Minister.
Born in Halifax, Nova Scotia, to John Sparrow Thompson and Charlotte Pottinger, he was of Irish descent. Some sources say he was born on November 10, 1845, others say 1844. Thompson married Annie Affleck (1842–1913) in 1870. Annie Thompson was strong-willed and had the same kind of spirit that had driven Agnes Macdonald (another prime minister's wife) to ride the cowcatcher of a CPR train through the British Columbia mountains. During their courtship, Thompson was forced to write love letters in shorthand because of his soon-to-be wife's disapproving parents. Thompson's family life was marred by tragedy. A daughter, Annie, died at age one, while youngest son David lived to be two. Two other children died at birth (the Thompsons had five children survive childhood).
Law and politics
Thompson was called to the Nova Scotia Bar in July 1865, and from 1878 to 1882 served as Attorney General in the provincial government of Simon H. Holmes. He briefly held the office of Nova Scotia premier in 1882, but his government was defeated in that year's election. Thompson was always a reluctant politician.
After his resignation from government, Thompson was immediately appointed to the Supreme Court of Nova Scotia by the Prime Minister of Canada, Sir John A. Macdonald. In this role, he was instrumental in founding the Dalhousie Law School in 1883. He taught law courses at Dalhousie in its early years.
Minister of Justice
After several failed overtures, Macdonald finally recruited Thompson to Ottawa in 1885. Macdonald generally thought highly of Thompson, remarking, "My one great discovery was my discovery of Thompson." Macdonald poked some fun at his recruit as well: "Thompson is a little too fond of satire, and a little too much of a Nova Scotian." However, his rise in government is probably due as much to the influence of Lady Aberdeen, the wife of the Governor General, as to Macdonald's mentoring. She had great admiration for Thompson, and wrote frequently about him in her published "Canadian Journal".
Thompson was sworn in as Minister of Justice in September 1885 and subsequently won a seat in Parliament in October, representing Antigonish. When he returned to Ottawa, the Riel crisis was in full swing. The question of what to do with Louis Riel, who had been sentenced to hang for leading the 1885 North-West Rebellion, was now the responsibility of Thompson. Although he was ill with kidney stones at the time of Riel's execution, Thompson made his first major speech to Parliament during the subsequent debate, arguing that anyone who encouraged aboriginal Canadians to act against the state could not escape justice. This speech was notable and helped to popularize Thompson, and he quickly rose to become a leading member of the Conservative government.
Thompson's achievements as Minister of Justice included the first Criminal Code of Canada.
Decline of leadership
When Sir John A. Macdonald fell ill, Thompson was the last minister to see him before the Prime Minister's devastating stroke in May 1891. Following Macdonald’s death a week later, there was a cabinet crisis. Governor General Lord Stanley of Preston finally called on Thompson to form a government but Thompson declined. Religious prejudice against the Roman Catholic Thompson, having converted at his marriage, made this course of action politically untenable, and Thompson recommended John Abbott, who ultimately accepted.
Prime Minister of Canada
Thompson assumed office of Prime Minister a year later when Abbott retired in 1892. He came very close to bringing Newfoundland into Confederation, but this would not be achieved until 1949.
His first major speech as Prime Minister was given in Toronto in January 1893, covering the topics of tolerance and Canadian nationalism in conjunction with loyalty to the British crown. At the time, Thompson was concerned about the possibility of the annexation of Canada by the United States, a goal which was being pursued within Canada by the Continental Union Association, a group of Ontario and Quebec Liberals. Despite his concern, Thompson ultimately realized that the conspiracy to make Canada part of the United States was confined to a small and noisy minority within the opposition party.
In March 1893, Thompson travelled to Paris, France as one of the judges on the tribunal to settle the Canada-US dispute over the seal harvest in the Bering Sea. The result was a victory for Thompson as the tribunal ruled there was no justification for the United States' claim that the Bering Sea was closed to all but American seal hunters.
Other matters of concern during Thompson's tenure as Prime Minister included the reduction of trade tariffs and questions over schooling in Manitoba and in the North West Territories, where disputes over the role of Catholics and Protestants in administering the school system existed. Ultimately, the North West school problem was resolved to Thompson’s liking, but the Prime Minister would not live to see a similar resolution to the Manitoba matter.
Supreme Court appointments
While in office, Thompson chose the following jurists to sit as justices of the Supreme Court of Canada:
- Sir Samuel Henry Strong (as Chief Justice, December 13, 1892 – November 18, 1902; appointed a Puisne Justice under Prime Minister Mackenzie, September 30, 1875)
- Robert Sedgewick – (February 18, 1893 – August 4, 1906)
- George Edwin King – (September 21, 1893 – May 8, 1901)
Death in office
Sir John Thompson had been Prime Minister of Canada for only two years when he died suddenly from a heart attack at the age of 49 on December 12, 1894, while at Windsor Castle, where Queen Victoria had just made him a member of her Privy Council. Thompson's physical condition had deteriorated during his time in Ottawa; he was significantly overweight when he died (standing 5 feet 7 inches (1.70 m), he weighed about 225 pounds (102 kg)), and had always pushed himself very hard in his work.
Thompson was the second of two Canadian prime ministers to die in office (the first being Sir John A. Macdonald), and the first of three who did not die in Canada (the other two being Sir Charles Tupper and Richard B. Bennett).
After an elaborate funeral was staged for him in the United Kingdom by Queen Victoria, Thompson's remains were transported back to Canada aboard the armoured cruiser HMS Blenheim, which was painted black for the occasion. He was buried on January 3, 1895, in the Holy Cross Cemetery in Halifax, Nova Scotia. Despite having held prime ministerial office, Thompson had little estate, so Parliament set up a fund to support his widow and children. His only remaining descendant today is the Canadian politician Margaret Mitchell.
John Sparrow David Thompson, then a barrister, married in 1870 Annie E. Affleck, daughter of John Affleck, of Halifax, Nova Scotia, and his wife, Catherine Saunders. Annie was born and educated in Halifax. The couple had two sons and two daughters. After she was widowed December 12, 1894, a fund of $30,000 was raised for Lady Thompson, headed by Lord Strathcona with a subscription of $5,000, the Parliament of Canada contributed $25,000. The Governor-General, the Earl of Aberdeen undertook the education of the sons. She cofounded, with the Countess of Aberdeen, the National Council of Women, and served as one of its presidents. She served as a governor of the Victorian Order of Nurses. As a widow, she lived at "Denuent Lodge" Sherboume Street, Toronto.
Although subjective, a ranking of the Canadian Prime Ministers was published by J.L. Granatstein and Norman Hillmer in 1997. A survey of 26 Canadian historians determined that Thompson was ranked #10 of the 20 people who had at that time served as Canadian PM. He was identified as "The great "might-have-been" of Canadian Prime Ministers...", whose potentially promising career was cut short by his early death. A follow-up article co-authored by Hillmer in 2011 broadened the survey to include survey responses of over 100 historians; in this survey, Thompson was ranked 14th out the 22 who had by then served as PM.
The high school in the Canadian sitcom Life with Derek, SJST, is named after Thompson. Sir John Thompson Catholic Junior High School in Edmonton is named for him. Thompson appears as a prominent character in Paul Marlowe's novel Knights of the Sea (set in 1887 when Thompson was Minister of Justice).
Since 1996, Sir John Thompson's former home in Ottawa at 237 Metcalfe Street is the national office of the Canadian Soccer Association.
Nova Scotian artist William Valentine painted Thompson's portrait.
- "Nova Scotia". Parliament of Canada. Retrieved January 31, 2014.
- Waite, p. 527.
- P. B. Waite (1990). "THOMPSON, Sir JOHN SPARROW DAVID". Dictionary of Canadian Biography. University of Toronto/Université Laval. Retrieved March 10, 2014.
- "Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada - Former Prime Ministers and Their Grave Sites - The Honourable Sir John David Sparrow Thompson". Parks Canada. Government of Canada. 20 December 2010. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Morgan, Henry James Types of Canadian women and of women who are or have been connected with Canada : (Toronto, 1903) 
- Waite, pp. vii-ix.
- Granatstein and Hillmer, p.42.
- P.B. Waite, (1985) The man from Halifax: Sir John Thompson University of Toronto Press
- J.P. Heisler, 1955, Sir John Thompson, thesis, University of Toronto.
- J. Castell Hopkins, 1895, Life and Work of the Rt. Hon. Sir John Thompson, Toronto: United Publishing Houses.
|Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: John Sparrow David Thompson|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to John Sparrow David Thompson.|
- Biography at the Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online
- "Thompson, John Sparrow David". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900.
- John Sparrow David Thompson – Parliament of Canada biography
- John Thompson's Gravesite
- Holy Cross Cemetery
- Photograph:Funeral cortege of Sir John D. Thompson, 1895 - McCord Museum
|Minister of Justice and Attorney-General
Charles H. Tupper
Sir John Abbott
|Prime Minister of Canada
Sir Mackenzie Bowell
|Parliament of Canada|
|Member of Parliament for Antigonish