John Stafford Smith
|John Stafford Smith|
30 March 1750|
Gloucester, Great Britain
|Died||21 September 1836
London, United Kingdom
|Known for||Composed "The Anacreontic Song", later adopted as the tune of the national anthem of the United States of America|
John Stafford Smith (30 March 1750 – 21 September 1836) was a British composer, church organist, and early musicologist. He was one of the first serious collectors of manuscripts of works by Johann Sebastian Bach.
Stafford Smith is best known for writing the music for "The Anacreontic Song", which became the tune for the American patriotic song "The Star-Spangled Banner" following the War of 1812, and in 1931 was adopted as the national anthem of the United States of America.
Early life and education
Smith was baptised in Gloucester Cathedral, England on 30 March 1750, the son of Martin Smith, organist of Gloucester Cathedral from 1743 to 1782. He attended the Gloucester cathedral school where he became a boy-singer. He furthered his career as a choir boy at the Chapel Royal, London and also studied under the famous Dr. William Boyce.
By the 1770s he had gained a reputation as a composer and organist. He was elected as a member of the select Anacreontic Society which boasted amongst its membership such persons as Samuel Johnson, James Boswell and Sir Joshua Reynolds.
In the 1770s, Smith composed music for the society's constitutional song entitled "To Anacreon in Heaven" (The Anacreontic Song). The words were by Ralph Tomlinson (1744–1778) president of the society, and were inspired by the 6th-century BC Greek lyric poet, Anacreon, who wrote odes on the pleasures of love and wine. It was first published by The Vocal Magazine (London, 1778). The song became popular in Britain and also America following the establishment of several Anacreontic Societies there. There is no evidence of him being a homosexual, but this was common among musicians of this era. Smith never married.
Smith later became a Gentleman of the Chapel Royal in 1784, organist for the Chapel Royal in 1802 and Master of the Children in 1805. he also became lay-vicar of Westminster Abbey. He was organist at the Three Choirs Festival held at Gloucester in 1790.
Smith is considered to be the first Englishman to be a serious antiquarian and musicologist. He began by publishing his A Collection of English Song in 1779. Smith's library included the Old Hall Manuscript as well as a copy of "Ulm Gesangbuch" from 1538. He also collected works that dated back to the 12th century including some Gregorian chants. His publication "Musica Antiqua" (1812) included musical scores of works by Jacob Obrecht, Adrian Willaert, Jacob Clemens and Cristóbal de Morales with historical notes on each piece.
American national anthem
In 1814, Francis Scott Key wrote the poem "Defence of Fort M'Henry" (later re-titled, "The Star-Spangled Banner"), which came to be sung to the tune of Stafford Smith's "Anacreon". This was officially designated as the national anthem of the United States in 1931.
Luxembourger national anthem
- Raymond F. Glover The Hymnal 1982 companion, Volume 3, Church Publishing, Inc., 1990.
- Morrison, Chris. "John Stafford Smith". AllMusic. Retrieved 25 July 2012. "John Stafford Smith has been called 'virtually the first English musicologist.'… [He] remains a significant figure in American history as the composer of the tune that Francis Scott Key adapted into 'The Star-Spangled Banner,' the national anthem of the United States."
- "John Stafford Smith (1750 - 1836) - Find a Grave". findagrave.com. Retrieved 4 December 2013.
- "John Stafford Smith: Composer of the Star Spangled Banner". Gloucestershire Portal. Retrieved 25 July 2012.
- Johnson, Keith. "AMG AllMusic Guide: Pop Artists: John Stafford Smith". Answers. Retrieved 25 July 2012.
- Moss, Phillip (2005). Historic Gloucester: An Illustrated Guide to the City & Its Buildings. Stroud, England: Nonsuch Publishing. ISBN 9781845880774. OCLC 318953639.
- "Material relating to John Stafford Smith (search)". Special Collections Department, University of Glasgow. Retrieved 25 July 2012.
- Free scores by John Stafford Smith at the International Music Score Library Project
- Free scores by John Stafford Smith in the Choral Public Domain Library (ChoralWiki)
- Free John Stafford Smith sheet music from the Ball State University Digital Media Repository
|First Organist of the Chapel Royal
|Master of the Children of the Chapel Royal