John Thomas Romney Robinson
|Thomas Romney Robinson|
Thomas Romney Robinson early in life
23 April 1792|
|Died||28 February 1882
John Thomas Romney Robinson (23 April 1792 - 28 February 1882), usually referred to as Thomas Romney Robinson, was a 19th-century astronomer and physicist. He was the longtime director of the Armagh Astronomical Observatory, one of the chief astronomical observatories in the UK of its time.
Robinson was born in Dublin, the son of English portrait painter Thomas Robinson. He was educated at Belfast Academy and Trinity College, Dublin, where he obtained a fellowship in 1814, at the age of 22. He was for some years a deputy professor of natural philosophy (physics) at Trinity.
In 1823, now aged 30, he additionally gained the appointment of astronomer at the Armagh observatory. From then on he always resided at the Armagh observatory, engaged in researches connected with astronomy and physics, until his death in 1882.
During the 1840s and 1850s Robinson was a frequent visitor to the world's most powerful telescope of that era, the so-called Leviathan of Parsonstown telescope, which had been built by Robinson's friend and colleague William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse. Robinson was active with Parsons in interpreting the higher resolution views of the night sky produced by Parsons' telescope, particularly with regard to the galaxies and nebulae and he published leading-edge research reports on the question. Back at his own observatory in Armagh, Robinson compiled a large catalog of stars and wrote many related reports. In 1862 he was awarded a Royal Medal "for the Armagh catalogue of 5345 stars, deduced from observations made at the Armagh Observatory, from the years 1820 up to 1854; for his papers on the construction of astronomical instruments in the memoirs of the Astronomical Society, and his paper on electromagnets in the Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy".
Robinson is also of note as the inventor of a device for measuring the speed of the wind, the Robinson cup-anemometer (1846).
He was president of the Royal Irish Academy from 1851 to 1856, and was a longtime active organizer in the British Association for the Advancement of Science.
He married twice; firstly Elizabeth Rambaut and secondly Lucy Jane Edgeworth (daughter of Richard Lovell Edgeworth). His daughter married the physicist George Gabriel Stokes. Stokes frequently visited Robinson in Armagh in Robinson's later years.
On the Moon, the crater Robinson (crater) is named in his honour.
- "Directors of Armagh Observatory"
- Book Observing and Cataloguing Nebulae and Star Clusters, by Wolfgang Steinicke, year 2010, pages 106-117.
- "Thomas Romney Robinson (1793-1882)". Ask about Ireland. Retrieved 7 August 2013. Robinson was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of London in 1856: "Library archive". Royal Society. Retrieved 7 August 2013.
- Details of Stokes's summer vacations are in the biography of Stokes by Stoke's daughter at Archive.org.