John V of Portugal

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John V
John V of Portugal Pompeo Batoni.jpg
John V of Portugal, portrait by Pompeo Batoni
King of Portugal and the Algarves
Reign 9 December 1706 – 31 July 1750
Acclamation 1 January 1707 in Lisbon
Predecessor Peter II
Successor Joseph
Consort Maria Anna of Austria
House House of Braganza
Father Peter II of Portugal
Mother Maria Sofia of the Palatinate-Neuburg
Born (1689-10-22)22 October 1689
Ribeira Palace, Lisbon, Kingdom of Portugal
Died 31 July 1750(1750-07-31) (aged 60)
Ribeira Palace, Lisbon, Kingdom of Portugal
Burial Royal Pantheon of the Braganza Dynasty
Religion Roman Catholicism

John V (Portuguese: João V, 22 October 1689 – 31 July 1750), nicknamed "the Magnanimous", was King of Portugal and the Algarves. He was born in Lisbon and succeeded his father Peter II in December 1706, and was proclaimed on 1 January 1707.

His father had long suffered from lack of heirs, and the relatively new royal house of Braganza was indeed on the verge of going extinct—the king had only one surviving (though sickly) daughter from his first marriage, John's half-sister Isabel Luisa, Princess of Beira. However, after the death of his first wife, the old king remarried, and John's mother was able to produce eight more children, including John himself. When John was born, he became Prince of Brazil as the king's heir apparent, as well as the 11th Duke of Braganza.

Early life and reign[edit]

Jean V, 1747
The King in his later years

John was born at 09:30 on 22 October 1689 in the Ribeira Palace in Lisbon, Portugal.[1] He was baptized on 19 November and was given the name João Francisco António José Bento Bernardo.[2] His parents were King Dom Pedro II and his wife Dona Maria Sofia of Neuburg.[2]

He succeeded at quite a young age, only 17. One of his first kingly acts was to intimate his adherence to the Grand Alliance, which his father had joined in 1703. Accordingly, his general Marquês das Minas, along with Lord Galway, advanced into Castile, even taking Madrid, but later sustained the defeat of Almanza (14 April).

In October 1708 he married his maternal first cousin Archduchess and Princess Imperial Maria Anna of Austria, Princess Royal of Hungary and Bohemia (1683–1754), daughter of Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor and his third wife, Eleonore Magdalena of the Palatinate-Neuburg, thus strengthening the alliance with Austria.

He was handsome, very tall, well proportioned, with a strong body and brown eyes.[3]

The series of unsuccessful campaigns that ensued, ultimately terminated in a favourable peace with France in 1713 and with Spain in 1715.

His long reign was characterized by a strengthening of the king's power due to the incomes the crown earned by exploring the newly found gold and diamond mines in the Portuguese colony of Brazil. A fifth of each ton extracted from these mines was crown property, the rest being divided among claim owners, contractors and public administrators. This sudden wealth enabled the king to rule without summoning the Portuguese Cortes, thus becoming an absolute monarch. Due to his centralist ruling, he had to endure the political opposition of several noble families and influential clergymen. In what most probably was an effort to tame the upper nobility, John V built his own Versailles, the grand Royal Palace of Mafra and the Palace of Necessidades and its park, in Lisbon.[4]

John V was the greatest patron of the arts in the Europe of his time. The Portuguese Empire was then extremely rich – Portugal collected more gold from the newly found Brazilian mines over a few decades than Spain took from the remainder of Central and South America over 400 years; there were also the very productive diamond and precious gemstone mines that kept the royal coffers full.[citation needed] With this endless supply of money, he bought some of the greatest art collections available at the time – at a point, in one single occasion, over 80 paintings by great Italian masters were taken into the royal palace in Lisbon. The music library, already the greatest in the world, was enlarged, as was the royal library and other libraries in the country. The King insisted that his ambassadors keep him informed about the state of the arts in foreign countries and would buy only the best from the most reputable artists of the time. Unfortunately, most of the great collections amassed by John V and the Portuguese aristocracy, along with the vast majority of the city of Lisbon, were suddenly destroyed by the great earthquake of 1755 followed by a tsunami and fire.

John V used much of the crown's treasure to develop Portugal's economy (creating new manufactures all over the country), to patronise the arts and intellectuals (royal academies were founded), and to advance his country's prestige among its European neighbors after the Crisis of Succession (1580) and short-lived union with Spain (1580-1640). His foreign policy followed two simple and unaltered rules: political neutrality in European conflicts and constant negotiations with the Vatican in order to be recognised as a lawful monarch. To this end, he spent heavily on bribes to church officials and embassies to the Pope.

His negotiations with the Vatican gained the recognition of Portugal as a lawful sovereign country by Pope Benedict XIV in 1748 and the title "Most Faithful Majesty" bestowed upon him and his successors by a bull.

Six years before receiving this title, John suffered a stroke, which left him partially paralysed and unable to intervene in political affairs. His last years were dedicated to religious activities. His early economic measures, which were unpopular among the upper nobility, became ineffective, and public affairs were so dependent on John's rule that they became almost inoperative. John V died on 31 July 1750 in Lisbon, and was succeeded by his son Prince Joseph.

Ancestry[edit]

Marriages and descendants[edit]

John married Archduchess Maria Anna of Austria, daughter of Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor, his first cousin, in 1708. From that marriage were born six children, three of whom survived childhood. Outside his marriage John had four illegitimate children, the beautiful Maria Rita ("Flower of Murta") and the three children of Palhavã.

Name Birth Death Notes
By Maria Anna of Austria (7 September 1683 – 14 August 1754; married on 10 June 1708)
Barbara of Portugal 4 December 1711 27 August 1758 Princess of Brazil (1711–1712). Married to Ferdinand VI of Spain.
Peter of Portugal 19 October 1712 29 October 1714 Prince of Brazil and 14th Duke of Braganza 
Joseph I of Portugal 6 June 1714 24 February 1777 Prince of Brazil from 1714. Succeeded him as King of Portugal.
Carlos of Portugal 2 May 1716 30 March 1730  
Peter III of Portugal 5 July 1717 25 May 1786 Married Queen Maria I of Portugal and became King-consort as Peter III.
Alexandre of Portugal 24 September 1723 2 August 1728  
By Dona Luísa Clara de Portugal (1712-?) a lady-in-waiting to the Queen
Maria Rita of Braganza c. 1731 1808 Known as the Flower of Murta.
By Madalena Máxima de Miranda (c. 1690-?)
Gaspar of Braganza 8 October 1716 18 January 1789 Natural son. Archbishop of Braga. One of the three children of Palhavã
By Mother Paula de Odivelas (c. 1690-?)
Joseph of Braganza 8 September 1720 31 July 1801 Natural son. General-Inquisitor of the Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. One of the three children of Palhavã
Other offspring
Anthony of Braganza 1 October 1704 14 August 1800 Natural son and one of the three children of Palhavã

References[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Sousa, António Caetano de. História genealógica da Casa Real portuguesa (in Portuguese) VIII. Lisbon: Silviana. 
John V of Portugal
Cadet branch of the House of Aviz
Born: 22 October 1689 Died: 31 July 1750
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Peter II
King of Portugal and the Algarves
1706–1750
Succeeded by
Joseph I