Purleigh, Essex, England
|Died||1677 (aged 45–46)
Washington Parish, Westmoreland County, Virginia, British America
|Occupation||Planter and politician|
|Spouse(s)||Anne Pope (1st), Anne Gerrard (2nd), Frances Gerrard (3rd),|
|Children||Lawrence, John II and Anne.|
|Parents||Lawrence Washington, Amphillis Twigden.|
Early life and family
John Washington was born at Purleigh, Essex in 1633 to Amphilis Twigden and Lawrence Washington, an Anglican rector. Prior to his marriage, Lawrence had been a don at the University of Oxford, and when John was eight his father enrolled him in Charterhouse School in London to begin preparing for an academic career. In the wake of the English Civil War, however, the royalist elder Washington was stripped of his clerical post, and his sons were barred from entering Oxford. John Washington, his mother and siblings were given shelter by the family of Sir Edwin Sandys, sympathetic relations whose patriarch had served as treasurer in the Virginia Company. John's father left on his own to minister to an impoverished parish in Essex.
Through his Sandys relatives, John Washington found an apprenticeship with a London merchant that provided a valuable education in colonial trade. In 1656 Washington invested in a merchant ship engaged in transporting tobacco to European markets. He travelled with the ship to the Colony of Virginia in 1657, where it foundered in the Potomac River. The vessel was repaired but Washington nonetheless elected to remain in the colony
Colony of Virginia
While first in Virginia, Washington stayed at the house of Col. Nathaniel Pope, a plantation owner. During this stay, he fell in love with his host's daughter Anne.
After his marriage to Anne Pope and the wedding gift from Anne's father of 700 acres (2.8 km2) on Mattox Creek in Westmoreland County of the Northern Neck, Washington became a successful planter. He depended on the labor of slaves and indentured servants to cultivate tobacco and kitchen crops. He was selected for the Virginia House of Burgesses and became a politician in the colony.
During the events leading to Bacon's Rebellion, Washington was appointed a colonel in the Virginia militia. He led a company to back a group of Marylanders during a planned parley with the opposition and American Indian leaders. The militia killed six chiefs of various tribes, and their peoples retaliated for the massacre in later raids and attacks against the colonists. The governor William Berkeley strongly criticized Washington for the murders of the American Indian chiefs, but colonists supported Washington in the massacre. Relations between the Indians and colonists deteriorated.
Marriage and family
He married Anne Pope in 1657.
They had three children together:
- Lawrence Washington, born 1659;
- John Washington II, born 1661; and
- Anne Washington, born 1662.
After Anne Pope's death, Washington married Anne Gerrard. She also died before him. For his third wife, he married her younger sister Frances Gerrard.
Washington and his first wife Anne are buried at what is now called the George Washington Birthplace National Monument in present-day Colonial Beach, Virginia. His vault is the largest in the small family burial plot.
Legacy and honors
- Randall, p. 10.
- Haas, Irvin (March 2014). Historic Homes of the American Presidents. Courier Dover Publications. p. [page needed]. ISBN 0-486-26751-2.
- Richardson, Abby Sage (March 2014). The History of Our Country: From Its Discovery by Columbus to the Celebration of the Centennial Anniversary of the Declaration of Independence. H. O. Houghton and Company. p. [page needed].
- Lodge, Henry Cabot (March 2014). George Washington. Houghton Mifflin. p. [page needed].
- Randall, Willard Sterne (1997). George Washington: A Life. New York: Holt & Co.
- George Washington artifacts
- Washington of Adwick, Origin of the Washington Family, Rotherhamweb.co.uk
- John Washington Lineage