|First appearance||The Fantastic Four #1 (Nov. 1961)|
|Created by||Stan Lee
|Alter ego||Jonathan Lowell Spencer "Johnny" Storm|
|Team affiliations||Fantastic Four
Herald of Galactus
Fantastic Four Incorporated
|Notable aliases||The Torch, Invisible Man|
|Abilities||Fiery form that enables flight, serves as damage shield
Ability to absorb heat energy
Skilled race-car driver, auto-mechanic, and designer
The Human Torch is a fictional character, a superhero that appears in comic books published by Marvel Comics. He is a founding member of the Fantastic Four. A similar, unrelated character of the same name and powers had been created in 1939 by writer-artist Carl Burgos for Marvel Comics' predecessor company, Timely Comics.
Like the rest of the Fantastic Four, the Human Torch gained his powers on a spacecraft bombarded by cosmic rays. He can engulf his entire body in flames, is able to fly, can absorb fire harmlessly into his own body, and can control any nearby fire by sheer force of will. "Flame on!", which the Torch customarily shouts when activating his full-body flame effect, has become his catchphrase.
- 1 Publication history
- 2 Fictional character biography
- 3 Romance
- 4 Powers and abilities
- 5 Other versions
- 6 In other media
- 7 Reception
- 8 References
- 9 External links
|This section requires expansion. (April 2010)|
Created by writer Stan Lee and artist Jack Kirby, the character first appeared in The Fantastic Four #1 (Nov. 1961). For some time, the Human Torch appeared as a regular character in a backup feature in the title Strange Tales.
Fictional character biography
||This article's plot summary may be too long or excessively detailed. (February 2011)|
Growing up in Glenville, New York, a fictional Long Island suburban town, Jonathan "Johnny" Storm lost his mother due to a car accident from which his father, surgeon Franklin Storm, escaped unharmed. Franklin Storm spiraled into alcoholism and financial ruin, and was imprisoned after killing a loan shark in self-defense. Johnny Storm was then raised by his older sister, Sue Storm.
At age 16, Johnny Storm joined his sister and her fiancee, Reed Richards, in a space flight in which cosmic radiation transformed those three and spacecraft pilot Ben Grimm into superpowered beings who would become the celebrated superhero team the Fantastic Four. Storm, now with the ability to become a flaming human with the power of flight and the ability to project flame, dubs himself the Human Torch, in tribute to the World War II-era hero of that name. In The Fantastic Four #4, it is the hotheaded Storm who, briefly walking out on the others, discovers an amnesiac hobo whom he helps regain his memory as the antihero Namor the Sub-Mariner, one of the three most popular heroes of Marvel Comics' 1940s forerunner, Timely Comics. That character has gone on to appear in starring roles into the 2010s.
Though a member of a world-famous super-team, Storm still lived primarily in Glenville and attended Glenville High School, as depicted in his concurrent solo series in the anthology comic book Strange Tales, starting with issue #101. That series depicts him as maintaining a secret identity, although retroactive continuity later revealed[when?] that his fellow townsfolk were well aware of his being a member of the Fantastic Four and simply humored him. This series introduced what would become recurring the Fantastic Four foes the Wizard (born Bentley Wittman) and Paste-Pot Pete, later known as the Trapster; As well, Storm had his first team-up with his superhero opposite number, the teenaged Iceman, in Strange Tales #120, and met another teenaged superhero, Spider-Man, in The Amazing Spider-Man #1. Despite their early misunderstandings, the Torch and Spider-Man eventually became good friends and friendly competitors, with Spider-Man revealing to Storm his secret identity.
In Storm's home life, Mike Snow, a member of the Glenville High wrestling squad, bullied Johnny until an accidental flare-up of the Torch's powers scarred Snow's face. Despite their animosity, Snow concealed the incident, blaming the injuries on a prank gone wrong and maintaining Johnny had actually saved his life that night by flying him to the hospital. While Mike tried to move on with his life, Johnny did the same, dating fellow student Dorrie Evans, beginning in Strange Tales #113, although she eventually grew tired of his constant disappearances and broke off their relationship in Fantastic Four #45.
After graduating high school, Storm enrolled at New York City's Metro College in Fantastic Four #35 (February 1965). There he befriended his roommate Wyatt Wingfoot. Shortly after this, he and the Fantastic Four first encountered Galactus and the Silver Surfer. Wyatt joined Johnny and the Fantastic Four on a trip to Wakanda, Africa, where they first encountered the Black Panther and helped him defeat Klaw. He also met the original Human Torch. Around this time, Storm met the young Inhuman Crystal. It was love at first sight, and Storm, along with the rest of the Fantastic Four, helped her overthrow the mad Inhuman prince Maximus. Their love was passionate but short-lived, as Crystal returned to the city of Attilan and eventually married Quicksilver, the son of Magneto, eventually bearing his child. Storm was crushed, but tried to move on. Hoping to catch up on old times with Dorrie Evans, he found that she had married and had two kids since they had broken up.[volume & issue needed] Despite dropping out of Metro U, Johnny remained friends with Wyatt, who often participated in the Fantastic Four's adventures and who was later romantically linked to the She-Hulk. When Johnny's sister Sue and her husband Reed were separated, Johnny joined the Thing, Medusa and Thundra in a staged battle against the rehabilitated Namor in an effort to bring the couple back together. Their ploy worked, and Sue and Reed patched things up for good.[volume & issue needed] Seeking direction in his life, Johnny was tricked into attending the high-class Security College, a front for the Monocle, an agent of the megalomaniacal Enclave, who used him to steal top-secret high-tech weapons. Spider-Man broke the Monocle's control of the Torch. Johnny then joined the rest of the Fantastic Four in space, where they helped the Champions of Xandar against the invading Skrulls. When Johnny's teammates were dying from a Skrull aging ray, Johnny destroyed the robotic assassin Skrull X, allowing the infirm Reed to use the weapon to reverse the aging.
Franklin, Onslaught, and other adventures
Storm greeted his power-counterpart Iceman and, along with many other superheroes, fought against the time-traveling Ahab. Not long after that, he discovered "Alicia's" true identity, and discovered that Lyja was pregnant with his child. He then witnessed the apparent death of Lyja, and rescued the real Alicia from the Skrulls.
During the Infinity War, Storm went out for a personal fly and was attacked by evil doubles of the X-Men and his own self.[volume & issue needed] He later found it hard to fight by the side of visages he had just incinerated.[volume & issue needed] Later during the Infinity Crusade, a deeper, religious side of Storm was revealed.[volume & issue needed] After realizing his sister had been brainwashed because of her religious beliefs, Johnny experienced a crisis of faith, because he thought his beliefs were just as strong.[volume & issue needed]
Storm briefly joined his nephew Franklin's Fantastic Force team, where he battled his virtually omnipotent extra-dimensional counterpart Vangaard (formerly Gaard), convincing him to abandon his mission of eliminating redundant realities by showing him the hero he could become.[volume & issue needed] Lyja posed as student Laura Green and dated Storm to stay close to him; Storm recognized her when they kissed though he did not share this until later, but the two never had the chance to explore their true feelings.[volume & issue needed] After Franklin Richards created his Counter-Earth and rescued the Fantastic Four, Avengers, and several other heroes from death at the hands of Onslaught,[volume & issue needed] Roma deemed Franklin too powerful to ignore, and sent the Technet and the (Captain Britain) Corps to retrieve him. The Human Torch convinced Roma that Franklin's family, the Fantastic Four, would be able to nurture him so that he would not grow up to be a danger to the Omniverse.[volume & issue needed]
While the rest of the Fantastic Four battled the Gideon Trust and Annihilus in the Negative Zone, Storm was forced to recruit a temporary Fantastic Four team consisting of Ant-Man (Scott Lang), Johnny's on-and-off girlfriend Namorita (Namor's cousin), and the She-Hulk, who battled the Gideon Trust on Earth.[volume & issue needed] When the cosmic entity Abraxas came to Earth-616, Storm teamed with an extra-dimensional version of the now-deceased Frankie Raye to retrieve the Ultimate Nullifier, a weapon powerful enough to destroy Abraxas. This Nova betrayed Storm and gave the Nullifier to her master, Abraxas, but even that could not save Abraxas after Galactus joined the fight.[volume & issue needed] Following the battle, Susan found herself pregnant again, and, with Reed off battling the Hidden Ones, Storm was forced to seek help from Dr. Doom when problems with the pregnancy threatened Sue's life. Storm appealed to his vanity, tempting him with the offer to do something that Reed would not be able to do. Doom saved both Sue and her daughter, Valeria, whom he got to name as compensation for saving them.[volume & issue needed]
Getting a real job and anti-registration movement
Seeking an acting career, Storm was cast as the Old West hero the Rawhide Kid, but producers reconsidered and gave the role to Lon Zelig (actually the Super-Skrull). After working mostly in a few television shows, Storm also spent some time as a firefighter at the behest of his former classmate, Mike Snow, but when Snow moved away after his wife turned out to be a psychopathic arsonist and seemingly died, Storm left the job (though he later returned to the profession during a period when the Fantastic Four was short on cash). Sick of her brother's directionless life and near disastrous pranks, Sue forced him to take a job as the Chief Financial Officer for the Fantastic Four, Inc. Storm was shown to use his power to further harass Ben and slack off, although it soon turned serious. Infighting and betrayal resulted in the patented unstable molecules threatening most of the world, a threat ended with Johnny's leadership of the franchise.
After a major battle with Doctor Doom, Reed attempted to claim Latveria for the Fantastic Four, an act that turned the United States government and his own team against them. This led to Ben Grimm's death and the subsequent break-up of the rest of the team. Johnny took to fixing cars for a living and hallucinating heavily that Ben was still alive. Grimm's death did not last long. Johnny and his family traveled to Heaven, where they met God himself, who looked like Jack Kirby.
Later stabilization and other factors left the Fantastic Four's popularity in the gutter. Seeking help from the least popular person he could think of, Storm contacted Spider-Man, who tried to cheer Storm up by bringing him to a water park. An unfortunate misunderstanding with Hydro-Man led to a horrible fight, where Storm was assumed to be threatening the park-goers. Storm also began to converse with a new girl over the internet, and hit it off when he finally met her. This girl, Cole, turned out to be the daughter of one of Johnny's oldest enemies, the Wizard; but although she was sent to trick the Fantastic Four, Cole actually helped lead them to the Wizard's lair, where they battled him and his new Frightful Four. The Wizard escaped and took Cole with him, but Johnny remained hopeful about meeting her again.
An alien named Zius came to Earth, the location of Susan Storm, the one being in the universe who could nullify his Galactus-proof planet-cloaking invisibility shield. Zius threatened to destroy the planet if Sue did not sacrifice herself, but Reed used his power gun to switch her powers with Johnny's and tricked Zius into leaving the planet. As he left orbit, Galactus destroyed Zius's spaceship and claimed Storm as his new Herald, the Invisible Man. The cosmic power he was imbued with let him understand whatever he analyzed, leading him to a new appreciation and love for his family. Not wanting to lead Galactus to populated worlds, the Fantastic Four and Quasar managed to make Galactus human for a time. Storm's power cosmic faded, though a remnant of it caused the Fantastic Four's powers to be temporarily transferred to four random New York City residents.
During the 2006-2007 "Civil War" storyline, in which the superpowered community were split over the Superhuman Registration Act, which required them to register with and become agents of the US government, Storm and his sister became allied with the underground rebels, the Secret Avengers. Shortly afterward, during the "Secret Invasion" company-crossover, the shape-shifting extraterrestrial Skrulls intensified their clandestine infiltration of Earth. Storm was briefly reunited with his former Skrull girlfriend, Lyja. Though part of the invading force, she finds she still has some feelings for him, and does not carry out her mission of sabotage. She returns to her people, unsure of herself and of any future relationship.
Death and return
In the conclusion of the 2011 "Three" storyline, in Fantastic Four #587 (March 2011), the Human Torch appears to die fighting a horde of aliens from the otherdimensional Negative Zone. The series ended with the following issue, #588, and relaunched in March 2011 as simply FF. Spider-Man took the Torch's place on the team, as requested in the Torch's will.
It is later revealed that the Human Torch was revived by a species of insect-like creatures that were implanted in his body by Annihilus in an attempt to force Storm to help open the Negative Zone portal. However, although Storm refused, Annihilus gained a means of access when an alternate dimension Reed Richards opened the portal for him, forcing Storm to escape and lead a resistance against Annihilus with the aid of his fellow prisoners. Upon the Negative Zone portal opening, the Human Torch meets Spider-Man on the other side wearing the costume of the Future Foundation, promptly asking the webslinger what he is wearing. Reed determines that Johnny has been on the other side of the portal for two years from his perspective. Johnny aids his friends by summoning the Annihilation Wave — now under his command — to confront the Kree armada currently threatening Earth.
The Human Torch has been involved in several romantic relationships throughout the years, including, but not limited to, the Inhuman Crystal, member-in-training and future Galactus herald Frankie Raye, the Skrull agent Lyja disguised as Alicia Masters, and the Atlantean Namorita.
Crystal dissolved her relationship with him due to the adverse effects of pollution within population centers of Homo sapiens. Frankie Raye ended her relationship with him when she accepted Galactus' offer to become his newest herald.
Lyja, while in the disguise of the Thing's former girlfriend Alicia Masters, carried on a long-term relationship including marriage with the Torch, until it was revealed that her true nature was as a Skrull double agent. Although the two attempted reconciliation after it was learned that their "child" was actually an implanted weapon to be used against the Fantastic Four,[volume & issue needed] they ultimately parted on less than favorable terms.[volume & issue needed]
Powers and abilities
Johnny Storm gained a number of superhuman powers as a result of the mutagenic effects of the cosmic radiation he was exposed to, all of which are related to fire. His primary ability to envelop his body in fiery plasma without harm to himself, in which form he is able to fly by providing thrust behind himself with his own flame, and to generate powerful streams and/or balls of flame. He can also manipulate his flame in such a way as to shape it into rings and other forms. Even when not engulfed in flame himself, Storm has the ability to control any fire within his immediate range of vision, causing it to increase or decrease in intensity or to move in a pattern directed by his thoughts. Additionally, he is able to absorb fire/plasma into his body with no detrimental effects. He has shown the ability to detect heat signatures (infra-red vision).
The plasma field immediately surrounding his body is sufficiently hot enough to vaporize projectiles that approach him, including but not limited to bullets. He does not generally extend this flame-aura beyond a few inches from his skin, so as not to ignite nearby objects. Storm refers to his maximum flame output as his "nova flame," which he can release omnidirectionally. Flame of any temperature lower than this cannot burn or harm the Torch. This "nova" effect can occur spontaneously when he absorbs an excessive amount of heat, although he can momentarily suppress the release when necessary, with considerable effort. Storm can also direct momentary beams of "nova heat" as a weapon.
Storm has demonstrated enough control that he can hold a person while in his flame form without his passenger feeling discomforting heat. His knowledge extends to general information about fire as well, supported by regular visits to fire safety lectures at various firehouses in New York. During a confrontation with Kraven the Hunter where he was poisoned, Johnny was able to cure himself by superheating his blood to burn the toxin out of his blood without Kraven realizing what he was up to.
Storm's ability to ignite himself is limited by the quantity of oxygen in his environment, and his personal flame has been extinguished by sufficient quantities of water, flame retardant foam, and vacuum environments. He can reignite instantly once oxygen is returned, with no ill effects.
Very early in his career, as seen in The Fantastic Four #1-2, Storm was depicted as transmuting his body itself into living flame; in all subsequent appearances his power consists in the generation of a flaming aura.
Storm was trained in hand-to-hand combat by the Thing, and is highly skilled in the use of his superhuman powers in combat. He is also a skilled race-car driver, auto mechanic and designer.
In other media
- The Human Torch was a regular character in the 1967 Fantastic Four animated series. He is voiced by Jack Flounders.
- The Human Torch did not appear in the 1978 Fantastic Four animated series and was replaced with a robot called H.E.R.B.I.E.. An urban legend states this was because the producers were afraid children would imitate the Torch by setting themselves on fire. This legend was propagated by Marvel itself, which mentioned it in a couple of issues of the magazine Marvel Age; as well as when an issue of Fantastic Four (Fantastic Four #285 Dec. 1985) depicted a child setting himself on fire to emulate the Torch, leaving the Torch with doubts about his appropriateness as a role model. In fact, the television rights to the Human Torch had been separately licensed, although never actually used, for a television pilot movie by Universal Studios and this prevented the use of the Torch in the series. For the same reason, the Human Torch was supposed to be one of the main characters on Spider-Man and His Amazing Friends, but Firestar was created in his place.
- The Human Torch appears in the 1994–95 Fantastic Four animated TV series. He is voiced by Brian Austin Green in the first season and by Quinton Flynn in the second season.
- The Human Torch and the rest of the Fantastic Four appeared in the Secret Wars episodes of the mid-1990s Spider-Man animated series. Quinton Flynn provided the Torch's voice in these episodes as well.
- The Human Torch appears in the 2006 Fantastic Four animated TV series. He is voiced by Christopher Jacot.
- A version of The Human Torch appears in the animated series The Super Hero Squad Show, voiced by Travis Willingham.
- The Human Torch appears in the animated TV series The Avengers: Earth's Mightiest Heroes. He is voiced by actor David Kaufman, who reprises his role from Ultimate Spider-Man and Marvel: Ultimate Alliance 2.
- Jay Underwood played Johnny Storm in the unreleased Fantastic Four film produced by Roger Corman.
- The Human Torch/Johnny Storm is played by Chris Evans in the big budget 2005 movie Fantastic Four. In the film, he is an intelligent, but arrogant, young man in his early twenties who loves extreme sports. He is the brother of Susan Storm, who works within Von Doom Industries as Victor von Doom's chief of the Science Department.
- Chris Evans reprises his role as Johnny Storm in Fantastic Four: Rise of the Silver Surfer. When his sister's wedding is interrupted by the Silver Surfer, Johnny pursues the Surfer and loses the subsequent confrontation. Due to his contact with the Surfer, Johnny is thereafter able to switch powers with any of his teammates through physical contact. This change thwarts their attempt to trap the Silver Surfer when he accidentally switches powers with Reed. However, when Doom steals the Surfer's board and powers, Johnny uses his change to absorb the powers of the entire team, using Sue's invisibility and his own flame powers to sneak up on Doom before overpowering him with the Thing's strength and Reed's elasticity. He loses the ability to switch powers when he makes contact with the Surfer for a second time.
- The Human Torch makes a guest appearance in The Amazing Spider-Man 2 for the Game Boy and PlayStation 2.
- The Human Torch (along with the rest of the Fantastic Four) has a cameo in Spider-Man and Venom: Maximum Carnage for the SNES and Sega Genesis systems.
- The Human Torch is one of the Fantastic Four members who make an appearance in Spider-Man for the SNES.
- The Human Torch featured prominently in the 2000 Spider-Man video game, voiced by Daran Norris. The Torch makes numerous appearances in cut-scenes throughout the game, and is last seen dancing with the Black Cat.
- The Human Torch appears in his own game for the Game Boy Advance titled Fantastic 4: Flame On.
- Johnny is a playable character in the Fantastic Four video game based on the 2005 movie, voiced by Chris Evans with Quinton Flynn reprising his role in bonus levels, and in the video game based on the 2007 movie Fantastic Four: Rise of the Silver Surfer, voiced by Michael Broderick.
- The Ultimate version of the Human Torch appeared in the 2005 Ultimate Spider-Man game, voiced by David Kaufman. The player, as Spider-Man, had to race the Torch through New York.
- The Torch also appeared as a playable character in the Electronic Arts-produced title Marvel Nemesis: Rise of the Imperfects, voiced by Kirby Morrow.
- Human Torch appears as a playable character in Marvel: Ultimate Alliance, voiced by Josh Keaton. His classic, Ultimate, original, and modern costumes are available. A simulation disk has Human Torch fighting Paibok. He has special dialogue with Black Widow, Hank Pym, Thing, Crystal, Uatu, Karnak, Wyatt Wingfoot, Black Bolt, and Shocker.
- David Kaufman reprises his role of Human Torch who appears in Marvel: Ultimate Alliance 2.
- Whilst he does not appear in Spider-Man: Web of Shadows, there are billboards for a car wash company, which Johnny has endorsed.
- Human Torch is a playable character in Marvel Super Hero Squad Online, voiced by Antony Del Rio.
- Human Torch is available as downloadable content for the game LittleBigPlanet, as part of "Marvel Costume Kit 2".
- Human Torch appears as a playable character in the 2012 fighting game Marvel Avengers: Battle for Earth.
- In 1975, Bill Murray played Johnny Storm in a daily radio adaptation of the early issues of Fantastic Four. The show lasted for 13 weeks.
- Human Torch appeared as an 8-inch action figure in Mego's World's Greatest Super Heroes toy line in the 1970s.
- Human Torch has appeared in the Marvel Legends toy line, in series 2, in the three version of the Fantastic Four box set ( the ordinary, variant and the Wal-Mart special).
- Though it a different character, the Inhuman Torch (Kristoff Vernard) appeared in the House of M box set.
- The Human Torch is the eighteenth figurine in The Classic Marvel Figurine Collection.
The Human Torch was ranked as the 90th greatest comic book character by Wizard magazine. IGN ranked the Human Torch as the 46th greatest comic book hero, stating that even though the youngest member of the Fantastic Four routinely basked in the glory of his celebrity status, he also proved himself in his many adventures with both the Fantastic Four and Spider-Man.
- Fantastic Four #32 - "Death of a Hero"
- The Fantastic Four #1
- Strange Tales #102
- Strange Tales #104
- Fantastic Four #50
- Fantastic Four #48 - "The Coming of Galactus"
- Cronin, Brian (September 19, 2010). "A Year of Cool Comics – Day 262". Comic Book Resources CSBG Archive. Retrieved September 29, 2010.
- Fantastic Four #52-53
- Fantastic Four #56 - "Klaw, the Murderous Master of Sound"
- Fantastic Four Annual #4
- Fantastic Four #45 - "Among Us Hide the Inhumans" (December 1965) (1st appearance of Crystal)
- Fantastic Four #83 - "Shall Man Survive?"
- Fantastic Four #150 (September 1974)
- Fantastic Four #240
- Fantastic Four #275
- Fantastic Four #207
- Fantastic Four #208-209 (Jul-August 1979)
- Fantastic Four #204 (1st appearance of Skrull X)
- Fantastic Four #269-270
- "Dearly Beloved," by Roger Stern, John Buscema, and Sal Buscema. Fantastic Four #300 (March 1987).
- X-Factor Annual #5
- Fantastic Four #357-358
- Fantastic Four vol. 3 #65-66
- Fantastic Four #509-511
- Fantastic Four #514-516
- Fantastic Four #517-519
- Fantastic Four #520-524
- Millar, Mark. Civil War #4, Marvel Comics, October 2006
- Secret Invasion: Fantastic Four #1-3
- Ching, Alber (January 25, 2011). "Associated Press Spoils 'Fantastic Four' #587 Hours Before Comic Goes on Sale". Newsarama.com.
- Ching, Albert. "Hickman Details FANTASTIC FOUR #587's Big Character Death", Newsarama, 25 January 2011
- Moore, Matt. "After Half Century, It's 1 Fantastic's Farewell", Associated Press via ABC News, January 25, 2011. WebCitation archive.
- Khouri, Andy (9 February 2011). "Fantastic Four Get a New Name, New Costume and an Old Spider-Man". ComicsAlliance.com.
- Hanks, Henry (11 February 2011). "Spider-Man replacing Human Torch on new 'FF' team". CNN.com.
- The Amazing Spider-Man #657
- Fantastic Four #600
- Fantastic Four #601
- Fantastic Four #105, Dec. 1970
- Fantastic Four #244, July 1982
- Fantastic Four #300, March 1987
- Fantastic Four #357, Oct. 1991
- Spider-Man/Human Torch #2
- Fantastic Four (1967 TV series) at the Internet Movie Database
- Fantastic Four (1994–95 TV series) at the Internet Movie Database
- Spider-Man episode "Secret Wars, Chapter 1: Arrival" and "Secret Wars, Chapter 3: Doom" at the Internet Movie Database
- Fantastic Four (2006 TV series) at the Internet Movie Database
- "Marvel Super Hero Squad Voice Cast". Comics Continuum. 28 July 2009. Retrieved 2011-04-12.
- The Fantastic Four at the Internet Movie Database
- Denick, Thom (2006). Marvel Ultimate Alliance: Signature Series Guide. Indianapolis, Indiana: Brady Games. pp. 30, 31. ISBN 0-7440-0844-1.
- "Extensive Cast of Voice Actors Unveiled for Super Hero Squad Online". Retrieved February 12, 2012.
- "Marvel Costume Kit 2". Sony. Archived from the original on December 30, 2012. Retrieved December 30, 2012.
- "Human Torch joins Marvel Heroes". Marvel Heroes. 2012-07-11. Retrieved 2012-07-19.
- Parsons, Arthur (April 18, 2013). "HULK Smash!!!!". LEGO. Retrieved April 12, 2013.
- Monaco, Steve (2005-01-13). "Bill Murray as . . . The Human Torch? - Minneapolis / St. Paul News - Steve Monaco - Couch Pundit". Blogs.citypages.com. Retrieved 2011-04-12.
- "Wizard's top 200 characters.". Wizard. republished at Herochat.com, 18 May 2008. Retrieved May 19, 2011.
- "Human Torch is number 46". IGN. Retrieved May 19, 2011.
- The Human Torch on the Marvel Universe Character Bio
- MDP: Human Torch (Marvel Database Project) (wiki)
- The Religion of the Human Torch