Johns Hopkins Hospital
|The Johns Hopkins Hospital|
|Johns Hopkins Health System|
|Location||1800 Orleans Street, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.|
|Affiliated university||Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine|
|Lists||Hospitals in U.S.|
Johns Hopkins Hospital Complex
|Location||601 N. Broadway, Baltimore, Maryland|
|Area||8 acres (3.2 ha)|
|Architect||Cabot & Chandler; Et al.|
|Architectural style||Queen Anne|
|NRHP Reference #||
|Added to NRHP||February 24, 1975|
The Johns Hopkins Hospital is the teaching hospital and biomedical research facility of Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, located in Baltimore, Maryland. It was founded using money from a bequest by philanthropist Johns Hopkins. The Johns Hopkins Hospital and the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine are the founding institutions of modern American medicine and are the birthplace of numerous traditions including rounds, residents and housestaff. Many medical specialties were formed at the Johns Hopkins Hospital, including neurosurgery, by Harvey Cushing; cardiac surgery by Alfred Blalock; pediatrics and child psychiatry, by Leo Kanner.
The Johns Hopkins Hospital is widely regarded as one of the world's greatest hospitals. It was ranked by U.S. News & World Report as the best overall hospital in America for 21 consecutive years (1991-2011). In 2012 it was briefly supplanted by the Massachusetts General Hospital, but regained the top position in 2013.
Johns Hopkins, a Baltimore merchant and banker, left an estate of $7 million (US$137.3 million in 2013) when he died on Christmas Eve 1873 at the age of 78. In his will, he asked that his fortune be used to found two institutions that would bear his name: "Johns Hopkins University" and "The Johns Hopkins Hospital." At the time that it was made, Hopkins's gift was the largest philanthropic bequest in the history of the United States.
Toward the end of his life, Hopkins selected 12 prominent Baltimoreans to be the trustees for the project and a year before his death, sent a letter telling them that he was giving "thirteen acres of land, situated in the city of Baltimore, and bounded by Wolfe, Monument, Broadway and Jefferson streets upon which I desire you to erect a hospital." He wished for a hospital "which shall, in construction and arrangement, compare favorably with any other institution of like character in this country or in Europe" and directed his trustees to "secure for the service of the Hospital, physicians and surgeons of the highest character and greatest skill."
Most importantly, Hopkins told the trustees to "bear constantly in mind that it is my wish and purpose that the hospital shall ultimately form a part of the Medical School of that university for which I have made ample provision in my will." By calling for this integral relationship between patient care, as embodied in the hospital, and teaching and research, as embodied in the university, Hopkins laid the groundwork for a revolution in American medicine. Johns Hopkins' vision, of two institutions in which the practice of medicine would be wedded to medical research and medical education was nothing short of revolutionary.
Initial plans for the hospital were drafted by surgeon John Shaw Billings, and the architecture designed by John Rudolph Niernsee and completed by Edward Clarke Cabot of the Boston firm of Cabot and Chandler in a Queen Anne style. When completed in 1889 at a cost of $2,050,000 (US$52.6 million in 2013), the hospital included what was then state-of-the art concepts in heating and ventilation to check the spread of disease.
The trustees obtained the services of four outstanding physicians, known as the "Big Four," to serve as the founding staff of the hospital when it opened on May 7, 1889. They were pathologist William Henry Welch, surgeon William Stewart Halsted, internist William Osler, and gynecologist Howard Atwood Kelly.
In 1893, Johns Hopkins University was one of the first medical schools to admit women. The decision to begin coeducation was a result of a shortage of funds, as the B&O Railroad stock that was supposed to cover cost was used up in building the hospital in 1889 and the medical school had not yet been built. Four of the original trustees’ daughters offered to raise the money needed to open the school, but only if the school agreed to admit qualified women to the university. After several discussions the trustees agreed to their terms and accepted the financial help of these four women, with only one of doctors, William Henry Welch resisting. Evenutally even Welch changed his views on coeducation, "The necessity for coeducation in some form," he wrote later, "becomes more evident the higher the character of the education. In no form of education is this more evident than in that of medicine ... we regard coeducation a success; those of us who were not enthusiastic at the beginning are now sympathetic and friendly." 
Osler, the first chief of the Department of Medicine, is credited with originating the idea of a residency, whereby recently graduated doctors receive advanced training in their specialty while treating patients under supervision; then as now, residents comprise most of the medical staff of the hospital. He also introduced the idea of bringing medical students into actual patient care early in their training; at the time medical school consisted almost entirely of lectures. Osler's contribution to practical education extends to the creation of "grand rounds", the practice of leading physicians discussing the most difficult cases in front of assembled medical students, for the benefit of patients and students. He once said he hoped his tombstone would say only, "He brought medical students into the wards for bedside teaching."
Halsted, the first chief of the Department of Surgery, established many other medical and surgical achievements at Johns Hopkins including modern surgical principles of control of bleeding, accurate anatomical dissection, complete sterility, and the first radical mastectomy for breast cancer (before this time, such a diagnosis was a virtual death sentence). His other achievements included the introduction of the surgical glove and advances in thyroid, biliary tree, hernia, intestinal and arterial aneurysm surgeries. Halsted also established the first formal surgical residency training program in the United States.
Kelly is credited with establishing gynecology as a true specialty. He created new surgical approaches to women's diseases and invented numerous medical devices, including a urinary cystoscope. He was one of the first to use radium to treat cancer.
Ophthalmologist William Holland Wilmer opened the Wilmer Eye Institute in 1925, its home was completed four years later. Dr. Wilmer received an M.D. degree from the University of Virginia in 1885 and worked in New York, Washington D.C., in addition to Baltimore, where he established the institute.
Medical achievements at Johns Hopkins include the first male-to-female sex reassignment surgery in the United States that took place in 1966 at the Hopkins Gender Identity Clinic. Two of the most far-reaching advances in medicine during the last 25 years were also made at Hopkins. First, the Nobel Prize-winning discovery of restriction enzymes gave birth to the genetic engineering industry. Second, the discovery of the brain's natural opiates has triggered an explosion of interest in neurotransmitter pathways and functions. Other accomplishments include the development of HeLa, by George Otto Gey, head of tissue culture research in 1951; the first and arguably most important line of human cells grown in culture; identification of the three types of polio virus; and the first "blue baby" operation, which was done by surgeon Alfred Blalock in collaboration with Helen Taussig, a female Hopkins graduate specializing in pediatric cardiology and an surgical technician Vivien Thomas which opened the way to modern heart surgery.
The hospital occupies approximately 20 of the 60 buildings on the Johns Hopkins Medical Campus. The complex has over 80 entrances and receives 80,000 visitors weekly. It houses over 1,000 beds and has a staff of over 1,700 doctors with over 30,000 total employees. In May 2012 the Johns Hopkins Hospital opened two new towers as part of a major campus redevelopment effort. The opening of the new $1.1 billion Charlotte R. Bloomberg Children’s Center tower and the new Sheikh Zayed Tower marked the highpoint of this effort. In addition to the main hospital, the system operates four other hospitals and several outpatient care facilities in the Baltimore and Washington metro areas and a children's hospital in St. Petersburg, Florida.
The Johns Hopkins Hospital was ranked as the top overall hospital in the United States for 21 consecutive years by U.S. News & World Report until 2012, when it declined to 2nd place behind the rise of the Massachusetts General Hospital. In 2013, it was reinstated as the top hospital in the United States.
|US ranking||MD ranking||Specialty|
|1||1||Ear, nose & throat|
|1||1||Neurology and neurosurgery|
|4||1||Diabetes and endocrinology|
|4||1||Heart & heart surgery|
- Johns Hopkins University
- Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
- Hopkins television series
- Medical centers in the United States
- "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 2009-03-13.
- "General Psychiatry Residency Program at The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine". Johns Hopkins Medicine. Retrieved January 8, 2011.[dead link]
- "Something the Lord Made - an HBO Film". Johns Hopkins Medicine. -2004. Retrieved 2012-03-09.
- "The History of Johns Hopkins Medicine". Johns Hopkins Medicine. Retrieved 2012-03-09.
- "Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry". Johns Hopkins Medicine. Retrieved 2012-03-09.
- Randi Henderson and Richard Marek (20 March 2001). Here is My Hope: A Book of Healing and Prayer: Inspirational Stories of Johns Hopkins Hospital. Doubleday. ISBN 978-0-385-50032-6. Retrieved 2012-03-09.
- "Best Hospitals Honor Roll 2008". U.S. News & World Report (usnews.com). 10 July 2008. Retrieved 2012-03-09.
- "U.S. News & World Report's Best Hospitals" (Press release). Johns Hopkins Medicine. Retrieved January 8, 2011.
- "The Johns Hopkins Hospital Tops U.S. News & World Report "Honor Roll" 19th Year in a Row". Johns Hopkins Medicine. 16 July 2009. Retrieved 2012-03-09.
- Dave Maunel's Inflation Calculator
- A. McGehee Harvey and Victor A. McKusick (1 May 1989). A Model of Its Kind: Volume 1 - A Centennial History of Medicine at Johns Hopkins. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-3794-4.
- Dorsey, John & Dilts, James D., Guide to Baltimore Architecture (1997) p. 203-4. Tidewater Publishers, Centreville, Maryland ISBN 0-87033-477-8
- "The Four Founding Physicians". Johns Hopkins Medicine. Retrieved 2012-03-09.
- Gerard N. Burrow, MD and Nora L. Burgess, MD (February 2001), "The evolution of women as physicians and surgeons", The Annals of Thoracic Surgery, retrieved 2013-04-10
- "Women -- Or the Female Factor". Johns Hopkins Medicine. Retrieved 2013-04-10.
- Johns Hopkins Medical Grand Rounds
- History of Grand Rounds
- "'Diamond Jim' gives $220,000 to Hospital". The New York Times (NYTimes.com). 13 August 1912. Retrieved 2012-03-09.
- Walter R. Parker, MD (1936). "Dr. William Holland Wilmer". Transactions of the American Opththalmological Society (American Ophthalmological Society). pp. 20–23. PMC 1315552. Retrieved 2012-03-09.
- Laura Wexler (January/February 2007). "Identity Crisis". Style Magazine (Baltimorestyle.com). Retrieved 2012-03-09.
- Rebecca Skloot (2 February 2010). The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks. Random House Digital, Inc. ISBN 978-0-307-58938-5. Retrieved 9 April 2013.
- "Johns Hopkins Medical Milestones". Johns Hopkins Medicine. Retrieved 2012-03-09.
- Alex Dominguez (16 September 2010). "Gunman kills self, mother at Johns Hopkins Hospital". WPVI-TV. Retrieved 2012-03-09.
- "Patient Care Locations". Johns Hopkins Medicine. Retrieved 2012-03-09.
- "Honor Roll of Best Hospitals 2013-2013". U.S.News and World Report. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
- Roberts, CS (2010). "H.L. Mencken and the four doctors: Osler, Halsted, Welch and Kelly". Baylor University Medical Center Proceedings 23 (4): 377–88. PMC 2943453. PMID 20944761.
- The Johns Hopkins Hospital and Health System website
- Johns Hopkins Medicine website
- Baltimore, Maryland, a National Park Service Discover Our Shared Heritage Travel Itinerary
- Johns Hopkins Hospital on Google Street View
- C-SPAN Q&A interview with Ronald Peterson about Johns Hopkins Hospital, January 9, 2005