Joint Defense Facility Nurrungar
Joint Defence Facility Nurrungar (JDFN), located on the edge of Island Lagoon, approximately 15 km south of Woomera, South Australia was a facility operated jointly by the Australian Department of Defence and the United States Air Force from 1969 through 1999. Its official area of emphasis was space-based surveillance, in particular the early detection of missile launches and nuclear detonations using U.S. Defense Support Program satellites in geostationary orbits. The name Nurrungar derives from an aboriginal term meaning "listen".
During the Cold War the site was crucially important to America's defences, being at the time the only facility for providing "launch on warning" surveillance of enemy ICBM launches. Not surprisingly, it was also regarded as one of the Soviets' top ten targets in the event that such an attack would actually take place.
Politically it was both a symbol of U.S.-Australian relations, and highly controversial in Australia. This was mainly due to fears that the site could prompt a nuclear attack on Australian soil, and antipathy towards the US alliance amongst the Australian political left. Political demonstrations were staged at the facility in 1989, 1991 and 1993. Despite allegations that Australians were restricted from areas crucial to the facility's intelligence gathering capabilities, Australian military personnel were fully integrated into the site's operations. The public in general was not even aware of its existence until November 1970, a full year after it had been in operation. Its precise location did not leak out until sometime later.
Persian Gulf War
During the Persian Gulf War it managed to score a few positive publicity notes for detecting early launches of Iraqi Scud missile attacks; years later, a USAF assessment would emerge revealing that oversights at the base were partly responsible for one of the worst disasters for Coalition forces during the war, on 26 February 1991 when an Iraqi Scud missile struck a warehouse housing U.S. soldiers, killing 28 and injuring more than 100.
The report found that ground operators at Nurrungar played a part in the tragedy, which the Air Force described as a "worst case combination of events"; these were in turn compounded by failures in the MIM-104 Patriot intercept system deployed near the Dhahran base itself.
After September 1999 its operations were moved to the Joint Defense Facility Pine Gap, near Alice Springs, and ownership of the premises were transferred to the Woomera Test Range (Headquartered in Adelaide). The ADF now use the site occasionally for army test and evaluation work under the approval of the Woomera Test Range.
The Woomera Test Range has taken some new steps with the announcement of Project JP3024, "Remediation of the Woomera Test Range", while Nurrungar is not specifically included in that project, Army and Air Force have been jointly using the site off and on since 2009. The site is surrounded by a high security perimeter fence and still includes one of the old (believed heritage listed) large radome structures. The radome still has the old satellite dish inside but it is believed all the operating mechanisms have long since been stripped out and sold for scrap. "
Current state of the facility
Inside the fence of the large facility there are many large rooms including kitchens and some secure rooms. There is even still a tennis court on the grounds. The whole facility is completely empty and stripped of lights and power plugs. There are still bulletproof secure rooms in the facility. Along the inside the fence there are rows of barbwire, microwave beams and many other security features.
- http://web.archive.org/web/19970407002700/http://www.af.mil/news/airman/1296/spaceop.htm - Manning the Donut Hole: On Duty in Australia's Outback
- http://www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/24/167.html - compilation of several articles about the JDFN
- http://www.abc.net.au/pm/stories/s52512.htm - Inside Nurrungar
- Desmond Ball, A Suitable Piece of Real Estate (Sydney: Hale & Iremonger 1980)
- Desmond Ball, A Base for Debate: The US Satellite Station at Nurrungar (St Leonards: Allen & Unwin 1987)
- Desmond Ball, Pine Gap: Australia & the US Geosynchronous Satellite Program (St Leonards: Allen & Unwin 1988).
- Catley, Bob and Mosler, David: America and Americans in Australia, Greenwood Publishing Group, 1998, pp. 36-37
- History of the Australian Anti-Bases Campaign Coalition
- Nurrungar History
- John Pilger, 'The Coup', in 'A Secret Country', 1989
- Nurrungar brochure site on the Woomera web site.