Joint Photographic Experts Group

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The Joint Photographic Experts Group is the joint committee between ISO/IEC JTC1 and ITU-T (formerly CCITT) that created the JPEG, JPEG 2000, and JPEG XR standards. It is one of two sub-groups of ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 1, Subcommittee 29, Working Group 1 (ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 1) - titled as Coding of still pictures.[1][2][3] In the ITU-T, its work falls in the domain of the ITU-T Visual Coding Experts Group (VCEG). ISO/IEC JTC1 SC29 Working Group 1 (working together with ITU-T Study Group 16 - SG16[4] and previously also with Study Group 8 - SG8[5][6]) is responsible for the JPEG and JBIG standards.[7] The scope of the organization includes the work of both the Joint Photographic Experts Group and Joint Bi-level Image Experts Group.[1][7]

In April 1983, ISO started to work to add photo quality graphics to the text terminals. In the mid-1980s, both CCITT (now ITU-T) and ISO had standardization groups for image coding: CCITT Study Group VIII (SG8) - Telematic Services and ISO TC97 SC2 WG8 - Coding of Audio and Picture Information.[8][9] They were historically targeted on image communication. In 1986 it was decided to create the Joint (CCITT/ISO) Photographic Expert Group.[10] The JPEG committee was created in 1986.[11] In 1988 it was decided to create the Joint (CCITT/ISO) Bi-level Image Group (JBIG).[10] The group typically meets three times annually in North America, Asia and Europe. The group often meets jointly with the JBIG committee.[9][12]

Joint Bi-level Image experts Group[edit]

The Joint Bi-level Image experts Group (JBIG) is the second sub-group of the same working group (ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 1) as the Joint Photographic Experts Group, which focuses on binary images.[1] They created the JBIG and JBIG2 standard.[7][12]

Standards published and under development[edit]

The JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) as a sub-group of ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 1 - Coding of Still Pictures (working as a joint team with ITU-T SG 16) have developed various standards, which have been published by ITU-T and/or ISO/IEC. The standards developed by the JPEG and JBIG sub-groups are referred to as a joint development of ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 1 and ITU-T SG 16. The JPEG standards consist of different Parts. Each part covers a certain aspect of the whole specification. Some of the published JPEG standards were revised by later amendments and/or new editions. Standards developed and under development by JPEG are shown in the table below.

Joint Photographic Experts Group - standards published and under development[2][13]
Common Name Part First public release date (First edition) ISO/IEC Number ITU Number Formal Title
JPEG Part 1 1992 ISO/IEC 10918-1 ITU-T Rec. T.81 Information technology – Digital compression and coding of continuous-tone still images – Requirements and guidelines
Part 2 1994 ISO/IEC 10918-2 ITU-T Rec. T.83 Information technology – Digital compression and coding of continuous-tone still images – Compliance testing
Part 3 1996 ISO/IEC 10918-3 ITU-T Rec. T.84 Information technology—Digital compression and coding of continuous-tone still images: Extensions
Part 4 1998 ISO/IEC 10918-4 ITU-T Rec. T.86 Information technology—Digital compression and coding of continuous-tone still images: Registration of JPEG profiles, SPIFF profiles, SPIFF tags, SPIFF colour spaces, APPn markers, SPIFF compression types and Registration Authorities (REGAUT)
Part 5 2013 ISO/IEC 10918-5 ITU-T Rec. T.871 Information technology—Digital compression and coding of continuous-tone still images: JPEG File Interchange Format (JFIF)[14]
Part 6 2013 ISO/IEC 10918-6 ITU-T Rec. T.872 Digital compression and coding of continuous-tone still images: Application to printing systems
JPEG-LS Part 1 1998 ISO/IEC 14495-1 ITU-T Rec. T.87 Information technology—Lossless and near-lossless compression of continuous-tone still images: Baseline
Part 2 2002 ISO/IEC 14495-2 ITU-T Rec. T.870 Information technology—Lossless and near-lossless compression of continuous-tone still images: Extensions
JPEG 2000 Part 1 2000 ISO/IEC 15444-1 ITU-T Rec. T.800 Information technology – JPEG 2000 image coding system – Core coding system
Part 2 2004 ISO/IEC 15444-2 ITU-T Rec. T.801 Information technology – JPEG 2000 image coding system – Extensions
Part 3 2002 ISO/IEC 15444-3 ITU-T Rec. T.802 Information technology—JPEG 2000 image coding system: Motion JPEG 2000
Part 4 2002 ISO/IEC 15444-4 ITU-T Rec. T.803 Information technology—JPEG 2000 image coding system: Conformance testing
Part 5 2003 ISO/IEC 15444-5 ITU-T Rec. T.804 Information technology—JPEG 2000 image coding system: Reference software
Part 6 2003 ISO/IEC 15444-6 Information technology—JPEG 2000 image coding system—Part 6: Compound image file format
Part 8 2007 ISO/IEC 15444-8 ITU-T Rec. T.807 Information technology—JPEG 2000 image coding system: Secure JPEG 2000
Part 9 2005 ISO/IEC 15444-9 ITU-T Rec. T.808 Information technology—JPEG 2000 image coding system: Interactivity tools, APIs and protocols
Part 10 2008 ISO/IEC 15444-10 ITU-T Rec. T.809 Information technology—JPEG 2000 image coding system: Extensions for three-dimensional data
Part 11 2007 ISO/IEC 15444-11 ITU-T Rec. T.810 Information technology—JPEG 2000 image coding system: Wireless
Part 12 2004 ISO/IEC 15444-12 Information technology—JPEG 2000 image coding system—Part 12: ISO base media file format
Part 13 2008 ISO/IEC 15444-13 ITU-T Rec. T.812 Information technology—JPEG 2000 image coding system: An entry level JPEG 2000 encoder
Part 14 under development ISO/IEC AWI 15444-14 ITU-T Rec. T.813 Information technology—JPEG 2000 image coding system—Part 14: XML structural representation and reference
MRC 1999 ISO/IEC 16485 ITU-T Rec. T.44 Information technology—Mixed Raster Content (MRC)
JPSearch Part 1 2007 ISO/IEC TR 24800-1 Information technology—JPSearch—Part 1: System framework and components
Part 2 under development ISO/IEC FDIS 24800-2 Information technology—JPSearch—Part 2: Registration, identification and management of schema and ontology
Part 3 2010 ISO/IEC 24800-3 Information technology—JPSearch—Part 3: Query format
Part 4 2010 ISO/IEC 24800-4 Information technology—JPSearch—Part 4: File format for metadata embedded in image data (JPEG and JPEG 2000)
Part 5 under development ISO/IEC FDIS 24800-5 Information technology—JPSearch—Part 5: Data interchange format between image repositories
Part 6 under development ISO/IEC CD 24800-6 Information technology—JPSearch—Part 6: Reference software
JPEG XR Part 1 2011 ISO/IEC TR 29199-1 T.Sup2 Information technology—JPEG XR image coding system—Part 1: System architecture
Part 2 2009 ISO/IEC 29199-2 ITU-T Rec. T.832 Information technology - JPEG XR image coding system - Part 2: Image coding specification
Part 3 2010 ISO/IEC 29199-3 ITU-T Rec. T.833 Information technology—JPEG XR image coding system—Part 3: Motion JPEG XR
Part 4 2010 ISO/IEC 29199-4 ITU-T Rec. T.834 Information technology—JPEG XR image coding system—Part 4: Conformance testing
Part 5 2010 ISO/IEC 29199-5 ITU-T Rec. T.835 Information technology—JPEG XR image coding system—Part 5: Reference software
AIC under development ISO/IEC NP 29170 Information technology—Advanced image coding and evaluation methodologies

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29 (2009-05-07). "ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 1 - Coding of Still Pictures (SC 29/WG 1 Structure)". Retrieved 2009-11-11. 
  2. ^ a b ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29. "Programme of Work, (Allocated to SC 29/WG 1)". Retrieved 2009-11-07. 
  3. ^ ISO. "JTC 1/SC 29 - Coding of audio, picture, multimedia and hypermedia information". Retrieved 2009-11-11. 
  4. ^ "ITU-T Home : Study Groups : Study Group 16 - Question 6/16 – Visual coding". ITU-T. Retrieved 2010-03-07. 
  5. ^ ITU-T, ITU-T Study Group 8 List of Questions under Study (Study Period 1997 - 2000) (DOC), retrieved 2010-03-07 
  6. ^ ITU-T. "ITU-T Study Group 8 (Study Period 1997-2000)". Retrieved 2010-03-07. 
  7. ^ a b c JPEG. "Joint Photographic Experts Group, JBIG Homepage". Retrieved 2009-11-08. 
  8. ^ ITU-T. "ITU-T extensions to JPEG-1". Retrieved 2010-03-07. 
  9. ^ a b chiariglione.org (2009-09-06). "Riding the Media Bits, The Faultline". Retrieved 2010-02-09. [dead link]
  10. ^ a b ITU-T (2005-07), The First Joint ITU ISO/IEC Still Image Compression Standards (PDF), p. 3, retrieved 2009-11-12 
  11. ^ JPEG. "Joint Photographic Experts Group, JPEG Homepage". Retrieved 2009-11-08. 
  12. ^ a b JPEG. "How does JPEG work?". Retrieved 2009-11-09. 
  13. ^ ISO. "JTC 1/SC 29 - Coding of audio, picture, multimedia and hypermedia information". Retrieved 2009-11-07. 
  14. ^ JPEG (2009-04-24). "Press Release - 48th WG1 meeting, Maui, USA - JPEG XR enters FDIS status, JPEG File Interchange Format (JFIF) to be standardized as JPEG Part 5". Retrieved 2009-11-09. 

External links[edit]