||This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in the Indonesian Wikipedia. (March 2014)|
|Official portrait as Governor of Jakarta (2012)|
|7th President of Indonesia
20 October 2014
|Vice President||Jusuf Kalla|
|Succeeding||Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono|
|15th Governor of Jakarta|
15 October 2012
|Deputy||Basuki Tjahaja Purnama|
|Preceded by||Fauzi Bowo|
|Succeeded by||Basuki Tjahaja Purnama (designate)|
|16th Mayor of Surakarta|
28 July 2005 – 1 October 2012
|Deputy||F. X. Hadi Rudyatmo|
|Preceded by||Slamet Suryanto|
|Succeeded by||F. X. Hadi Rudyatmo|
21 June 1961 |
|Political party||Indonesian Democratic Party – Struggle|
|Alma mater||Gadjah Mada University|
Joko Widodo (born 21 June 1961) is an Indonesian politician who is currently the Governor of Jakarta and the President-elect of Indonesia. He is often better known by the abbreviated name Jokowi. He was previously the mayor of Surakarta (often also known as Solo in Indonesia). He was nominated by his party, the Indonesian Democratic Party – Struggle (PDI-P), to run in the 2012 Jakarta gubernatorial election with Basuki Tjahaja Purnama (often known as Ahok) as his running mate. He was elected governor of Jakarta on 20 September 2012 after a second round runoff election in which he defeated the incumbent governor Fauzi Bowo. Jokowi's win was widely seen as reflecting popular voter support for "new" or "clean" leaders rather than the "old" style of politics in Indonesia, although he is over 50 years old. His governorship lasts for five years and will end in 2017.
Jokowi's popularity has risen sharply since his election to the high-profile position of governor of Jakarta in 2012. During 2013 and early 2014, he was seen as a potential PDI-P candidate for the Indonesian presidential election in 2014. Originally, PDI-P chairwoman Megawati Sukarnoputri stated that she would not announce the PDI-P presidential candidate until after 9 April legislative elections in accordance with Law No 42 of 2008 (Clause 9) which states that nominations of candidates for the presidential election may only be made by a party (or a coalition of parties) that receive at least 20% of the seats in Indonesia's House of Representatives (112 out of 560) or win 25% of the popular votes. However, due to the potential vote gains that announcing Jokowi's presidential nomination will bring to the PDI-P legislative candidates, some speculate she took advantage of his popularity to announce his nomination on 14 March 2014, three weeks before and two days prior to the legislative election (16 March 2014) to the start of the official legislative campaigning period including rallies and mass media advertising. Regardless, Megawati's nomination is not formal until one of the following occurs after the Indonesian legislative election on 9 April 2014: PDI-P wins 20 percent of the legislative seats, PDI-P wins 25% of the popular votes, or forms a coalition with other parties to reach the 20% threshold. If Jokowi runs successfully for President, the Deputy Governor of Jakarta Basuki Tjahaja Purnama from the Great Indonesia Movement Party (Gerindra) will succeed him as the new Governor of Jakarta.
On 22 July 2014, Jokowi was named as the President-elect of Indonesia, after being declared the winner of the presidential election winning more than 53% of the vote over his opponent Prabowo Subianto, who withdrew from the race before the count was completed disputing the outcome. Jokowi returned as Governor of Jakarta until 20 October 2014, the official commencement date of his term as the 7th President of Indonesia.
Early life and education
Joko Widodo is of Javanese descent. He is the eldest son of Noto Mihardjo and Sujiatmi Notomihardjo. He has three younger sisters, named Iit Sriyantini, Ida Yati and Titik Relawati. Before changing his name, Joko Widodo was called Mulyono. His father came from Karanganyar, his grandparents came from a village in Boyolali. His education started in State Primary School 111, Tirtoyoso, known for being a school for less wealthy citizens.
Due to the financial difficulties in his childhood, he had to work his way through primary school to earn enough money for school materials and pocket money. At twelve, he started working in his father's furniture workshop. The evictions he experienced three times in his childhood affected his way of thinking and his leadership later on as the mayor of Surakarta (Solo) as he organised housing in the city.
After primary school, he continued his studies in SMP Negeri 1 Surakarta (middle school). He had wanted to continue his education in SMA Negeri 1 Surakarta (high school), but he failed the entrance exam and went to SMA Negeri 6 Surakarta instead.
He continued his education in the Forestry Faculty of Gadjah Mada University. He made use of this chance to study the structure of wood, its utilisation, and its technology. He completed his degree with the thesis called: "Study on Plywood Consumption in Final Consumption in Surakarta municipality".
After his graduation in 1985, he worked for BUMN PT Kertas Kraft Aceh and was placed in the area Hutan Pinus Merkusii di Dataran Tinggi Gayo, Middle Aceh. Nevertheless, he didn't feel at home and went home to his wife, who was seven months pregnant. He was determined to work with wood in his uncle Miyono's business named CV Roda Jati. In 1988, he started his own business under the name of CV Rakabu, referring to his first child (Rakabuming). The business was quite successful; however due to fraud, it had problems and was closed. In 1990, he tried again with the money (Rp30,000,000.-) borrowed from his mother.
When he first ran for the office of mayor of Surakarta, many doubted the ability of a man who had worked as a property and furniture businessman; however, after a year in office Jokowi had successfully led many progressive breakthroughs which became widely praised nationally. One academic paper shows that his leadership style includes an interactional relationship with the people of Solo, through which he is able to induce people's strong faith in him. He adopted the development framework of European cities (which he frequently traveled to as a businessman) into his own city of Surakarta.
Highlights of Jokowi's approach during the seven years that he was mayor of Surakarta include the following:
- Building new traditional markets – including an antiques market and a home appliances market
- Constructing a 7-km city walk with a 3-meter wide pedestrian walkway along Surakarta's main street
- Revitalizing the Balekambang and Sriwedari parks
- Stricter regulations on cutting down trees along the city's main streets
- Rebranding Surakarta as a center of Javanese culture and tourism under the tagline "The Spirit of Java"
- Promoting the city as a center for meetings, incentives, conventions and exhibitions (MICE)
- The blusukan culture, the manner in which Jokowi made impromptu visits to certain areas to hear directly from the people their needs and criticisms
- Prohibiting his family members from bidding for city projects
- Healthcare insurance program for all residents
- Public transportation in the form of double-decker buses and the railbus
- Solo Techno Park, which helped support the Esemka Indonesian car project
His supporters pointed to rapid positive changes in Surakarta under his leadership. Branding the city with the motto "Solo: The Spirit of Java" was seen as a successful move. While in office he was able to relocate junk dealers in the Banjarsari Gardens smoothly, a move which was helpful in revitalizing the functions of the open green land; he emphasized the importance of business firms engaging in community activities; he improved communications with the local community (appearing regularly on local television). Jokowi also did not hesitate to dismiss investors who do not agree with the principles of his leadership. As a follow-up of the new branding of Surakarta, he applied for Surakarta to become a member of the Organization of World Heritage Cities, which was approved in 2006, and subsequently had Surakarta chosen to host the organization's conference in October 2008. In 2007, Surakarta had also hosted the World Music Festival (Festival Musik Dunia/FMD) which was held at the Fort Vastenburg Complex (it is worth noting that Fort Vastenburg was to be bulldozed and replaced by a business center and shopping malls before Jokowi vetoed the decision). The FMD in 2008 was held in the Mangkunegaran Palace Complex.
Part of Jokowi's personal style has populist "can-do" (punya gaye) elements designed to build bonds with the broad electorate. This approach has proved highly effective in the past few years. As just one example, as mayor of Surakarta, he became personally involved in an incident just before Christmas 2011 when the Surakarta municipality had overdue bills of close to $1 million (Rp 8.9 billion) owing to state-owned electricity company Perusahaan Listrik Negara (PLN). Following PLN company policy to pursue a more disciplined approach to collect overdue bills, the PLN imposed a blackout on street lamps in Surakarta just before Christmas. The city municipality quickly authorized payment but in settling the bill protested that the PLN should consider the public interest before taking this type of action. To reinforce the point, Jokowi made a highly publicized personal visit to the local PLN office to deliver the Rp 8.9 billion in cash in the form of hundreds of bundles of notes and even small coins.
Such interaction-oriented approach quickly raised Jokowi's prominence at the national level. Among others, he was chosen as the Tempo's Leaders of Choice by Tempo news magazine (2008) and received Changemakers Award from Republika newspaper (2010); his name also started being considered in national polls for governorship of Jakarta way before his party nomination of him to run for the post, including that by Universitas Indonesia and Cyrus Network (2011).
Governor of Jakarta
Jokowi has been an active and high-profile governor of Jakarta. He has followed the practice (known as blusukan) of regularly arranging well-publicized visits to local communities, often in quite poor areas, across Jakarta (see below). His broad approach is widely said to reflect the similar, successful style of administration that he adopted while mayor of Surakarta between 2005 and 2007. His inner circle of advisers in Jakarta is reported to include people such as FX Hadi 'Rudy' Rudyatmo, Sumartono Hadinoto, and Anggit Nugroho who were colleagues while he was mayor of Surakarta as well as Basuki 'Ahok' Tjahaja Purnama, his current deputy as governor of Jakarta.
Policies as Governor
Not so much a policy as a general approach, Jokowi has actively carried out the practice known as blusukan of regularly visiting quite poor areas across Jakarta. During these visits, he wears simple informal clothes and makes a point of spending time in markets or walking along narrow Jakarta lanes (gangs) to chat to people about problems like the price of food, housing difficulties, local flooding, and transport. Polling and media coverage suggests that Jokowi's hands-on style has proved very popular both in Jakarta and elsewhere across Indonesia.
On April and June 2013, Jokowi created a new system of bureaucratic recruitment called "lelang jabatan" (literally means auction of office position). In this system, every civil servant has the same opportunity to achieve a certain position by fulfilling the required qualifications and passing the test. The test result is announced transparently and the provincial government will place the qualified civil servant in accordance to their achievement and qualification.
Early after taking office in late 2012 Jokowi introduced a universal health care program in Jakarta, based on a Healthy Jakarta Card (Kartu Jakarta Sehat or KJS). The program proved to be very popular. However, the KJS program also generated controversy because implementation problems quickly became evident. The demand for health services from hospitals across Jakarta jumped sharply putting great pressure on the limited services available. Demand for health services surged by 70% in the first few months. The program involved an insurance program provided through the state-owned insurance company PT Askes Indonesia (Persero) and a plan to regulate health charges for treatment for over 20,000 services and procedures. There was confusion over the details of the implementation of the system and long waiting queues for services caused dissatisfaction. The long queues even generated a market for middlemen who offered line-waiting services for up to Rp 150,000 (around $US 15 at end-2013 exchange rates). The various problems led to criticism of Jokowi in the Jakarta regional parliament that he was promoting a populist, poorly-designed program. However Jokowi defended the popular KJS program and counseled patience.
Jokowi launched the "Smart Jakarta Card" on 1 December 2012, in order to help poor students in Jakarta. This card gives an allowance that can be withdrawn from ATMs in order to buy school needs such as books and uniforms. The usage of the card is constantly monitored and is not allowed for consumptive purposes such as going to the cinema.
On 10 October 2013, Jokowi inaugurated the construction of Jakarta MRT, which previously was delayed for years. Subsequently, on 16 October 2013, Jokowi also restarted the construction of the green line of Jakarta Monorail.
After Jokowi took office, the provincial budget of Jakarta increased significantly from Rp 41 trillion in 2012 to Rp 72 trillion in 2014. This was achieved through transparency, efficiency, e-catalog, and e-budgetting.
Jokowi and his vice governor, Basuki, publicized their monthly salary and the provincial budget to the public. They also initiated programs that are aimed towards transparency, such as online tax, e-budgeting, e-purchasing, and cash management system. Moreover, all meetings and activities that are attended by Jokowi and Basuki were recorded and uploaded on YouTube.
Revamping street vendors and traditional markets
Jokowi regulated the chaotic agglomeration of street vendors in Pasar Minggu and Pasar Tanah Abang by relocating them to a new building, as these street vendors were causing horrendous traffic jam. He also managed to build and renovate five traditional markets in 2013 and four traditional markets in 2014. The vendors in these markets are not charged for rent, although they are required to maintain their kiosk and not to sell their kiosk to someone else. They are only asked to pay for maintenance, electricity, and water cost.
In 2013, Joko Widodo initiated dredging and reservoir normalization projects in order to reduce flood problems. Three of the most notable projects are the normalization of Pluit Reservoir, Ria Rio Reservoir, and Pesanggrahan River. These projects involved the relocation of settlements around the reservoirs, in which Jokowi used the "lunch diplomacy" tactic to obtain agreement from local populace. After the inhabitants of these settlements were successfully moved to a new location, the dredging commenced, and the project was praised by the Prime Minister of the Netherlands Mark Rutte as successful. These projects helped to reduce the extent of flood in 2014.
Megawati Sukarnoputri had chosen Joko Widodo to be the presidential candidate of her party.
Widodo and Jusuf Kalla travelled to many parts of Indonesia for his campaign, most notably West Papua. His mayorship in Surakarta and his governorship in Jakarta further boosted his popularity around Indonesia. Because of his interest in loud music, many musicians around Indonesia, including the cast of Jalanan, volunteered to create a song titled Salam 2 Jari as part of his campaign. Also because of his interest in loud music, several international artists — Jason Mraz, Sting, Bumblefoot and Arkarna — posted their support for him on Twitter and Facebook, tagging #Jokowi9Juli and in Arkarna's case, #ArkarnaVoteJokowi.
After hearing the Quick Count results of many different polls, Widodo declared victory on 9 July. However, his rival Prabowo Subianto also declared victory, leaving Indonesian citizens confused. Jokowi asked his supporters to cancel any celebrations for his victory. While most of Prabowo's supporters tried to congratulate Jokowi, fighting occurred between other Prabowo and Jokowi supporters days before the official announcements. To prevent this from happening, Widodo disallowed the use of his usual off-duty attire, checkered clothing, and Prabowo's usual attire, white clothing, for his supporters and told them not to leave their house.
On 22 July, hours before the announcement of the election results, Prabowo withdrew. A victory for Widodo was expected and realized hours later. The Commission gave Widodo a close victory of 53.15 percent of the vote (representing 70,997,859 voters), to Prabowo's 46.85 percent (62,576,444 votes), though Prabowo's camp disputed these totals.
After his victory, Widodo stated that, growing up under the authoritarian and corrupt New Order, he would have never expected someone with a lower-class background to become president. The New York Times reported him as saying "now, it's quite similar to America, yeah? There is the American dream, and here we have the Indonesian dream". Widodo was the first Indonesian president to not be from the military or the political elite, and the political commentator Salim Said gave the popular view of the politician as "someone who is our neighbor, who decided to get into politics and run for president".
Awards and honours
His awards and honours include the following:
2008: Jokowi was listed by Tempo as one of the 'Top 10 Indonesian Mayors of 2008'.
2011: He was awarded the Bintang Jasa Utama by President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono.
2012: Jokowi received 3rd place of the 2012 World Mayor Prize for "transforming a crime-ridden city into a regional center for art and culture and an attractive city to tourists. He was listed as one of "The Leading Global Thinkers of 2013" in Foreign Policy. In February 2013 he was nominated as the global mayor of the month by the The City Mayors Foundation based in London.
According to The Economist, Jokowi "has a penchant for loud rock music" and once owned a bass guitar signed by a member of heavy-metal band Metallica. He claims to be a fan of Metallica, Lamb of God, Led Zeppelin and Napalm Death.
In June 2013, a film depicting Jokowi's childhood and youth was released. Jokowi expressed some objections to the film saying that he felt his life had been a simple one and was not worthy of being presented as a film.
- "Naik Kopaja, Jokowi – Ahok Daftar Jadi Cagub DKI" (in Indonesian). Tempo. 19 March 2012.
- Editorial: Jokowi's real battle', The Jakarta Post, 22 September 2012.
- Sudirman Nasir, 'The thirst for positive 'deviant' leaders', The Jakarta Post, 18 July 2012.
- 'Governor of Jakarta Receives His Party’s Nod for President', The New York Times, 14 March 2014.
- "Jakarta governor Widodo wins Indonesian presidential election". Indonesia News.Net. Retrieved 23 July 2014.
- Anggriawan, Fiddy (20 September 2012). "Jokowi Kenalkan Adik dan Ibu Kandungnya ke Publik". Okezone.com. Retrieved 29 March 2014.
- Wawancara Jokowi di Satu Indonesia (menit ke 18) diakses dari situs archive video q391.ru
- Dihadapan Pimpinan Muhammadiyah, Jokowi Bantah Anti Islam diakses dari situs Metro TV News pada tanggal 26 May 2014.
- Anggi Kusumadewi; Fajar Sodiq (21 September 2012). "Meski Bukan dari Sekolah Elit, Jokowi Bisa Sukses". VIVA.co.id. Retrieved 29 March 2014.
- "Jokowi Anak Tergusur Mau Jadi Gubernur". Beritasatu.com. 11 April 2012. Retrieved 29 March 2014.
- Segu, Vinsensiu (16 July 2012). "Dari Bantaran Kali Menuju DKI-1". Inilah.com. Retrieved 29 March 2014.
- "Jokowi Kecil, Rumah Digusur, Tiga Kali Pindah Kontrakan". Tribunnews. 21 September 2012. Retrieved 29 March 2014.
- Sunaryo, Arie (10 August 2013). "Sejak SMP, Jokowi sudah dikenal pendiam tapi pintar". Merdeka.com. Retrieved 29 March 2014.
- "Gagal Masuk SMA Favorit, Jokowi Sakit Tipus dan Pendiam". Tribunnews. 23 September 2012. Retrieved 29 March 2014.
- Samah, Kristin dan Susanti, Fransisca Ria.Saya Sujiatmi, Ibunda Jokowi. hal 43–49 Terbitan Gramedia Pustaka Utama tahun 2014
- Cahyadi Indrananto, Pemimpin Daerah Sebagai Agen: Dramaturgi dalam Komunikasi Politik Walikota Solo Joko Widodo / Local Leaders as Agents: Dramaturgy on Political Communications of City Mayor Joko Widodo of Solo , Postgraduate Thesis, June 2012.
- [ Joko Wididi Raih Penghargaan Best City Award Asia Tenggara – Best City Award Delgosea Joko Wididi penataan PKL walikota solo " SOLOPOS.COM]
- Sita W. Dewi and Kusumasari Ayuningtyas, 'Poor stagnate while city thrives', The Jakarta Post, 18 November 2013.
- Kusumasari Ayuningtyas, 'Surakarta mayor uses car made by vocational school students', The Jakarta Post, 3 January 2012.
- Kusumasari Ayuningtyas, 'Residents of Surakarta accompany mayor to pay PLN', The Jakarta Post, 4 January 2012.
- Cahyadi Indrananto, Pemimpin Daerah Sebagai Agen: Dramaturgi dalam Komunikasi Politik Walikota Solo Joko Widodo / Local Leaders as Agents: Dramaturgy on Political Communications of City Mayor Joko Widodo of Solo , Postgraduate Thesis, June 2012.
- See the several reports by Sita W. Dewi and Kusumasari Ayuningtyas: 'Jokowi's star appeal: Making hay while sun shines', The Jakarta Post, 18 November 2013; 'The inner circle', The Jakarta Post, 19 November 2013; Sita W. Dewi, 'Man of the house, man of the moment', The Jakarta Post, 20 November 2013.
- Editorial: Start working, Jokowi', 22 January 2013, The Jakarta Post.
- Dewi Sendhikasari D. Lelang Jabatan Camat dan Lurah di DKI Jakarta. diakses dari situs Berkas DPR pada tanggal 23 October 2013
- 'For all citizens or only the poor?', The Jakarta Post, 22 December 2013.
- Tom McCawley, 'Overdue Antidote', Development Asia, Asian Development Bank, November 2013.
- '"Jokowi-care" a pilot project for upcoming national health plan', The Jakarta Post, 22 December 2013.
- 'A report card for Jakarta's healthcare program', The Jakarta Post, 22 December 2013.
- Kartu Jakarta Pintar Diluncurkan. Antara. 15 March 2014
- "Proyek Pembangunan MRT Jakarta Resmi Dimulai". VOA Indonesia. 10 October 2013. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
- Syailendra (16 October 2013). "Jokowi Resmikan Monorel Jalur Hijau". Tempo. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
- Dipimpin Jokowi, Pendapatan DKI naik Rp 31 Triliun dalam Setahun.
- Pernyataan PAD 72 Triliun diralat sebagai APBD, bukan PAD oleh Kepala Dinas Pelayanan Pajak DKI Jakarta Iwan Setiawandi
- "Menlu Inggris dukung transparansi Jokowi". BBC. 28 January 2014. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
- Jordan, Ray (14 March 2013). "Transparansi Jokowi, Ini Dia Poster APBD 2013". Detik. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
- Juwari, Ahmad (14 November 2012). "Ini Alasan Jokowi Setuju Rapat Pemprov DKI Ditampilkan di Youtube". Detik. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
- Jokowi Siapkan Hadiah Mobil Bagi Pembeli di Blok G. Antara.19 March 2014
- Jokowi Tahun Ini Renovasi Empat Pasar Tradisional. merdeka. 19 March 2014
- Bosan Lihat Jokowi Mana Ahok Nih?. Kompas. 19 March 2014
- Jokowi Resmikan Lima Pasar Tradisional. Republika. 19 March 2014
- Diplomasi Makan Siang Jokowi dan Warga Waduk Pluit Berlanjut Pekan Depan. Detik. 22 March 2014
- Perdana Menteri Belanda Nilai Jokowi Pemimpin Hebat. merdeka. 15 March 2014
- BPBD: Berkat Kerja Jokowi Banjir 2014 Tak Separah 2013. Liputan6. 15 March 2014
- http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/jul/09/jokowi-prabowo-both-claim-victory-indonesian-election. The Guardian. 10 July 2014. Retrieved 22 July 2014
- Yolanda Ryan Armindya (22 July 2014). "KPU Postpones Election Results Announcement". Tempo. Archived from the original on 22 July 2014. Retrieved 22 July 2014.
- Novrida Manurung, Rieka Rahadiana and Yoga Rusmana (22 July 2014). "Widodo Heads for Indonesia Win as Prabowo Withdraws From Count". Bloomberg. Retrieved 22 July 2014.
- "Indonesia elections: Jakarta governor 'Jokowi' wins but rival rejects final results". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 22 July 2014. Retrieved 22 July 2014.
- "Prabowo camp says PKS tally more accurate than KPU's". The Jakarta Post. 22 June 2014. Archived from the original on 22 July 2014. Retrieved 22 July 2014.
- Joe Cochrane (22 July 2014). "Joko Widodo, Populist Governor, Is Named Winner in Indonesian Presidential Vote". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 22 July 2014. Retrieved 22 July 2014.
- CNN:The World's 50 Greatest Leaders
- 'Banyan: Mr Joko goes to Jakarta', The Economist, 8 June 2013.
- Notes on "Jokowi" film.
- 'Tak Ada Izin, Jokowi Keberatan Film "Jokowi" ', Kompas, 22 May 2013.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Joko Widodo.|
1. Majeed, Rushda. "The City With a Short Fuse." Foreign Policy. September 2012.
2. Majeed, Rushda. "Defusing a Volatile City, Igniting Reforms: Joko Widodo and Surakarta, Indonesia, 2005–2011." Innovations for Successful Societies. Princeton University. Published July 2012.
|Governor of Jakarta
Basuki Tjahaja Purnama
Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono
|President of Indonesia