April 12, 1954 |
Brookline, Massachusetts, U.S.
Jon Krakauer (born April 12, 1954) is an American writer and mountaineer, primarily known for his writings about the outdoors, especially mountain-climbing. He is the author of best-selling non-fiction books—Into the Wild, Into Thin Air, Under the Banner of Heaven, and Where Men Win Glory: The Odyssey of Pat Tillman—as well as numerous magazine articles.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Mountaineering
- 3 Magazine contributions
- 4 Books
- 5 60 Minutes and Three Cups of Deceit
- 6 Selected bibliography
- 7 Notes
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Krakauer was born in Brookline, Massachusetts, as the third of five children of Lewis Joseph Krakauer and Carol Ann Krakauer (née Jones). His father was Jewish and his mother was a Unitarian, of Scandinavian descent. He was raised in Corvallis, Oregon, from the age of two. His father introduced the young Krakauer to mountaineering at the age of eight. He competed in tennis at Corvallis High School and graduated in 1972. He went on to study at Hampshire College in Massachusetts, where in 1976 he received his degree in Environmental Studies. In 1977, he met former climber Linda Mariam Moore and they married in 1980. They lived in Seattle, Washington, but moved to Boulder, Colorado, after the release of Into Thin Air.
One year after graduating from Bastrop High (1977), he spent three weeks by himself in the wilderness of the Stikine Icecap region of Alaska and climbed a new route on the Devils Thumb, an experience he described in Eiger Dreams and in Into the Wild. In 1992, he made his way to Cerro Torre in the Andes of Argentine Patagonia—a sheer, jagged granite peak more typical of those found in the Himalayas or Pacific Rim and considered to be one of the most difficult technical climbs in the world.
Krakauer's most recognized climb was a guided ascent of Mount Everest that became known as the 1996 Mount Everest disaster. Soon after summitting the peak, Krakauer's team met with disaster as four of his teammates (including group leader Rob Hall) perished while making their descent in the middle of a storm.
A candid recollection of the event was published in Outside and eventually in the book Into Thin Air. By the end of the 1996 climbing season, twelve people died trying to reach the summit, making it the deadliest single year in Everest history. Krakauer publicly criticized the commercialization of Mount Everest following this tragedy.
Much of Krakauer's popularity as a writer came from being a journalist for Outside magazine. In November 1983, he was able to abandon part-time work as a fisherman and a carpenter to become a full-time writer. His freelance writing involved great variety, in addition to his many works involving mountain climbing. His writing has also appeared in Architectural Digest, National Geographic Magazine, Rolling Stone, and Smithsonian.
On assignment from Outside, Krakauer wrote an article focusing on two parties during his ascent of Mt. Everest: the one he was in, led by Rob Hall, and the one led by Scott Fischer, both of which successfully guided clients to the summit but experienced severe difficulty during the descent. The storm, and, in his estimation, irresponsible choices by guides of both parties, led to a number of deaths, including both head guides. Krakauer did not feel his article accurately covered the entire event in only one short account and clarified his initial statements, especially regarding the death of Andy Harris, in his later book, Into Thin Air, after extensive interviews with survivors.
Into the Wild
Into the Wild was published in 1996 and shortly thereafter spent two years on The New York Times Best Seller List. The book documents the travels of Christopher McCandless, a young man from a well-to-do East Coast family who, in 1990, after graduating from college, donated all of the money ($24,000) in his bank account to charity, renamed himself "Alexander Supertramp", and began a journey in the American West. McCandless' remains were found in August 1992; he had died of starvation near Lake Wentitika in Denali National Park and Preserve. In the book, Krakauer draws parallels between his own experiences and motivations and those of McCandless. Into The Wild was adapted into a film, which was released on September 21, 2007.
Into Thin Air
In 1997, Krakauer expanded his September 1996 Outside article into his best known book, Into Thin Air, describing the climbing parties' experiences and the general state of Everest mountaineering at the time. Hired as a journalist by the magazine, Krakauer had participated as a client of the 1996 Everest climbing team led by Rob Hall — the team which ended up suffering the greatest casualties in the 1996 Mount Everest disaster.
The book reached first place on The New York Times non-fiction bestseller list, was honored as "Book of the Year" by Time magazine, and was among the final three books considered for the General Non-Fiction Pulitzer Prize in 1998. The American Academy of Arts and Letters gave Krakauer an Academy Award in Literature in 1999 for his work and commented that "Krakauer combines the tenacity and courage of the finest tradition of investigative journalism with the stylish subtlety and profound insight of the born writer. His account of an ascent of Mount Everest has led to a general reevaluation of climbing and of the commercialization of what was once a romantic, solitary sport." In the TV-movie version of the book, Krakauer was played by Christopher McDonald.
Krakauer has contributed royalties from this book to the Everest '96 Memorial Fund at the Boulder Community Foundation, which he founded as a tribute to his deceased climbing partners.
Criticism of Into Thin Air
In Into Thin Air, Krakauer noted that Russian guide Anatoli Boukreev, Scott Fischer's top guide on the ill-fated 1996 Everest expedition, ascended the summit without supplemental oxygen, "which didn't seem to be in their clients' best interest". He also wrote that Boukreev descended from the summit several hours ahead of his clients, and that this was "extremely unorthodox behavior for a guide". He noted however that, once descended to the top camp, Boukreev was heroic in his tireless rescue attempts of the missing climbers. Five months after Into Thin Air debuted, Boukreev published his own account of the Everest disaster in the book The Climb, written for him by G. Weston DeWalt.
Controversy has centered on what experienced mountaineers thought about the facts of Boukreev's performance. Galen Rowell from the American Alpine Journal wrote to Krakauer "... the fact that every one of Boukreev's clients survived without major injuries while the clients who died or received major injuries were members of your party. Could you explain how Anatoli [Boukreev]'s shortcomings as a guide led to the survival of his clients ... ?" Conversely, Scott Fischer, the leader of Boukreev's team who died on the mountain, had complained continuously about Boukreev's shirking of responsibility and inability to meet the demands put upon him as the top guide — complaints that were documented in transcripts of radio transmissions between Fischer and his Base Camp managers. After publication of Into Thin Air and The Climb, DeWalt, Boukreev, and Krakauer became embroiled in disagreements about Krakauer's portrayal of Boukreev. Krakauer reached a détente with Boukreev in November 1997, but the Russian climber was killed by an avalanche several weeks later while climbing Annapurna.
Under the Banner of Heaven
In 2003, Under the Banner of Heaven became Krakauer's third non-fiction bestseller. The book examines extremes of religious belief, particularly fundamentalist offshoots of Mormonism. Specifically, Krakauer looks at the practice of polygamy in these offshoots and scrutinizes it in the context of the Latter Day Saints religion throughout history. Much of the focus of the book is on the Lafferty brothers, who murdered in the name of their fundamentalist faith.
In 2006, Tom Elliott and Pawel Gula produced the documentary Damned to Heaven, inspired by the book.
Official Mormon response to Under the Banner of Heaven
Mike Otterson, Director of Media Relations for The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS), told the Associated Press, "This book is not history, and Krakauer is no historian. He is a storyteller who cuts corners to make the story sound good. His basic thesis appears to be that people who are religious are irrational, and that irrational people do strange things." Robert Millet, Professor of Religious Understanding at Brigham Young University, an LDS institution, reviewed the book and described it as confusing, poorly organized, misleading, erroneous, prejudicial and insulting.
In response, Krakauer criticized the LDS Church hierarchy, citing the opinion of D. Michael Quinn, a historian who was excommunicated in 1993, who wrote that "The tragic reality is that there have been occasions when Church leaders, teachers, and writers have not told the truth they knew about difficulties of the Mormon past, but have offered to the Saints instead a mixture of platitudes, half-truths, omissions, and plausible denials." Krakauer wrote, "I happen to share Dr. Quinn's perspective."
Where Men Win Glory: The Odyssey of Pat Tillman
In the October 25, 2007 season premiere of Iconoclasts on the Sundance Channel, Krakauer mentioned being deeply embroiled in the writing of a new book, but did not reveal the title, subject, or expected date of completion. Doubleday Publishing originally planned to release the book in the fall of 2008, but postponed the launch in June of that year, announcing that Krakauer was "unhappy with the manuscript".
The book, Where Men Win Glory: The Odyssey of Pat Tillman, was released by Doubleday on September 15, 2009. It draws on the journals and letters of Pat Tillman, an NFL professional football player and U.S. Army Ranger whose death in Afghanistan made him a symbol of American sacrifice and heroism, though it also became a subject of controversy about the handling of the announcement of his death by the U.S. Army. The book draws on the journals and letters of Tillman, interviews with his wife and friends, conversations with the soldiers who served alongside him, and research Krakauer performed in Afghanistan. It also serves in part as a historical narrative, providing a general history of the civil wars in Afghanistan.
60 Minutes and Three Cups of Deceit
Krakauer was featured during a CBS 60 Minutes report on April 17, 2011 where 60 Minutes reporter Steve Kroft raised questions about humanitarian Greg Mortenson and the non-profit Central Asia Institute (CAI). Krakauer questioned the accuracy of events in Mortenson's book Three Cups of Tea and whether Mortenson was kidnapped by the Taliban in 1996 as described in his second book, Stones into Schools. Krakauer went on to question Mortenson's credibility through the financial practices of CAI. Krakauer had been a financial supporter of Mortenson's work and had previously donated $75,000 before becoming disillusioned with him and his management of CAI. The 60 Minutes story largely retraced the conclusions Krakauer came to as described in his e-book, Three Cups of Deceit – How Greg Mortenson, Humanitarian Hero, Lost His Way. The e-book was released the day after the 60 Minutes piece aired.
Scott Darsney, a respected mountaineer and friend of Greg Mortenson, wrote a response to Krakauer's allegations that was published as an exclusive article in Outside magazine's online version. Darnsey's response questioned the accuracy and fairness of both the Krakauer piece and the 60 Minutes report. He further stated that Krakauer either misquoted or misunderstood what he said when interviewed by the author. Darnsey went on to say that Krakauer took Mortenson's experiences in Afghanistan and Pakistan out of context and added, "If Jon Krakauer and some of Greg’s detractors had taken the time to have three or more cups of tea with Greg and others—instead of one cup of tea with a select few who would discredit him—they would have found some minor problems and transgressions. But to the extent to call it all ‘lies’ and ‘fraud’? No way." Darnsey stated in reference to the possibility that Mortenson has been dishonest in his financial dealings through CAI, "If Greg is misappropriating funds, then show me the luxury cars, fancy boats, and closets full of shoes. This is not a “ministry” or a business gone corrupt." The Outside article also touched on the allegations that Mortenson lied about being held captive by the Taliban. In light of that controversy, Darnsey stated, "Greg recounted to me his imprisonment in Waziristan when I met him in Beijing. I don’t doubt that he was held against his will." Darnsey's article went on to say that Krakauer is a respected journalist and a "stickler for details and getting the facts straight", but that he felt "the research needs to continue".
On April 5, 2012, the Montana Attorney General's office released a report noting financial "missteps" by CAI and Greg Mortenson. The Attorney General reached a settlement for restitution from Mortenson to CAI in excess of $1 million.
According to the May 3, 2013 issue of The Los Angeles Times, the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals in San Francisco upheld the 2012 federal dismissal by Judge Samuel Haddon in Montana, stating he had ruled in accordance to the laws and rules governing class action suits. Haddon ruled correctly that readers were not entitled to financial compensation based on any of the arguments presented by the plaintiffs. The suit was filed days after the publication of the above titled book, as well as the "60 Minutes" presentation.
According to Central Asian Institute's Board Chairman, Steve Barrett, announced on October 9, 2013, that the CAI and Mortenson have fully complied with all the specific actions and repayments as negotiated by the settlement with then Attorney General (now Governor) Steve Bullock.
- Eiger Dreams: Ventures Among Men and Mountains (1990) ISBN 0-385-48818-1
- Into the Wild (1996) ISBN 0-385-48680-4
- Into Thin Air (1997) ISBN 0-385-49208-1 (expanded from the original Outside Online article)
- Under the Banner of Heaven: A Story of Violent Faith (2003) ISBN 0-385-50951-0.
- Where Men Win Glory: The Odyssey of Pat Tillman (2009)
- Three Cups of Deceit (2011)
- Marshall, John (July 27, 2003). "Two powerful experiences changed the focus of Krakauer's book". Seattle Post-Intelligencer.
- "Maxwell Institute". Maxwellinstitute.byu.edu. Retrieved 2014-02-20.
- "Krakauer's Conspicuous Silence". seattleweekly.com. Retrieved 2009-02-12.
- Hopewell, John (6 August 2013). "‘2 Guns’ Helmer Kormakur Set to Climb ‘Everest’". variety.com. Retrieved 17 January 2014.
- Krakauer, Jon. Into the Air. Anchor Books, 1999 paperback edition. p. 187.
- Krakauer, Jon. Into the Air. Anchor Books, 1999 paperback edition. p. 218.
- DeWalt p.267
- Author's postscript, 1999 edition of Into Thin Air.
- "Church Response to Jon Krakauer's Under the Banner of Heaven". Newsroom. Intellectual Reserve. 2003-06-27. Retrieved 2009-01-14.
- Krakauer, Jon (2003-07-03). "A Response from the Author". Retrieved 2006-05-31.
- "News Briefs". Publishers' Weekly 255 (26). 2009-06-30. Retrieved 2010-09-19.
- Dexter Filkins (2009-09-08). "The Good Soldier". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-09-19.
- "CBS News 60 Minutes". Cbsnews.com. Retrieved April 17, 2011.
- "Byliner". Byliner.com. Retrieved 2014-02-20.
- "Scott Darnsey Outside Magazine exclusive". Outsideonline.com. Retrieved 2014-02-20.
- Alex Heard (February 12, 2012). "The Trials of Greg Mortenson". Outside. Retrieved February 13, 2012. "Mortenson still isn't talking. But the case is heating up, with important developments in the lawsuit and hints that the A.G.'s probe could go badly for CAI."
- "Montana Attorney General's Investigative Report of Greg Mortenson and Central Asia Institute". Doj.mt.gov. April 5, 2012. Retrieved 2014-02-20. "We entered into a settlement agreement with Mortenson and CAI which guarantees in excess of $1 million in restitution from Mortenson for his past financial transgressions"
- Kellogg, Carolyn (2013-10-11). "Fraud suit against Greg Mortenson's '3 Cups of Tea' rejected - Los Angeles Times". Articles.latimes.com. Retrieved 2014-02-20.
- "Central Asia Institute » October 9, 2013: Federal appeals court affirms dismissal of case against CAI and Mortenson". Ikat.org. 2013-10-09. Retrieved 2014-02-20.
- DeWalt, Weston; Anatoli Boukreev (1999). The Climb: Tragic Ambitions on Everest (2nd expanded ed.). New York: St. Martin's Griffin. ISBN 978-0-312-20637-6.
- Krakauer, Jon (1999). Into Thin Air: A Personal Account of the Mount Everest Disaster. New York: First Anchor Books. ISBN 978-0-385-49478-6.
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