Jonathan (1 Samuel)
Jonathan (Hebrew: יְהוֹנָתָן Yəhōnāṯān or Yehonatan; or יוֹנָתָן Yonatan) is a heroic figure in 1 Samuel in the Hebrew Bible. He was the son of King Saul and close friend of King David. The relationship between David and Jonathan is one of the most notable biblical relationships.
Conflicts with Saul
Jonathan first appears in the biblical narrative as the victor of Geba, a Philistine stronghold (1 Samuel 13), while in the following chapter he carries out a lone attack on another Philistine garrison, demonstrating his "prowess and courage as a warrior." However, he eats honey without knowing that his father had said, "Cursed be any man who eats food before evening comes" (1 Samuel 14:24). Saul means to put Jonathan to death because of this, but relents when the soldiers protest (1 Samuel 14:45).
The story of David and Jonathan is introduced in chapter 18, where it says that "Jonathan became one in spirit with David, and he loved him as himself" (verse 1). Jonathan helps David escape from Saul, and asks him to show kindness to his family (1 Samuel 20:14-15), which indicates that Jonathan recognizes David as the future king.
Saul suspects that Jonathan is colluding with David, who he believes is conspiring to overthrow him. Saul insults Jonathan calling him the "...son of a perverse and rebellious woman!" in 1 Samuel 20:30. While this is an "idiom of insult directed at Jonathan", some scholars see in this verse support for the theory that Ahinoam, the wife of Saul was also the wife of David. Jon Levenson and Baruch Halpern suggest that the phrase "to the shame of your mother's nakedness" suggests "David's theft of Saul's wife". Saul even goes so far as to attempt to kill Jonathan by impaling him with a javelin in a fit of paranoid rage.
Jonathan died tragically at the battle of Mount Gilboa along with his father and brothers (1 Samuel 31). Jonathan was the father of Mephibosheth, to whom David showed special kindness for Jonathan's sake (2 Samuel 9).
Jonathan has typically been portrayed as a "model of loyalty to truth and friendship," in the words of T. H. Jones .
A homoerotic, chaste or otherwise, interpretation of the story of David and Jonathan has been adopted by some writers. André Gide's play Saul portrays Jonathan as "a beautiful, fainting, effeminate creature, in a state of hysterical rapture over David’s physical strength."  In a similar vein the Bible is quoted: "I am distressed for thee, my brother Jonathan: very pleasant hast thou been unto me: thy love to me was wonderful, passing the love of women" (King James, 2 Samuel I, 26).
- The Prince, a novelization of the life of Jonathan
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- Hermitage News
- T. H. Jones, "Jonathan," in J. D. Douglas, (ed.), New Bible Dictionary (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1965), 654.
- Joyce Baldwin, 1 and 2 Samuel (TOCT; Leicester: Inter-Varsity Press, 1988), 135.
- David Toshio Tsumura, The First Book of Samuel (NICOT; Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2007), 520.
- Jon D. Levenson and Baruch Halpern, "The Political Import of David's Marriages," JBL 99  515.
- (1 Chronicles 10:1-2)
- Edward Sackville West, New Statesman, 10 July 1926, xxvii, 360, in R. P. Draper, D. H. Lawrence: The Critical Heritage, p.261.
- Adam Green, King Saul, The True History of the First Messiah (Lutterworth Press, 2007) - a critical literary reassessment of the character and personality of Jonathan and his relationships with Saul and David.