Jonathan Edwards College
|Jonathan Edwards College|
Courtyard of Jonathan Edwards College, facing northeast
|Location||68 High Street|
|Nickname||JE or J.E.|
|Named for||Jonathan Edwards|
|Colors||Green and White|
|Sister college||Eliot House (Harvard)|
|Dean||Joseph C. Spooner|
Jonathan Edwards College, commonly called "JE", is a residential college at Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut. It is named for theologian and minister Jonathan Edwards, a 1720 graduate of Yale College. Opened to undergraduates in 1933, JE is one of the original eight residential colleges donated by Edward Harkness and planned by James Gamble Rogers. It is also among the smallest of the residential colleges at Yale, both by building size and by undergraduate membership.
JE has the distinction of being the first residential college to be completed at Yale. Because Rogers' design employed buildings finished before the Residential College Plan was adopted, it is stylistically eclectic, but predominantly in the collegiate gothic style popularized at Yale by the Harkness Memorial Quadrangle.
- 1 History
- 2 Namesake
- 3 Buildings
- 4 Art and artwork
- 5 Insignia
- 6 Student life
- 7 Fellowship and affiliates
- 8 The JE Press
- 9 Endowments
- 10 Sister college
- 11 Notable alumni
- 12 References
- 13 Further reading
- 14 External links
As the undergraduate population of Yale College and the Sheffield Scientific School grew in the early twentieth century, on campus dormitories reached capacity, and students increasingly began joining private fraternity and society organizations on campus. Administrators and the Yale Corporation became increasingly concerned with the social and academic effect of these exclusive, non-academic groups, as well as the competition among undergraduate class years. Made possible by a gift of Edward Harkness, the Corporation commissioned architect James Gamble Rogers to design eight residential colleges in the administrative and aesthetic style of Oxford and Cambridge. The Residential College Plan was meant to create socially cohesive undergraduate communities, offer a more monastic, contemplative environment to students, and bring students and Yale faculty into communion.
Professor Robert Dudley French was one of the earliest advocates of this plan and visited Oxford and Cambridge to study aspects of their college systems. In 1930, President James Angell appointed him master of Jonathan Edwards College, the first appointment of any residential college master at Yale and three years before their . Professor French subsequently selected eight members of the faculty to be the first fellows of the college. These men were chosen because they combined distinction in both teaching and scholarship, and because of their individuality and diversity of interests.
JE's early years saw a flourishing of political activity among students. In 1934 the Yale Political Union was founded in the college. During this time college attracted students who would later become noted public figures, including Winthrop Rockefeller, Stanley Rogers Resor, McGeorge Bundy, and John Lindsay, many of whom served as officers of the YPU. For its adjacency to the society's tomb, JE was also attractive to aspirant members of Skull and Bones.
During World War II, JE was one of three residential colleges which remained open to civilian students. During this time, it became a significant site of intelligence community activity. Master French, who remained at the college through 1953, and his successor, William Dunham, were conduits for undergraduate recruitment into intelligence positions. Fellow and future dean Joseph Curtiss was extensively involved in CIA reconnaissance projects, including one known as the "Yale Library Project."
From its founding until the 1960s, the college admitted undergraduates upon completion of their freshman year by application. During this time JE gained a reputation as a "middle caste" college; it possessed neither tony reputation of the "white shoe" colleges nor the social derision the "scholarship" colleges. To some extent this positioning was purely constructed; the masters of the colleges sought to balance the social privilege found in each college. In 1962, Yale abolished sophomore admission and began admitting freshmen to the colleges in advance of their matriculation and without respect to their preferences. Thereafter only students with legacy status or siblings at Yale were allowed to choose their college.
Historically, the college enforced a coat and tie dress code for evening meals in the dining hall, and curfews and parietal rules in the dormitories. These rules were gradually relaxed after the advent of co-education in Yale College in 1969.
Jonathan Edwards matriculated at Yale College in 1716 near his 13th birthday. Four years later, he graduated as valedictorian of his class of about twenty. This was at a time when entrance into either Harvard or Yale required ability in Latin, Greek, and Hebrew. Edwards received his Masters of Arts from Yale in 1722. In 1724, he returned to the college as a tutor respected for his theological orthodoxy, anti-Arminianism, and devotion to Yale. During his Yale teaching he began to write and recite a litany of self-improving resolutions, which became a lifelong practice. After leaving Yale in 1726, he went on to serve a number of pulpits, publish widely read sermons and essays, and lead the Great Awakening. Late in his life he co-founded the College of New Jersey and presided as its third president.
In 1938, in part due to the naming of the college, descendants of Edwards donated his papers to Yale. Today, The Jonathan Edwards Center at Yale University contains many of these original writings.
The dominant architectural style of JE is neo-gothic, and the campus consists of four two- to four- story buildings surrounding a single courtyard. It is the only one of James Gamble Roger's eight colleges to blend new and pre-existing buildings. Less ornate than the Harkness Memorial Quadrangle, JE became the template for Yale's gothic residential projects. Begun in 1911 and finished in 1924, JE's oldest building is Weir Hall, a castellated structure which was given to Yale in 1924 and served as home to Yale's Department of Architecture until 1965. Originally intended as a dormitory for Skull and Bones, it is the oldest building in use by any residential college and incorporates towers salvaged from Alumni Hall, a building originally constructed in 1851.
Adjacent to Weir Hall are Dickinson and Wheelock Halls, designed by Rogers and dedicated in 1924 as the York-Library dormitory. They are respectively named for the first presidents of Princeton and Dartmouth, both Yale alumni. When the Yale Corporation approved the college plans, all three buildings were given over to JE. Rogers plan integrated and expanded these three buildings, added a dining hall and master's house, and finished the quadrangle with Kent Hall.
Expansion and renovation
JE's buildings incorporate residential, academic, social, recreational, and dining spaces. Though the basic architectural program of the college has remained unchanged since its opening, JE has undergone several significant renovations. In 1963, the Department of Architecture moved out of Weir Hall and the building was bequeathed to JE. This allowed for the construction of the Robert Taft Library and college seminar rooms, expanding the limited library space originally available in the college.
In 2007, as part of a twelve-year program to renovate all of Yale's residential colleges, Newman Architects led a major, yearlong renovation of JE. The renovation aimed to improve connectivity and accessibility, upgrade building systems, and restore and enhance building facilities. Most residential suites were reconfigured, administrative offices were consolidated, and the college was retrofitted with elevators and lower-level staircases. Residences for upplerclassmen and graduate affiliates were added to Weir Hall, completing JE's multi-decade annexation of the building. After several months of delays due to the complexity of the renovation, the college was rededicated in December 2008 in a ceremony commemorating the seventy-fifth anniversary of the residential college system.
A Master's House was added to JE at the time of its conversion into a residential college. This three-story single family home is the formal residence of the master of JE, who hosts dinners, teas, and other ceremonial events in the house.
Student housing is divided into suites of two to eight, each with a common room and adjoining single or double private rooms, as well as several dozen standalone single rooms allocated to upperclassmen. The college can accommodate 212 undergraduate residents. In addition to student rooms, Kent Hall contains apartments for the dean of JE and two resident fellows, and Weir Hall has three private rooms for graduate affiliates.
The freshman class lives in Farnam Hall on the Old Campus, and approximately half of the junior class lives in McClellan Hall. Due to the small size of the college and the proximity of McClellan, more upperclassmen live in annex housing than any other college.
Great Hall and common rooms
The Great Hall, the Rogers-designed dining hall in JE, is in the style of an Elizabethan banquet hall, with a high timber truss ceiling and oak wall paneling. The style is unique among the residential colleges, but akin to that of the University Commons. Unlike the Commons, which is the largest dining venue on campus, the Great Hall was designed to be one of the smallest dining halls at Yale. On the hall's walls are portraits of each former master, usually commissioned at the end of their tenure.
The college's three adjacent common rooms are intended for small gatherings and dinners. The main Common Room frequently hosts extracurricular activities and musical recitals. The Junior Common Room and Senior Common Room, each more formal spaces, are used for weekly dinners of the college's fellowship as well as senior class functions.
Libraries and seminar rooms
Both libraries in JE are located in Weir Hall. At the foot of Weir Hall is Curtis & Curtiss Library, a non-circulating library of JE memorabilia. It was designed by Rodgers and features stained glass pieces produced by G. Owen Bonawit. The two-story Robert Taft Library, named for Senator Robert Taft, originally belonged to Weir Hall and was given over to the college in 1965. An expansion in 2008 added study carrels and a computer cluster. The upper floor is the Beekman C. Canon Reading Room, informally known as "Upper Taft".
JE has two seminar rooms adjacent to its libraries. They are used primarily for the residential college seminar program at Yale, in which scholars apply to each college to teach undergraduate seminars. They are also used for study and meetings of student groups and secret societies.
Prior to 2007, the Jonathan Edwards basement was largely unfinished, though it contained a squash court, print shop and dark room. After the renovation, a buttery, dance studio, game room, gym, and student kitchen were installed, and a new shop was created for the JE Press. The renovation converted the squash court into a 60-seat theater and excavated under Weir Hall to add an art gallery. This also completed a subterranean circuit under the college quadrangle, allowing access to any part of the college through its basement.
Courtyard and grounds
JE contains one of the smallest central college courtyards at Yale. At the college's founding, the courtyard comprised a lawn and an ellipitical pathway. A gated Master's Courtyard was later constructed at the courtyard's east end, giving the Master's House additional privacy and social space. In 1989, Cesar Pelli & Associates oversaw a landscaping plan that introduced magnolias to the courtyard.
Three iron entryway gates were cast by blacksmith Samuel Yellin. Yellin emblazoned the main gate with the dates "1720," and "1932", the year of Edwards' graduation from Yale, and "1932," the year of the college's founding.
Art and artwork
Tributes to Jonathan Edwards are found throughout the college. Given to Yale by Edwards' descendants, original portraits by Joseph Badger of Edwards and his wife, Sarah Pierpont Edwards, hang in the Master's House dining room, and facisimilies hang in the Senior Common Room.
A walnut slant top desk believed to have belonged to Edwards also resides in the Master's House. The desk was discovered in the basement of the old Divinity School during its demolition in 1931 and moved to JE.
Sculptures have adorned the courtyard since its opening. In the 1930s, the courtyard featured an early eighteenth-century bronze statue of a young slave holding a sundial, purported to have belonged to Elihu Yale. It has since been transferred to the Yale University Art Gallery. In 2012, a bronze sundial honoring Master Gary Haller was installed near the site of the original sundial, bearing the crest and badge of the college.
The work of artists affiliated with the college are on rotating display their art in the college's basement art gallery. A permanent installation of prints by Walker Evans can also be found in the basement, as well as historical memorabilia and ephemera printed by the JE Press.
The shield, described in heraldic terms, is ermine, a lion rampant vert. This coat is a simplified form of the arms used by Edwards himself. The green rearing lion symbolizes courage and purity of heart. Its crimson tongue and nails exhibit willingness to pursue its goals with passion both of speech and strength. The veil of white that surrounds the lion symbolizes the grace of God.
The badge worn upon the College blazers is a red apple surrounded by a green serpent, a reference to the Book of Genesis. It recalls the Reverend Jonathan Edwards' preoccupation with the doctrine of original sin. It is borne aloud and not upon a shield. It was devised by the first Master and Fellows, and designed by H. Dillington Palmer. It forms the silver head of the ebony mace of the College, hanging in the Master's Office as the symbol of authority. When a more formal device is desired for use on a decorative shield, banner, a letterhead, or a title page, the coat of arms is preferred.
The college's mascot is the Spider, derived from Jonathan Edwards' famous sermon, "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God," which includes the line, "The God that holds you over the pit of hell, much as one holds a spider, or some loathsome insect over the fire, abhors you, and is dreadfully provoked." Members of the college are sometimes nicknamed "Spiders."
The unofficial motto of the College is "JE Sux." In 1975, several JE students came up with a strategy for victory in the annual Bladderball game. The plan was to take possession of the giant bladderball with a meathook. The bladderball deflated after being punctured by the meathook, prematurely ending the game and causing students of other colleges to chant "JE Sucks!" That winter, the jeer was lightheartedly adopted by JE's intramural hockey team, who went on to claim the intramural title. Since then, JE students have adopted the phrase as their rallying cry, with a slight twist: "Sux" instead of "Sucks," a gesture to the university's motto, Lux et Veritas.
Yale's residential colleges compete in an annual intramural competitions in several dozen events. Each year, the most winning college across all events receives the Tyng Cup. After clinching the cup only twice in the first seventy-five years of the competition—in 1958-'59 and 1995-'96—JE won three consecutive Tyng Cup championships in 2009-'10, 2010-'11, and 2011-'12. It is currently tied for eighth in all-time Tyng victories.
Like its counterparts in the other residential colleges, the Jonathan Edwards College Council (JECC) is the elected student council that governs student life in the college. In conjunction with the master and Dean, the JECC manages student facilities, capital purchases, and residential policies. In addition, many college traditions are organized by the JECC. The Social Activities Committee is a volunteer student group which plans and hosts study breaks, dances, and miscellaneous college events.
Each semester, a raffle is held for the students of the college to attend cultural and artistic performances in New York and New Haven. Fellows of the college accompany groups of students to each performance, usually taking them to dinner beforehand. Culture Draw events usually include performances of the Metropolitan Opera and New York City Ballet, Broadway musicals and plays, and symphony orchestra concerts.
The JE Screw is the college's iteration of the "screw" dances popular at Yale, in which suitemates will set up blind dates for each other and require pairs to find each other prior to the dance. JE Screw customarily takes place in the fall semester and is open to members of the college and their dates.
Men of JE
Formed in the early 1990s, the Men of JE are an audition-only a cappella group with a semi-secret membership. Claiming to be "part a cappella group, part defender of Yale and JE ideals," the Men are known to pester and pull pranks on members of Branford and other residential colleges. They traditionally perform original songs at JE events, whether or not they are invited to do so.
At the end of his tenure, Master Gary Haller gave funds to the college to sow tulips in perpetuity. In October, students plant hundreds of tulip bulbs in courtyard planters, which bloom at the end of the spring semester. They also crown a Tulip Princess, a member of the college who most embodies the character or appearance of the flower.
Drawing on the Polish tradition of Dyngus Day, Wet Monday water fight occurs each year at midnight on Easter Monday. While freshmen blitz the college with water balloons and squirt guns, upperclassmen attempt to defend the college quadrangle with an arsenal of hoses, water balloons, and other creative deterrents.
Branford College rivalry
Borne of their proximity, JE has a longstanding rivalry with Branford College. For decades, students from each college have caused mischief within their counterpart's buildings and grounds. Though most of the antics are spontaneous, every semester the Men of JE lead a late night brigade to Branford to disrupt last-minute studying at the end of Reading Period.
Fellowship and affiliates
By nomination of the master and approval of the Council of Masters, any Yale faculty member or professional employee can be named a fellow of JE. The Master may also nominate associate fellows, defined broadly as any person who is not an employee or recent graduate of Yale College. Fellows hold weekly fellows dinners in the college, teach college seminars, advise students on their course of study, and participate in the ceremonies and traditions of the college. The fellowship's most senior members appointed as president of the Junior Common Room and president of the Senior Common Room by order of seniority. Notable fellows include Bob Alpern, Harold Bloom, David Bromwich, Shelly Kagan, Frank Rich, James Prosek, Herbert Scarf, Tom Steitz, and Robert Stern.
Graduate Affiliate program
Students of Yale's graduate and professional schools are invited to be graduate affiliates of JE by the master. The program offers dining hall meals and access to college facilities to the graduate students as well as mentorship for undergraduates. Up to three graduate affiliates can live in the college, where they help the master organize lectures, teas, study breaks, and other functions. As resident fellows, they are junior members of the college fellowship.
The JE Press
As recently as the 1980s, every residential college possessed press shops in order to print announcements, posters, and menus, projects now dominated by digital printing. JE is one of two residential colleges which maintains active use of its print shop, the JE Press. JE owns three manual press, one of which belonged to Frederic Goudy, and an automated Vandercook press. The JE Press is overseen by printer Richard Rose, who teaches classes each year in the printing arts.
The Jonathan Edwards Trust
JE retains a modest independent endowment, the Jonathan Edwards Trust. The Trust was established in 1966 for the purposes of supplementing the programs and resources provided to the college by Yale. It has generally been used for educational, artistic, and cultural programming. Since its foundation, it has been used to produce the Edwards' portrait facsimiles and tombstone replicas, to refurbish the JE Press and the college's concert pianos, and to support operatic and musical productions.
Robert C. Bates Fellowship
In 1962, JE received a large bequest in memory of Robert C. Bates, a fellow of the college and professor of French, by his sister Amy Bradish Groesbeck. These funds are disbursed as teaching and undergraduate research fellowships.
Endowed in memory of Alan S. Tetelman, a JE alum and professor of metellurgy at UCLA who was killed in a plane crash, the Tetelman Fellowship supports lectures and research fellowships at Yale. It is administered by the master of JE, who invites distinguished scientists and science advocates to give the semesterly Tetelman Lecture. Past lecturers include Robert Ballard, Harry Blackmun, Ben Carson, Murray Gell-Mann, the Dalai Lama, David Lee, Amartya Sen, Maxine Singer, and James Watson.
The Tetelman Fellowship also supports undergraduate research in the natural and applied sciences.
JE's sister college at Harvard is Eliot House, a relationship formalized in 1934. The hospitality of each college is open to the fellows and students of the other; this primarily occurs during the The Game, when Eliot House and JE host students of the other college.
- Winthrop Rockefeller, 1935, governor of Arkansas, son of John D. Rockefeller, Jr., and grandson of John D. Rockefeller (left Yale in 1934)
- Stanley Rogers Resor, 1939, US Secretary of the Army
- McGeorge Bundy, 1940, National Security Advisor to Presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon Johnson, dean of Harvard Faculty of Arts and Sciences
- John Lindsay, 1944, mayor of New York
- Frederick Rose, 1944, New York builder and philanthropist
- Murray Gell-Mann, 1948, 1969 winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics
- Nicholas F. Brady, 1952, US senator from New Jersey, US Secretary of the Treasury (1988–1993)
- Wilbur Ross, 1959, financier, member of the Forbes 400
- Gus Speth, 1964, environmentalist, co-founder of the Natural Resource Defense Council, and dean of the Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies
- John Kerry, 1966, lieutenant governor of Massachusetts, US senator from Massachusetts, US presidential candidate (2004), and US Secretary of State
- Fred Smith, 1966, founder and president of FedEx
- Karl Marlantes, 1967, businessman and author of Matterhorn: A Novel of the Vietnam War
- Roland W. Betts, 1968, investor, film producer, lead owner in George W. Bush’s Texas Rangers partnership (1989–1998), and developer and owner of Chelsea Piers
- Ron Rosenbaum, 1968, Gonzo journalist and writer, columnist for The New York Observer
- Peter Ochs, 1971, theologian and professor of Judaic studies
- Gary Locke, 1972, governor of Washington (1997–2005), US Secretary of Commerce (2009-2011), and US Ambassador to China (2011-)
- Gary Lucas, 1974, guitarist, Grammy-nominated songwriter, recording artist and soundtrack composer
- Christopher Buckley, 1975, author of Thank You for Smoking and son of William F. Buckley
- Ronni Alexander, 1977, lead plaintiff in Alexander v. Yale and professor of international relations
- Donald Ingber, 1977, cell biologist and bioengineer, discoverer of tensegrity architecture
- Donna Dubinsky, 1977, CEO of Palm, co-founder of Handspring, member of the Forbes 400
- Ann Packer, 1981, author of The Dive from Clausen's Pier
- Paul Bass, 1982, journalist and founder of the New Haven Independent
- Marvin Krislov, 1982, president of Oberlin College
- Amy Klobuchar, 1982, US senator from Minnesota
- Stephen Prothero, 1982, author and scholar of American religion
- Ellen Bork, 1983, lawyer, deputy director of the Project for the New American Century and daughter of failed U.S. Supreme Court Nominee Robert Bork
- Tom Perrotta, 1983, novelist, author of Little Children, Election and The Abstinence Teacher
- Andrew Solomon, 1985, writer, author of The Noonday Demon: An Atlas of Depression
- Jane Mendelsohn, 1986, novelist, author of I was Amelia Earhart
- David Leonhardt, 1994, writer for The New York Times
- Theo Epstein, 1995, former General Manager for the Boston Red Sox, President of Baseball Operations for the Chicago Cubs.
- Anne Wojcicki, 1996, co-founder of 23andMe and wife of Sergey Brin
- Robert Lopez, 1997, Tony Award-winning composer and lyricist of Avenue Q and The Book of Mormon
- Though historical documents usually prefer "J.E.", contemporary usage usually omits the punctuation.
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- Jonathan Edwards College Home Page Archived 13 February 2011 at WebCite
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- Schiff, Judith (May 2008). "How the colleges were born". Yale Alumni Magazine. Retrieved 2 February 2013.
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- Winks, Robin W. (1996). Cloak & Gown: Scholars in the Secret War, 1939-1961. Yale University Press. pp. 38, 56.
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- Walker, Charles A. (December 1974). "Report on the Residential College Deanships".
- Frederick Rudolph (1990). The American College & University. University of Georgia Press.
- Marsden, George M. (2003). Jonathan Edwards: A Life. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-10596-4.
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- "Report of the Study Group to Consider New Residential Colleges". Yale University. February 2008. pp. 30, 89. Retrieved 2 February 2013.
- Lipka, Carolyn (13 October 2011). "Mastering the portrait". The Yale Daily News. Retrieved 23 January 2011.
- "Expanded Library at Yale is Named for Senator Taft". The New York Times. 5 December 1965. p. 138.
- As recently as 2003 it was referred to as the "Greensward"
- "Yale Gets Collection of Jonathan Edwards". The New York Times. 4 November 1938. Retrieved 28 January 2013.
- Jonathan Edwards Tercentennial Exhibition: Selected Objects from the Yale Collection, 1703-2003. Herlin Press. October 2003. ISBN 0972366970.
- Stephenson, Tapley (24 February 2012). "Lost under papers, a history: The story of Yale's Desks". Yale Daily News. Retrieved 23 January 2012.
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- "Jonathan Edwards College Project Specifications". Architectural Record. July 2009. Retrieved 23 January 2013.
- Federal Writers' Project of the Works Progress Administration for the State of Connecticut (1938). Connecticut: A Guide To Its Roads, Lore, & People. American Guide Series. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. ISBN 0781210070. Retrieved 2 February 2013.
- "Elihu Yale Sundial". Yale University Art Gallery eCatalogue. Yale University. 2011.
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- Beck, Evan (6 April 2012). "The danger of dynasty". The Yale Herald. Retrieved 23 January 2012.
- "Past Tyng Cup Champions". Yale University. 2011. Retrieved 23 January 2012.
- Jordan, Elsie (10 June 2001). "Upset with your suitemates? Screw 'em!". The Yale Daily News. Retrieved 28 January 2013.
- Blecher, Ian (September 2000). "Yale parties: you can't handle the truth". The Yale Herald. Retrieved 24 January 2013.
- Massad, Colleen (26 September 2003). "The death of the great Yale party". The Yale Daily News. Retrieved 24 January 2013.
- Castillo, Marlon S. (14 November 2002). "Beginning with Branford, Men of JE start campus conquest". The Yale Daily News. Retrieved 24 January 2013.
- Mishkin, Sarah (4 May 2006). "Branford master apologizes for altercation with student". The Yale Daily News. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
- "Yale Corporation Miscellaneous Regulations, Section 5: Residential College Fellowships". The President and Fellows of Yale College.
- Ligato, Lorenzo (2 November 2011). "Colleges consider the role of the printing press". The Yale Daily News. Retrieved 27 January 2013.
- The other active press shop belongs to Davenport College.
- The Jonathan Edwards Trust. Yale University Printing Service. c. 1983.
- "College at Yale Given $250,000". The New York Times. 9 February 1962. Retrieved 27 January 2013.
- Fellman, Bruce (March 1999). "The Second Curriculum". Yale Alumni Magazine. Retrieved 28 January 2013.
- "Aid Inter-house Bond: Two at Yale Pledge Relationship With Two at Harvard". The New York Times. 14 October 1934. Retrieved 28 January 2013.
- "W. A. Rockefeller Resigns from Yale". The New York Times. 6 February 1934. p. 23. Retrieved 28 January 2013.
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- Bergin, Thomas G. (1983). Yale's Residential Colleges: The First Fifty Years. Yale University.
- Ryan, Mark B. (2001). A Collegiate Way of Living. New Haven: Jonathan Edwards College. ISBN 0-9723669-0-3. Retrieved 23 January 2013.
- Winks, Robin W. (1996). Cloak & Gown: Scholars in the Secret War, 1939-1961. Yale University Press. ISBN 0300065248.